INDEX

A

Ability grouping, 31, 33, 82, 90

see also Tracking and placement

Accommodations/adaptations

English-language learners, 7, 24, 80, 214-219, 226-230, 231-232, 284, 296-297

exemption from assessment, 215-218, 219, 226, 233

legal issues, 63, 211

oral reading of/responses to questions, 80, 216, 218

translation of tests, 216, 218, 219, 221, 222-223, 226, 227, 229-230, 297

students with disabilities, 7, 24, 80, 195-206, 293-295

categories of, 195, 293

computer-assisted testing, 195, 203, 293

eligibility, 190-191, 281

fairness, 80, 191-192, 200

indicator systems, 8, 281

individualized education programs, 33, 188-189, 191-193, 194, 195, 204, 294, 295

legal issues, 55(n.6), 190-193 (passim), 198-199

predictive validity, 200, 201

scoring, general, 197, 199, 200, 201, 202, 206, 293, 295

see also Bilingual education;

Special education

Accountability, 1, 2, 5, 13, 39, 273, 274, 278

educators, 1, 2, 5, 15, 16

English-language learners, 7, 217, 296, 298

graduation tests, 165, 182

independent oversight body, 256-257

legal issues, 18, 65, 189, 192, 193, 198, 200

promotion/retention in grade, 115, 127, 132

school-based factors, 2, 5, 15, 16, 21, 29-31, 35, 40, 274, 278

school districts, 2, 5, 35, 274, 278

English-language learners, 217

students with disabilities, 189



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--> INDEX A Ability grouping, 31, 33, 82, 90 see also Tracking and placement Accommodations/adaptations English-language learners, 7, 24, 80, 214-219, 226-230, 231-232, 284, 296-297 exemption from assessment, 215-218, 219, 226, 233 legal issues, 63, 211 oral reading of/responses to questions, 80, 216, 218 translation of tests, 216, 218, 219, 221, 222-223, 226, 227, 229-230, 297 students with disabilities, 7, 24, 80, 195-206, 293-295 categories of, 195, 293 computer-assisted testing, 195, 203, 293 eligibility, 190-191, 281 fairness, 80, 191-192, 200 indicator systems, 8, 281 individualized education programs, 33, 188-189, 191-193, 194, 195, 204, 294, 295 legal issues, 55(n.6), 190-193 (passim), 198-199 predictive validity, 200, 201 scoring, general, 197, 199, 200, 201, 202, 206, 293, 295 see also Bilingual education; Special education Accountability, 1, 2, 5, 13, 39, 273, 274, 278 educators, 1, 2, 5, 15, 16 English-language learners, 7, 217, 296, 298 graduation tests, 165, 182 independent oversight body, 256-257 legal issues, 18, 65, 189, 192, 193, 198, 200 promotion/retention in grade, 115, 127, 132 school-based factors, 2, 5, 15, 16, 21, 29-31, 35, 40, 274, 278 school districts, 2, 5, 35, 274, 278 English-language learners, 217 students with disabilities, 189

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-->   standards-based reform, general 13-14, 15, 36, 132, 199, 206, 273, 288-289 students, general, 1, 2, 5, 15, 16, 21, 165 students with disabilities, 7, 118, 189, 192, 193, 198, 292 see also Standards Accuracy of measurement, 4, 14, 20, 23, 265, 280, 284 cutscores, 96, 99-100, 124, 166 English-language learners, 7, 66, 214, 226, 229-230, 232, 296 exogenous factors, 77, 79 graduation requirements, 163, 166, 276, 287 labeling strategies, 263 promotion/retention in grade, 116, 119, 124, 276 reading and mathematics achievement, 2, 16, 24, 273, 274 students with disabilities, 7, 193, 198, 201 tracking, 97, 99-100, 101, 276 voluntary national tests, 15, 242, 243, 291 see also Error of measurement; Predictive validity Achievement, general, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 14, 23, 35, 273, 274, 281, 295, 300 English-language learners, 217, 296, 297 international comparisons, 7, 18, 174, 238-239, 241, 290, 291 see also Competency testing; Graduation requirements; Mathematics achievement; Multiple assessment criteria; Performance standards; Promotion/retention in grade; Reading achievement; Science achievement; Tracking and placement; Writing achievement ADA, see Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 Adaptations, see Accommodations/adaptations Administration procedures, testing, 7, 55(n.6), 216, 274 fairness, general, 78-79, 80-81 graduation tests, adequate notice of testing, 51, 63-64, 163, 289 retaking of tests graduation tests, 165, 178, 180, 181, 182, 220, 243, 289, 292 promotion/retention in grade, 127(n.11), 132, 133, 135, 287, 291 test length and time, 24, 195, 199, 203, 206, 216, 218, 219, 293 tracking, 100-101 voluntary national tests, 15, 238, 239 see Accommodations/adaptations Administrative law, 8, 17, 248, 251, 264-268, 301 discrimination and funding, 58 Advanced diplomas, 180, 181, 182 Advanced placement, 95, 98, 99, 100, 106, 126, 219, 225, 240, 289, 291 see also Gifted and talented students African Americans discrimination against, 20, 21, 53-54, 56, 57 dropouts, employment of, 177 graduation tests, 175-176 kindergarten retention, 119 retention in grade, 119, 122, 137, 148, 155-156, 157, 281 tracking, 100, 105-106 Age factors, 114, 279 employment of diploma holders, 176 English-language learners, 212, 216 kindergarten, 118-120 retention in grade, 5, 120-122, 133, 136, 137, 147-158, 281, 286 tracking, 98 see also Developmental factors; Grade-level factors American Association of Mexican-American Educators v. California, 58, 59, 60 American College Test, 19, 20, 60, 61 American Educational Research Association, see Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing

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-->   American Federation of Teachers, 37, 45, 115, 128(n.13) American Psychological Association, see Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 18, 188, 191, 196, 198 Anderson v. Banks, 52, 53, 56 Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery, 19, 20 Athletes, 20-21 Attendance requirements and records, 6, 43, 279 graduation requirements, 164, 174, 279, 288 promotion/retention in grade, 115, 116, 124, 130, 284 Attitudes expectations of and by students, 5, 102-103, 282 graduation tests, 181, 288 promotion/retention in grade, 125, 284, 285 public opinion, 1, 14 students, 14, 287 emotional problems, 91, 190, 293 low-tracking, 5, 101-105, 276, 281, 282 teachers, 5, 14, 103, 284, 287 Attribution of cause, general, 296 defined, 3, 23, 275 legal issues, 51, 61 B Beliefs, see Attitudes Bias, see Discrimination; Error of measurement; Fairness Bilingual education, 33, 46, 211, 212, 216, 219, 221, 224-225, 283, 296 translation of tests, 216, 218, 219, 221-224, 226, 227, 229-230, 297 see also English-language learners Black persons, see African Americans Board of Education of New York v. Harris, 59 Board on Testing and Assessment, v, 67, 188 Buckley Amendment, see Family Education Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 Bureau of Census, 117, 118-119, 136 Current Population Survey, 118, 137, 281 C Civil Rights Act of 1964, 58, 211, 265, 266, 267, 301 Classroom practice, see Instructional factors Clinton Administration, v, 13, 14, 41, 42, 114-115, 284-285 Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education, 8, 17, 82, 249-250, 262, 266, 268 Code of Professional Responsibilities in Educational Measurement, 83 Cognitive factors and theory, 17 construct validity, 74-75, 80 disabilities, 190, 191, 293 see Learning disabilities; Retardation College admissions exams, 33, 45, 76, 82, 181, 199, 205 ACT, 19, 20, 60, 61 SAT, 19-20, 33, 60, 182, 215, 216, 240 Compensatory models, 165-166, 180 English-language learners, 213 Competency testing, 38-39, 163, 287, 288 discrimination, litigation, 21, 38, 52, 53, 56, 57, 63-64, 163, 171, 178, 179, 183, 251-252 history of, 15, 38 mathematics, 38, 126-127, 179 public opinion, 44 reading, 2, 16, 24, 273, 274 see Graduation requirements; Promotion/retention in grade

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--> Computer technology assisted testing, 195, 202, 203, 218, 293 low-tracking, impacts of, 103 Confidentiality of students' records, 18, 201, 251 Conjunctive models, 165 Constitutional law, 38, 50-59 (passim), 61, 251-252 Constructed-response items, 24, 36, 169, 181, 274 English-language learners, 226 fairness, 81 reliability, 72 Construct validity, 61, 73-77 defined, 72 English-language learners, accommodations, 80, 225, 297 fairness, general, 78-79, 81-82 graduation tests, 168, 177 multiple assessment criteria, 74 predictive validity and, 75, 77-78, 79, 82 promotion/retention decisions, 124 reliability and, 72 students with disabilities, accommodations, 80, 196-198, 201, 293 Content coverage, 2, 29, 36, 40, 74, 75 English-language learners, 226 graduation tests, 167-168, 169, 177-179 legal issues, 60 (n.17), 66 promotion/retention in grade, 124-125 students with disabilities, 199 tracking and, 98 see also Curriculum Cost-effectiveness factors, 23, 275 graduation tests, 172 litigation, 8, 252, 299 post-secondary remediation, 45 standardized tests, general, 30 students with disabilities, 194 validation of tests, 67 Council of Chief State School Officers State Collaboration on Assessment and Student Standards, 205, 215, 232 CRESST, see National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards and Student Testing Criterion-referenced testing, 76, 82, 93, 94, 127, 165, 265 Cultural factors, 62, 212, 214, 218, 225, 248 intelligence tests, 31-32 see also Discrimination; English-language learners Current Population Survey, 118, 137, 281 Curriculum, 6, 29, 36, 37, 39, 278 graduation tests, 164, 172-173, 177-179, 181, 288 indicator systems, 8, 36, 281 legal requirements, 25, 38, 51, 64-65, 66 overlap across grades, 114 promotion/retention in grade, 125, 287 standards, 37 students with disabilities, 198 individualized education programs, 33, 188-189, 191-193, 194, 195, 204, 294, 295 tracking, 103-105 validity, general, 3, 64-65, 275, 277-278 voluntary national tests, 65 see also Bilingual education; Teaching to the test; Test preparation; Tracking and placement Cutscores, 98 accuracy of, 96, 99-100, 124, 166 graduation requirements, 98, 166, 168-170, 289, 290 legal issues, 55(n.6), 60, 64, 252 promotion/retention in grade, 116, 125-127, 128, 287 D Debra P. v. Turlington, 21, 38, 52, 53, 56, 57, 63-64, 163, 171, 178, 179, 183, 251-252, 277 Deliberative model, 253-255, 299-300

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--> Department of Education, 65, 67-68, 265, 267, 268, 290 see also National Center for Education Statistics; terms beginning "National Center…" and "Office of…" Developmental factors, promotion/retention in grade, 124, 279, 284 see also Age factors; Learning disabilities; Retardation Diana v. Board of Education, 54, 61 Diplomas, see Graduation requirements Disabilities, see Learning disabilities; Students with disabilities Discrimination, 1, 2, 9, 16, 17, 21, 23, 25, 26, 45-46, 273 African Americans, 20, 21, 53-54, 56, 57 gender-based, 51, 52 historical perspectives, 20, 32 legal issues, 18, 51-63, 67, 215, 218 disparate impact, 57-62 effects test, 52, 55-57 intelligence tests, 53-55 intentional discrimination, 52-55 segregation/desegregation, 21, 32, 53, 55-57 retention in grade, 131-132 students with disabilities, 191, 201 voluntary national tests, 239, 290 Dropouts, 8 employment, 177 graduation tests, 172, 174-176 indicator systems, 8, 281 retention in grade and, 130, 131, 151, 155-156, 181, 285 students with disabilities, 189 tracking and, 102, 104-105 E Economic factors, see Cost-effectiveness factors; Funding; Poverty; Socioeconomic status Educable mentally retarded, 21, 53-55, 91, 93-94 see also Special education Educating One and All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform, 188, 191-201 (passim) Educational Testing Service, 205, 252 Education Amendments of 1972, 58, 266, 301 Education reform, 13-14, 34, 40 Clinton Administration, v, 13, 14, 41, 42, 114-115, 284-285 curricular, 6, 278 standards-based, general, 13-14, 15, 36, 132, 199, 206, 273, 288-289 students with disabilities, 195 see also Accountability; Cost-effectiveness factors Effectiveness of treatment, general, 3, 23, 275 Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, 15, 18, 25, 35, 40, 63 see also Improving America's Schools Act Elementary school, 37, 279 English-language learners, 212, 226(n.5) promotion/retention in grade, 120-121, 126-127, 129, 133, 137-146, 149-153, 285, 286 remediation, 133 tracking, 91, 93, 103-104 see also Kindergarten; Voluntary-national tests Elston v. Talladega County Board of Education, 58(n.12) Emotional problems, 91, 190, 293 Employment factors diploma holders, 176-177 see also Job qualifications and testing English-language learners, 3, 4, 7, 16, 24, 25, 40-41, 46, 81, 211-237, 274, 280, 281, 296-298 accountability, 7, 217, 296, 298 accuracy of measurement, general, 7, 66, 214, 226, 229-230, 232, 296 age factors, 212, 216 demographics, 212, 213

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-->   exclusion/exemption from assessment, 214, 215-218, 219, 226, 233 funding, 219, 221, 231, 232 graduation tests, 175-176, 219-225, 233, 289, 298 learning disabilities, 213-214 legal issues, 63, 66, 211, 212, 265 discrimination, 50, 51, 54, 61, 62-63, 215, 218 mathematics achievement, 24, 213, 216, 223, 226(n.5), 228, 229 multiple assessment criteria, 216, 218, 298 National Assessment of Educational Progress, 226, 228, 231 oral language proficiency, 217, 222, 224, 226, 229 participation, 24, 204, 212-214, 226-227, 228, 229, 231, 265, 296, 298 performance standards, general, 226, 233 poverty, 211, 212 promotion/retention in grade, 125-126, 219-220, 224-225, 298 psychometrics, general, 219, 225-230, 298 reading achievement, 24, 215, 216, 229, 298 oral reading of/responses to questions, 80, 216, 218 reliability issues, 225, 297 remedial instruction, 213 school districts, 213, 217, 222-224 science achievement, 213, 216 scores and scoring criteria, 214, 217, 223, 226, 296, 297, 298 state actions, 63, 213, 214-224, 229-230, 232, 233 tracking, 4-5, 95, 98, 99, 101, 105-106, 213, 219-220, 224-225, 284, 298 validity issues, 225, 231, 296, 297 construct validity, 80, 225, 297 writing achievement, 215, 216-217, 221, 223, 229, 298 see also Accommodations/adaptations; Bilingual education Equal educational opportunity, see Discrimination Equal Education Opportunities Act of 1974, 63 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 59 Error of measurement, 3, 14, 76, 124, 279 English-language learners, 226 standard error, 72-73 students with disabilities, accommodations, 196 see also Accuracy of measurement Evaluation see also Attribution of cause; Fairness; Program evaluation; Reliability Evaluation for the Voluntary National Tests: Phase 1, v, 18 Exclusion from assessment English-language learners, 214, 215-218, 219, 226, 233 indicator systems, 8, 281 students with disabilities, 193, 195, 204 Expectations, see Attitudes Expert judgment, 60, 74, 168, 206, 213-214, 254, 256-257, 259, 289, 297 IQ testing, 54 students with disabilities, 192 tracking, 99 F Fairness, 1, 14, 15, 17, 25, 31, 39, 71, 74, 78-82, 191-192, 276 administration procedures, general, 78-79, 80-81 defined, 39, 72 Department of Education standards, 67-68 English-language learners, 226 graduation tests, 177-178 legal issues, 64, 265 promotion/retention in grade, 82, 134-135 students with disabilities, accommodations, 80, 191-192, 200

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-->   tracking, 82, 100-101 see also Discrimination Family Education Rights and Privacy Act of 1974, 18, 251 Federal government, 8 see also Clinton Administration; Funding; Department of Education; Legislation; Voluntary national tests Foreign countries, see International perspectives Foreign-language speakers, see Bilingual education; English-language learners; Translation of tests Fourteenth Amendment, see Constitutional law Funding, 263-264, 266-267, 301 disadvantaged populations, 15, 18(n.2), 33, 211, 264 discrimination and, 57-58 English-language learners, 219, 221, 231, 232 graduation tests, preparation, 183 minimum competency testing and, 15 state funding, individual schools, 15, 35 remediation programs, 133 students with disabilities, 190, 204 see also Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 G Gender factors, 81 discrimination, 51, 52 graduation tests/diplomas, 81, 176-177, 289 legal issues, 51, 52, 59(n.15), 60 promotion/retention in grade, 5, 118, 119, 122, 125, 130, 134, 137, 148, 150, 154-155, 156, 157, 281 tracking, 95, 98, 99, 100-101, 281 Georgia State Conference of Branches of NAACP v. Georgia, 57, 58(n.12), 62 Gifted and talented students, 4, 91, 93, 97, 106, 219, 280, 282, 283 Goals 2000: Educate America Act, 18, 188, 196, 205-206, 211, 232, 292, 296 Government, see Federal government; Political factors; State government Grade-level factors, achievement variations, 114 see also Elementary school; Kindergarten; Promotion/retention in grade; Secondary school Grade retention, see Promotion/retention in grade Grades, teacher-assigned, 6, 37, 279, 295 grade point average, 33 graduation requirements, 180, 181-182 promotion/retention in grade, 124 tracking, 100 Graduation requirements, 1, 2, 4, 14, 16, 22, 25, 37, 163-187, 273, 287-290 accountability, 165, 182 accuracy of measurement, general, 163, 166, 276, 287 adequate notice of testing, 51, 63-64, 163, 289 administration procedures, adequate notice of testing, 51, 63-64, 163, 289 retaking of tests, 165, 178, 180, 181, 182, 220, 243, 289, 292 African Americans, 175-176 attendance records, 164, 174, 279, 288 attitudes, 181, 288 content coverage, 167-168, 169, 177-179 curriculum and, 164, 172-173, 177-179, 181, 288 cutscores, 98, 166, 168-170, 289, 290 diploma denial, alternative/complementary strategies, 179-183 remediation, 169, 171, 177, 180, 182-183, 289

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-->   dropping out and, 172, 174-176 employment opportunities and, 58, 59(n.15), 61, 76, 82(n.1), 163, 176-177, 180, 194, 222, 251, 288, 289 English-language learners, 175-176, 219-225, 233, 289, 298 exit exams, 39, 45, 63, 165, 194 fairness, general, 177-178 gender factors, 81, 176-177, 289 grades, teacher assigned, 180, 181-182 Hispanics, 175-176 impacts of, 172-177 instructional factors, 164, 172-173, 178-179, 181 legal issues, 163, 288 discrimination, 18, 25, 38, 50-56 (passim), 63, 64 litigation, 38, 52, 53, 56, 63, 163, 171, 178 multiple assessment criteria, 165-166, 179, 180, 279, 288, 290 National Assessment of Educational Progress, 182, 289 poverty, 174, 176, 281, 289 predictive validity, 170-171 professional/public interest groups, opinions, 45 psychometrics, general, 166, 168, 169, 219, 288, 289 racial/ethnic factors, 20, 56, 167, 175-176, 289 remedial instruction, 169, 171, 177, 180, 182-183, 289 scoring and scoring criteria, 166, 177-178, 288, 290 special/differentiated diplomas, 37, 170, 180-181, 194, 289, 290, 295 advanced diplomas, 180, 181, 182 state government role, 37, 38, 39, 163-165, 167, 170, 178, 179, 180-181, 288, 289 end-of-course exams, 181-182, 289, 290 English-language learners, 219-224, 233 students with disabilities, 194, 198, 289 test administration procedures, retaking of tests, 165, 178, 180, 181, 182, 220, 243, 289, 292 test preparation, 169, 171, 177-178, 182-183, 289, 290 adequate notice of testing, 51, 63-64, 163, 289 remedial instruction, 169, 171, 177, 180, 182-183, 289 validity issues, 167-171, 172, 177-178 construct validity, 168, 177 voluntary national tests, 7-8, 25, 239, 243, 290, 291-292 writing achievement, 165, 167, 170, Groves v. Alabama State Board of Education, 38(n.12/n.13), 60 H High school, see Graduation requirements; Secondary school Hispanics, 46, 54, 95, 106, 212, 218, 227 dropouts, employment of, 177 exemption from testing, 215-218 graduation tests, 175-176 promotion/retention in grade, 119, 122, 148, 155-156, 157, 225 Historical perspectives, 25, 36 discrimination litigation, 52-62 graduation tests, 163 intelligence testing, 31-32 kindergarten retention, 118-119 litigation, 17-18 retention in grade, 117-122, 136, 138-158, 286 standardized test use, general, 15, 19, 20-21, 29, 31-33 tracking, 15, 91-93 Hobson v. Hansen, 53 Homogeneous grouping, 90-91 see also Tracking and placement I IDEA, see Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997

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--> IEP, see Individualized education programs Improving America's Schools Act, 51, 62-63, 65-66, 188, 196, 211, 219, 264-267, 292, 296 Improving Schooling for Language-Minority Children, 212-213, 220-221, 220-221, 226, 230 Indicator systems components of, 8, 36, 281 students with disabilities, 190 Individualized education programs, 33, 188-189, 191-193, 194, 195, 204, 294, 295 Individualized instruction, see Tutors and tutoring Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997, 18, 33, 40, 188-190, 191-192, 196, 198, 251, 262, 292, 293 Instructional factors, 6, 29-30, 36, 40 English-language learners, 220, 297 graduation tests and, 164, 172-173, 178-179, 181 indicator systems, 8, 281 legal requirements, 64-65, 66 poor teaching, 5 students with disabilities, 198 tracking, 103, 105 validity and, 3, 64-65, 77, 277 Intelligence tests, 21, 31-32 discrimination litigation, 53-55 kindergarten, 119 promotion/retention in grade, 119, 129 tracking, 53-55, 93-94, 97 International perspectives, 238 differentiated diplomas, 180-181 Second International Mathematics Study, 92-93 Third International Mathematics and Science Study, 7, 18, 174, 241, 290, 291 tracking, 92-93, 282 Iowa Test of Basic Skills, 30-31, 132, 261 IQ testing, see Intelligence tests Item response theory (IRT), 202-203 J Job qualifications and testing, 58, 59(n.15), 61, 76, 82(n.1), 163, 176-177, 180, 194, 222, 251, 288, 289 teacher certification, 59(n.15), 60 Joint Committee on Testing Practices, 206 Joint Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing see Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing K Kindergarten, 95, 117, 131-132, 133, 137, 285 extended, 114, 118-120, 122, 137, 146-149 L Labeling model, 257-263, 300 Language factors, see Bilingual education; English-language learners Larry P. v. Riles, 21, 53-54, 55, 58, 59, 60, 61-62, 252, 299 Lau v. Nichols, 62, 211 Law, see Legal issues; Legislation Learning disabilities, 91, 190, 293 English-language learners with, 213-214 legal issues, 188 see also Educable mentally retarded Legal issues, general, 4, 8, 17-18, 25, 50-70, 248, 251-252 accommodations English-language learners, 63, 211 students with disabilities, 55(n.6), 190-193 (passim), 198-199 accountability, 18, 65, 189, 192, 193, 198, 200 attribution of cause, 51, 61 content coverage, 60(n.17), 66 curriculum, 25, 38, 51, 64-65, 66

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-->   cutscores, 55(n.6), 60, 64, 252 discrimination, 18, 51-63, 67, 215, 218 disparate impact, 57-62 effects test, 52, 55-57 intentional discrimination, 52-55 segregation/desegregation, 21, 32, 53, 55-57 English-language learners, 63, 66, 211, 212, 265, 296 discrimination, 50, 51, 54, 61, 62-63, 215, 218 fairness, general, 64, 265 gender factors, 51, 52, 59(n.15), 60 graduation requirements, 163, 288 discrimination, 18, 25, 38, 50-56 (passim), 63, 64 instructional factors, 64-65, 66 learning disabilities, 188 multiple assessment criteria, 61 promotion/retention in grade, 50-51, 52, 55, 198 psychometrics, 51, 59, 67 reliability, 55(n.6) remedial instruction, 53, 55, 57 reporting, 55(n.6), 189 scaling, 55(n.6) scoring, 18, 55(n.6) special education, 18, 50, 55, 190, 191-192, 193 students with disabilities, 18, 33, 40, 58(n.10), 188-195 (passim), 198, 201, 292 individualized education programs, 33, 188-189, 191-193 tracking, 50-57 (passim), 198 validity of tests, 6, 55(n.6), 60, 63, 64-65, 67 see also Administrative law; Constitutional law; specific court cases Legislation Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 18, 188, 191, 196, 198 Civil Rights Act of 1964, 58, 211, 265, 266, 267, 301 Education Amendments of 1972, 58, 266, 301 Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, 15, 18, 25, 35, 40, 63 Equal Education Opportunities Act of 1974, 63 Family Education Rights and Privacy Act of 1974, 18, 251 Goals 2000: Educate America Act, 18, 188, 196, 205-206, 211, 232, 292, 296 Improving America's Schools Act, 51, 62-63, 65-66, 188, 196, 211, 219, 264-267, 292, 296 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997, 18, 33, 40, 188-190, 191-192, 196, 198, 251, 262, 292, 293 Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 18, 58(n.10), 188, 191, 196 study at hand, mandate, xv, 1-2, 22-24 Literacy, see English-language learners; Reading achievement; Writing achievement Local education authorities, see School districts Low-income factors, see Poverty M Mass media, 19-20, 31, 33, 261, 262 Mathematics achievement, 1-2, 24, 38, 273 accuracy of measurement, 2, 16, 24, 273, 274 English-language learners, 24, 213, 216, 223, 226(n.5), 228, 229 minimum competency testing, 38, 126-127, 179 Second International Mathematics Study, 92-93 students with disabilities, 24, 197-198 Third International Mathematics and Science Study, 7, 18, 174, 241, 290, 291 tracking, 92-93, 97, 98, 100 voluntary national tests, v, 8, 14, 16, 41, 238-243, 291

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--> McNeal v. Tate County School District, 57 Mental Measurement Yearbooks, 17 Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund, 46 Military testing, 19, 20 Minimum competency testing, see Competency testing Minorities, see English-language learners; Race/ethnicity; specific groups Motivation, see Attitudes Multiple assessment criteria, 6, 8, 24, 37, 179, 261 construct validity and, 74 English-language learners, 216, 218, 298 graduation requirements, 165-166, 179, 180, 279, 288, 290 legal issues, 61 portfolios, 24, 216, 218, 265-266, 274 promotion/retention in grade, 6, 24, 37, 124, 135, 279, 284-285, 286 scoring and, general, 6, 97-98 students with disabilities, 192, 295 see also Individualized education programs tracking, 93, 94, 97-98, 100, 279, 284 see also Attendance requirements and records; Grades, teacher-assigned; Student portfolios Multiple-choice items, 24, 36, 81, 94, 163, 165, 169-170, 265, 274 N NAEP, see National Assessment of Educational Progress National Academy of Education, 204, 232 National Academy of Sciences, 205 National Assessment of Educational Progress, 7, 15, 19, 34, 99, 126 English-language learners, 226, 228, 231 graduation exams requirements, 182, 289 students with disabilities, 200, 204, 206 voluntary national tests and, 239-243 (passim), 290, 291 National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 45, 57, 58(n.12), 62 National Center for Education Statistics English-language learners, 226, 231 students with disabilities, 200, 204 National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards and Students Testing, 205, 228, 233, 263 National Commission on Testing and Public Policy, 251, 256, 263 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 179 National Council on Measurement in Education, see Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing National Educational Goals Panel, 94-95, 119 National Education Longitudinal Study; 130, 174 National Research Council, 205-206, 233 New York Urban League, Inc. v. New York, 58, 59 Non-native English speakers, see English-language learners Norm-referenced testing, 30, 51, 62, 94, 165(n.3), 216-217, 225, 249, 264, 297 North Carolina, 39, 171 O Office of Technology Assessment, 17, 250 Open-response items, see Constructed-response items P Parents, 23, 274 accountability, 5 adequate notice of testing, 63-64 English-language learners, parents of, 232

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-->   labeling approach to test use, 262 school record inspection, 18 students with disabilities, 189, 195 tracking, 92, 283 Parents in Action on Special Education (PASE) v. Hannon, 55, 299 Parent-Teachers Association, 45 Pedagogy, see Instructional factors People Who Care v. Rockford Board of Education, 21, 53 Performance standards, 1, 36, 40, 46, 265, 291 conjunctive vs compensatory models, 165-166 English-language learners, 226, 233 legal issues, non-legislative, 51 legislation, 18(n.2) reliability and, 72-73 students with disabilities, 189-190, 201-202, 203, 292-293 validity and, 73, 76 see also Cutscores; Voluntary national tests Personnel Administrator v. Feeney, 52-53 Placement, see Tracking and placement Political factors, v, 1, 15, 24-25, 30, 33, 39-47, 170, 248, 285, 298 deliberative forums, 253-255, 299-300 independent oversight bodies, 256-257 validity issues, 30-31, 35, 39 see also Accountability; Clinton Administration; Education reform Portfolios, see Student portfolios Poverty, 4, 280 English-language learners, 211, 212 funding for disadvantaged populations, 15, 18(n.2), 33, 211, 264 graduation requirements, 174, 176, 281, 289 public opinion, 43 retention in grade and, 119, 130, 131, 280, 281 tracking, 92, 95, 98, 100, 103, 105-106, 283 voluntary national testing, 41 Predictive validity, 75, 77-78, 79, 82 defined, 82(n.1) graduation tests, 170-171 item response theory, 202 promotion/retention in grade, 123, 127 students with disabilities, accommodations, 200, 201 tracking, 97-98, 101-102, 240, 283-284 voluntary national tests, 240, 291 Program evaluation, 15, 35, 40 Promotion/retention in grade, 1, 2, 4, 6, 14, 16, 22, 25, 26, 37, 42, 114-162, 273, 278, 284-287, 298 accountability, 115, 127, 132 accuracy issues, 116, 119, 124, 276 African Americans, 119, 122, 137, 148, 155-156, 157, 281 age factors, retention, 5, 120-122, 133, 136, 137, 147-158, 281, 286 alternatives to retention, 132-133, 285, 287 see also Social promotion remedial education and, 6, 115, 116, 132-133, 285, 287 attendance records, 115, 116, 124, 130, 284 attitudes, 125, 284, 285 construct validity issues, 124 content coverage, 124-125 curriculum and, 125, 287 cutscores, 116, 125-127, 128, 287 developmental factors, 124, 279, 284 discrimination, 131-132 dropping out, retention and, 130, 131, 151, 155-156, 181, 285 elementary school, 120-121, 126-127, 129, 133, 137-146, 149-153, 285, 286 English-language learners, 125-126, 219-220, 224-225, 298 fairness issues, 82, 134-135 gender factors, 5, 118, 119, 122, 125, 130, 134, 137, 148, 150, 154-155, 156, 157, 281 Hispanics, 119, 122, 148, 155-156, 157, 225

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-->   historical perspectives, 117-122, 136, 138-158, 286 impacts on student, 3, 128-132, 285 indicator systems, 8, 281 intelligence tests, 119, 129 kindergarten, 95, 117, 131-132, 133, 137, 285 extended, 114, 118-120, 122, 137, 146-149 legal issues, 50-51, 52, 55, 198 multiple assessment criteria, 6, 24, 37, 124, 135, 279, 284-285, 286 predictive validity, 123, 127 professional/public interest groups, opinions, 45 psychometrics, general, 123, 286, 287 public opinion, 43 racial/ethnic factors, 118, 119, 122, 125, 130, 131-132, 134, 137, 150, 154, 155-157, 281 reading achievement, 125, 126-127 remedial instruction, 6, 115, 116, 132-133, 285, 287 retaking of tests, 127(n.11), 132, 133, 135, 287, 291 scoring issues, 123, 124, 125, 129, 286, 287 secondary school, 120-121, 129, 130, 137-146, 149-152, 153, 286 socioeconomic status, 130 poverty, 119, 130, 131, 280, 281 standardized tests, general, 116, 123-124, 127-128 state government role, 115-116, 123, 126, 133, 136, 284 students with disabilities, 125, 126, 193, 198 teacher recommendations, 6, 284 trends in retention, 117-122, 136, 138-146 validity issues, 123-124, 134-135, 286 voluntary national tests, 7-8, 25, 239, 241-243, 290, 291, 292 writing achievement, 115, 124 see also Graduation requirements; Social promotion Psychometrics, general, 4, 25, 71, 73, 77, 78 English-language learners, 219, 225-230, 298 graduation tests, 166, 168, 169, 219, 288, 289 legal issues, 51, 59, 67 promotion/retention in grade, 123, 286, 287 students with disabilities, accommodations, 196-202, 205 tracking, 95-101, 283-284 see also Fairness; Item response theory; Reliability; Validity Public opinion, 1, 14, 17, 19, 23, 24, 25, 30, 43-45 mass media, 19-20, 31, 33, 261, 262 R Race/ethnicity, 4, 14, 16, 20, 276, 280 athletes, 20 dropouts, employment of, 177 graduation tests, 20, 56, 167, 175-176, 289 promotion/retention in grade, 118, 119, 122, 125, 130, 131-132, 134, 137, 150, 154, 155-157, 281 tracking, 21, 93-94, 95, 98, 99, 100-101, 103, 105-106, 281, 283 voluntary national testing, 41 see also Cultural factors; Discrimination; English-language learners; specific groups Readiness, see Graduation requirements; Promotion/retention in grade Reading achievement, 1-2, 24, 273, 274 accuracy in testing, 2, 16, 24, 273, 274 English-language learners, 24, 215, 216, 229, 298 oral reading of/responses to questions, 80, 216, 218 minimum competency testing, 38, 42-43, 126-127 promotion/retention in grade, 125, 126-127

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-->   students with disabilities, 24, 198 voluntary national tests, v, 7, 14, 16, 41, 238-243, 291 Reform, see Education reform Regulation, see Administrative law; Legislation Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 18, 58(n.10), 188, 191, 196 Reliability, 3, 25, 39, 72-73, 80 construct validity and, 74, 75 definitional issues, 39, 71, 72 English-language learners, 225, 297 item response theory, 203 legal issues, 55(n.6) students with disabilities, 201-202, 203 voluntary national testing, 15, 23 Remedial instruction, 3, 22-23, 133, 279, 285 cost factors, 45 English-language learners, 213 graduation tests, 169, 171, 177, 180, 182-183, 289 legal issues, 53, 55, 57 promotion/retention in grade and, 6, 115, 116, 132-133, 285, 287 summer school, 42, 115, 116, 124, 127(n.11), 132, 133(n.18), 221, 285, 289 test preparation and, 169, 171, 177, 180, 182-183, 289 teaching to the test vs, 7 tracking and, 92, 97, 104-105, 282 tutors and tutoring, 120, 132, 285 see also Special education Repetition of grade, see Promotion/retention in grade Social promotion Reporting, 257-263 graduation tests, 167 legal issues, 55(n.6), 189 mass media, 19-20 public, 5, 19 students with disabilities, 189, 195, 201 Retaking of tests graduation tests, 165, 178, 180, 181, 182, 220, 243, 289, 292 promotion/retention in grade, 127(n.11), 132, 133, 135, 288, 291 Retardation, 190, 293 see also Educable mentally retarded; Special education Retention in grade, see Promotion/retention in grade S Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT), 19-20, 33, 60, 182, 215, 216, 240 School-based factors accountability, 2, 5, 15, 16, 29-31, 35, 40, 274, 278 litigation, 21 accreditation, 15 labeling approach to test use, 262 segregation/desegregation, 21, 32, 53, 55-57 School districts accountability, 2, 5, 35, 274, 278 English-language learners, 217 students with disabilities, 189 discrimination, 64 English-language learners, 213, 217, 222-224 grades, teacher-assigned, 37 graduation tests, 179 multiple measures, 37 promotion/retention in grade, 37 voluntary national testing, 41 Science achievement, 179 English-language learners, 213, 216 Third International Mathematics and Science Study, 7, 18, 174, 241, 290, 291 Scoring and scoring criteria, 3, 14, 74, 259, 262, 278 construct validity, 74-77 (passim), 80 English-language learners, 214, 217, 223, 226, 296, 297, 298 fairness, 79, 81-82, 275-276 legal issues, 18, 55(n.6) flagging, 201

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-->   graduation tests, 166, 177-178, 288, 290 item response theory, 202 multiple criteria and, 6, 97-98 promotion/retention in grade, 123, 124, 125, 129, 286, 287 students with disabilities, accommodations, 197, 199, 200, 201, 202, 206, 293, 295 tracking, 93, 94, 96, 97-98, 123, 239-240, 282, 283 voluntary national tests, 238, 239-243, 290-292 see also Cutscores; Fairness; Reliability; Validity Secondary school exit exams, 39, 45, 63, 165, 180-181, 194 retention in grade, 120-121, 129, 130, 137-146, 149-152, 153, 286 tracking, 91-93, 104, 134 see also Dropouts; Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965; Graduation requirements Second International Mathematics Study, 92-93 Second-language speakers, see English-language learners Segregation/desegregation, 21, 32, 53, 55-57 Sex-based influences, see Gender factors Shariff v. New York State Education Department, 59, 60 Simmons on Behalf of Simmons v. Hooks, 57 Social factors, see Cultural factors; Race/ethnicity Social promotion, 6, 14, 22, 26, 41-43, 114-117, 122, 126-127, 133, 136-137, 278, 285, 286 Socioeconomic status, 14 retention in grade, 130 tracking, 92, 95, 98, 100, 103, 105-106, 283 see also Poverty Spanish-speaking students, see Hispanics Special education indicator systems, 8, 281 individualized education programs, 33, 188-189, 191-193 legal issues, 18, 55, 190, 191-192, 193, 194, 195, 204, 294, 295 participation, 190-191, 193-195, 205, 293 social promotion and age-grade retardation, 136 special diplomas, 194, 295 tracking, 93-94, 97, 282 Speech impairments, 190, 293 Standardized tests, general, 8, 14, 17, 25-26 historical perspectives, 15, 19, 20-21, 29, 31-33 kindergarten, 119 professionally codified standards, 8, 17, 25, 60, 78, 82-83, 123-124, 179, 199, 247-250, 252, 262, 266, 268, 298, 299 promotion/retention in grade, 116, 123-124, 127-128 state programs, 15 students with disabilities, accommodations, 196-197 tracking, 93-95 see also Intelligence tests; Psychometrics; Voluntary national tests; specific tests Standards, general, 1, 13-14, 17, 71 education reform, standards-based, 13-14, 15, 36, 132, 199, 206, 273, 288-289 federal vs state, 15 policy strategies and, 29-30 student with disability, qualification as, 190-191, 199 see also Accountability; Accuracy of measurement; Fairness; Performance standards; Reliability; Validity Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, 8, 17, 78, 82, 199, 249-250, 252, 262, 266, 268

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--> State government, 36, 40, 251, 264-265 discrimination, state law, 50, 57-58, 60, 61, 64 English-language learners, 63, 213, 214-224, 229-230, 232, 233 funding, 15, 35, 133 graduation requirements, 37, 38, 39, 163-165, 167, 170, 178, 179, 180-181, 288, 289 end-of-course exams, 181-182, 289, 290 English-language learners, 219-224, 233 students with disabilities, 194 Improving America's Schools Act, 65-66 labeling approach to test use, 262 large-scale achievement tests, 1 minimum competency testing, history, 15, 38-39, 42-43, 57, 163-164 promotion/retention in grade, 115-116, 123, 126, 133, 136, 284 students with disabilities, 33, 189, 193, 194, 195-196, 197, 204, 205, 293 university admission requirements, 33 voluntary national testing, 41 State-level factors and trends, 20 graduation tests, dropouts, 174 retention in grade, 117, 136-137, 138-146 public opinion, 44 Student portfolios, 24, 216, 218, 265, 266, 274 Students with disabilities, 3, 7, 16, 24, 25, 40-41, 188-210, 274, 281, 292-295 accountability, 7, 118, 189, 192, 193, 198, 292 accuracy issues, 7, 193, 198, 201 categories of, 195, 293 curriculum, 198 individualized education programs, 33, 188-189, 191-193, 194, 195, 204, 294, 295 discrimination against, 191, 201 dropouts, 189 eligibility, 190-191, 281, 293 exclusion from assessment, 193, 195, 204 funding, 190, 204 item response theory, 202-203 legal issues, 18, 33, 40, 58(n.10), 66, 188-195 (passim), 198, 201, 265, 292 individualized education programs, 33, 188-189, 191-193 legislation, Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 18, 188, 191, 196, 198 Goals 2000, 188, 196, 205, 292 Improving America's Schools Act, 188, 292 Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1997, 18, 33, 40, 188-190, 191-192, 196, 198, 251, 262, 292, 293 Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 18, 58(n.10), 188, 191, 196 mathematics tests, 24, 197-198 National Assessment of Educational Progress, 200, 204, 206 parents, 189, 195 participation rates, 24, 190-191, 193, 195, 204-206, 265, 292-294 performance standards, 189-190, 201 202, 203, 292-293 promotion/retention in grade, 125, 126, 193, 198 reading tests, 24, 198 reliability of tests, 201-202, 203 reporting requirements, 189, 195, 201 tracking, 98, 198 validity issues, accommodations, 192, 196, 199-200, 201, 202-203, 205, 206, 293, 294, 295 writing achievement, 197, 198 see also Accommodations/adaptations; Learning disabilities Students with limited English proficiency, see English-language learners Summer school, 42, 115, 116, 124, 127(n.11), 132, 133(n.18), 221, 285, 289 Supreme Court, see Constitutional law

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--> T Talented students, see Gifted and talented students Teacher education graduation tests and, 173 students with disabilities, 190 Teachers accountability, 1, 2, 5, 15, 16 administration/scoring of tests, fairness issues, 81, 280 attitudes, 5, 14, 103, 284, 287 certification testing, 59(n.15), 60 graduation tests and, 181 promotion/retention decisions, 6, 284 students with disabilities, 189, 192, 195, 199-200 use of tests, general, 33 Teaching methods, see Instructional factors Teaching to the test, 6-7, 38, 65, 73, 132, 280 Test administration procedures, see Administration procedures, testing Test preparation, 7, 132, 280 fairness, 79 graduation tests, 169, 171, 177-178, 182-183, 289, 290 adequate notice of testing, 51, 63-64, 163, 289 remedial instruction, 169, 171, 177, 180, 182-183, 289 litigation, 21 tracking, 100-101 validity and, 73 voluntary national tests, 239 see also Curriculum; Remedial instruction; Teaching to the test Texas Assessment of Academic Skills, 46, 115, 171, 217, 221 Third International Mathematics and Science Study, 7, 18, 174, 241, 290, 291 Time factors English-language learners, 215, 218 graduation tests, adequate notice of testing, 51, 63-64, 163, 289 litigation, duration of, 8, 252, 299 new test introduction and use, gap, 6, 164 test length and time, 24, 195, 199, 203, 206, 216, 218, 219, 293 voluntary national tests, 15, 65 TIMSS, see Third International Mathematics and Science Study Tracking and placement, 2, 14, 16, 22, 25, 31, 33, 82, 89-113, 114, 123, 282-284 accuracy issues, 97, 99-100, 101, 276 advanced placement, 95, 98, 99, 100, 106, 126, 219, 225, 240, 289, 291 gifted and talented students, 4, 91, 93, 97, 106, 219, 280, 282, 283 African Americans, 100, 105-106 age factors, 98 curriculum and, 103-105 definitional issues, 1, 89-91, 101, 282 demographic factors, 4-5 dropping out and, 102, 104-105 elementary school, 91, 93, 103-104 English-language learners, 4-5, 95, 98, 99, 101, 105-106, 213, 219-220, 224-225, 284, 298 fairness issues, 82, 100-101 gender factors, 95, 98, 99, 100-101, 281 grades, teacher-assigned, 100 graduation tests, 171 historical perspective on, 15, 91-93 instructional factors, 103, 105 intelligence tests, 53-55, 93-94, 97 international comparisons, 92-93, 282 knowledge access issues, 103-105 legal issues, 50-57 (passim), 198 low-tracking, English-language learners, 213 impacts of, 5, 101-105, 276, 281, 282 see also Educable mentally retarded mathematics achievement, 92-93, 97, 98, 100

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-->   multiple criteria for, 93, 94, 97-98, 100, 279, 284 nature and extent, 91-93 parents, 92, 283 predictive validity, 97-98, 101-102, 240, 283-284 psychometrics, 95-101, 283-284 racial/ethnic factors, 21, 93-94, 95, 98, 99, 100-101, 103, 105-106, 281, 283 remedial education and, 92, 97, 104-105, 282 scoring issues, 93, 94, 96, 97-98, 123, 239-240, 282, 283 cutscores, 99-100, 284 secondary school, 91-93, 104, 134 socioeconomic factors, 4-5, 92, 95, 98, 100, 103, 105-106, 283 poverty, 92, 95, 98, 100, 103, 105-106, 283 special education, 93-94, 97, 282 students with disabilities, 98, 198 test preparation/administration procedures, 100-101 validity issues, 96-101, 123, 283 voluntary national tests, 7-8, 25, 239-241, 290, 291, 292 Translation of tests, 216, 218, 219, 221, 222-223, 226, 227, 229-230, 297 Tutors and tutoring, 120, 132, 285 U Uncommon Measures: Equivalence and Linkage Among Educational Tests, v, 18 United States v. Fordice, 52, 61 V Validity, 7, 17, 25, 73-78, 261, 275 curriculum, 3, 64-65, 275, 277-278 defined, 2, 3, 23, 39, 71-72, 275 English-language learners, 225, 231, 296, 297 graduation tests, 167-171, 172, 177-178 instructional factors, 3, 64-65, 77, 277 legal requirements, 6, 55(n.6), 60, 63, 64-65, 67 performance standards, general, 73, 76 political factors, 30-31, 35, 39 preparation for testing and, 73 promotion/retention in grade, 123-124, 134-135, 286 students with disabilities, accommodations, 192, 196, 199-200, 201, 202-203, 205, 206, 293, 294, 295 tracking, 96-101, 123, 283 voluntary national tests, release of items, 15 see also Construct validity; Cutscores; Predictive validity; Teaching to the test Village of Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Development Corp., 53 Voluntary national tests, 5, 7-8, 13-15, 41, 65, 238-244, 273, 276, 290-292 Clinton Administration, v, 13-14, 41, 42, 114-115, 284-285 discrimination, 239, 290 mathematics achievement, v, 8, 14, 16, 41, 238-243, 291 National Assessment of Educational Progress and, 239-243 (passim), 290, 291 poverty, 41 predictive validity, 240, 291 promotion/retention in grade, 7-8, 25, 239, 241-243, 290, 291, 292 purpose of, 7-8, 65, 238, 290 racial/ethnic factors, 41 reading achievement, v, 7, 14, 16, 41, 238-243, 291 reliability issues, 15, 23 scoring issues, 238, 239-243, 290-292 test administration procedures, 238, 239

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--> W Washington v. Davis, 52 White students, 59(n.15) dropouts, employment of, 177 graduation tests, 176 minimum competency testing, 56 retention in grade, 119, 122, 130, 148, 155, 156, 157, 281 tracking, 21, 95, 100, 105-106, 281 Writing achievement, 36, 75, 76, 81, 265, 266 English-language learners, 215, 216-217, 221, 223, 229, 298 graduation requirements, 165, 167, 170, promotion/retention in grade, 115, 124 students with disabilities, 197, 198