standards-based reform, general 13-14, 15, 36, 132, 199, 206, 273, 288-289

students, general, 1, 2, 5, 15, 16, 21, 165

students with disabilities, 7, 118, 189, 192, 193, 198, 292

see also Standards

Accuracy of measurement, 4, 14, 20, 23, 265, 280, 284

cutscores, 96, 99-100, 124, 166

English-language learners, 7, 66, 214, 226, 229-230, 232, 296

exogenous factors, 77, 79

graduation requirements, 163, 166, 276, 287

labeling strategies, 263

promotion/retention in grade, 116, 119, 124, 276

reading and mathematics achievement, 2, 16, 24, 273, 274

students with disabilities, 7, 193, 198, 201

tracking, 97, 99-100, 101, 276

voluntary national tests, 15, 242, 243, 291

see also Error of measurement;

Predictive validity

Achievement, general, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 14, 23, 35, 273, 274, 281, 295, 300

English-language learners, 217, 296, 297

international comparisons, 7, 18, 174, 238-239, 241, 290, 291

see also Competency testing;

Graduation requirements;

Mathematics achievement;

Multiple assessment criteria;

Performance standards;

Promotion/retention in grade;

Reading achievement;

Science achievement;

Tracking and placement;

Writing achievement

ADA, see Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990

Adaptations, see Accommodations/adaptations

Administration procedures, testing, 7, 55(n.6), 216, 274

fairness, general, 78-79, 80-81

graduation tests,

adequate notice of testing, 51, 63-64, 163, 289

retaking of tests

graduation tests, 165, 178, 180, 181, 182, 220, 243, 289, 292

promotion/retention in grade, 127(n.11), 132, 133, 135, 287, 291

test length and time, 24, 195, 199, 203, 206, 216, 218, 219, 293

tracking, 100-101

voluntary national tests, 15, 238, 239

see Accommodations/adaptations

Administrative law, 8, 17, 248, 251, 264-268, 301

discrimination and funding, 58

Advanced diplomas, 180, 181, 182

Advanced placement, 95, 98, 99, 100, 106, 126, 219, 225, 240, 289, 291

see also Gifted and talented students

African Americans

discrimination against, 20, 21, 53-54, 56, 57

dropouts, employment of, 177

graduation tests, 175-176

kindergarten retention, 119

retention in grade, 119, 122, 137, 148, 155-156, 157, 281

tracking, 100, 105-106

Age factors, 114, 279

employment of diploma holders, 176

English-language learners, 212, 216

kindergarten, 118-120

retention in grade, 5, 120-122, 133, 136, 137, 147-158, 281, 286

tracking, 98

see also Developmental factors;

Grade-level factors

American Association of Mexican-American Educators v. California, 58, 59, 60

American College Test, 19, 20, 60, 61

American Educational Research Association, see Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing



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