are entitled, and the more vulnerable the assessment is to legal challenge (National Research Council, 1997:186–187).
The Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (American Educational Research Association et al., 1985) state that any claims made for a test cannot be generalized to a version of the test that has been altered significantly. The Standards continue: "When tests are administered to people with handicapping conditions, particularly those handicaps that affect cognitive functioning, a relevant question is whether the modified test measures the same constructs" (cited in Phillips, 1993:381).
The committee that wrote Educating One and All concluded that "research on the validity of scores from accommodated assessments is limited, and little of it is directly applicable to the assessments that are central to standards-based reform. Much of the available evidence pertains to college admissions tests and other postsecondary tests (e.g., Wightman, 1993; Willingham et al., 1988)" (National Research Council, 1997:179). From the research reviewed, that committee went on to conclude:
Recent studies have examined teachers' perceptions of accommodations and their likelihood of use. Gajria et al. (1994) found that teachers were more likely to use modifications involving changes in test design