Mass Insight 1997 The Public's View of Standards and Tests: Executive Summary. Cambridge, MA: Mass Insight.

McDonnell, L.M. 1994 Policymakers' Views of Student Assessment. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.

Mehrens, W.A. 1998 Consequences of Assessment: What Is the Evidence? Vice Presidential Address for Division D, annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego.

National Research Council 1997 Educating One and All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform, L.M. McDonnell, M.L. McLaughlin, and P. Morison, eds. Board on Testing and Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.


Office of Technology Assessment 1992 Testing in American Schools: Asking the Right Questions. OTA-SET-519. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Olson, L. 1998 Study warns against reliance on testing data. Education Week (March 25):10.


Shepard, L.A., and Smith, M.L. 1989 Flunking Grades: Research and Policies on Retention. Philadelphia: Falmer Press.

Smith, M.L., and Claire Rottenberg 1991 Unintended consequences of external testing in elementary schools. Educational Measurement, Issues and Practice 10(4):7–11.

Steinberg, J. 1998 New York's chancellor vows to end routine promotions to the next grade. New York Times April 21:A23.


Tyack, D.B. 1974 The One Best System. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Legal References

Debra P. v. Turlington, 644 F.2d 397 (5th Cir. 1981)

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 20 U.S.C. section 1401 et seq.

Title I, Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 20 U.S.C. sections 6301 et seq.



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