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LIST OF ACRONYMS AADT Average Annual Daily Traffic AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials AC asphalt concrete ACJAC asphalt concrete overlay on asphalt concrete AC/JPC asphalt concrete overlay on jointed plain concrete AC OL asphalt concrete overlay AC/PCC asphalt concrete overlay on Portland cement concrete ACPA American Concrete Paving Association ADT average daily traffic ADTT average daily truck traffic ARAN Automatic Road Analyzer ARRB Australian Road Research Board ARS average rectified slope ARV average rectified velocity ASC additional smoothness cost ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials BPR Bureau of Public Roads CALTRANS California Department of Transportation CARV calibrated average rectified velocity COV coefficient of variation CRCP continuously reinforced concrete pavement CSC Civil Structural Consultants DIP Digital Incremental Profiler DNC digital noncontact DOH Department of Highways DOT DeparUnent of Transportation DRI Danish Road Institute ESALS equivalent singI - axle loads EUAC equivalent uniform annual cost FAA Federal Aviation Administration FB flexible base FHWA Federal Highway Administration GM General Motors GPS general pavement studies HEMS highway performance monitoring system HRT half-car roughness index ICC International Cybernetics Corporation IMS Infrastructure Management Services IPFS Illinois Pavement Feedback System IPMC International Pipe Machinery Corporation TR] International Roughness Index 209 l
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IRRE JPCP JPCP OL JRCP LCCA LISA LTPP MAS MDR MO MPR MRN MTH MVD NAPA NCHRP PCA PCC PI PRI PRS PSI PSR PW QC QI RARS RARV RB RI RMS RMSA RMSVA RN RPPR RQI RSP RTRRMS SAL SAS SHA SHRP SN SPS SR SV TAL International Road Roughness Experiment jointecl plain concrete pavement jo~ntect pla~n concrete pavement overIay jo~nted re~nforced concrete pavement life-cycle cost analysis lightweight inertial surface analyzer Long-Term Pavement Performance mean absolute slope mobile data recorder Mays Meter output mean panel rat~ngs Mays ride number Minnesota Trunk Highway max~mum vertical distance National Asphalt Pavement Association National Cooperative Highway Research Program PortIand Cement Association Portiand cement concrete profile index profile roughness index performance-related specification present ser~riceability index present serviceability rating present worth quality control quarter-car s~mulation index reference average rectified statistics reference average rectified velocity rigid base Rideability Index root-mean square roof-mean square acceleration root-mean square vertical acceleration ride number Rigid Pavement Performance and Rehabilitation Ride Quality Index road surface profiler response-type road roughness measuring systems single-axle load statistical analysis software State highway agency Strategic Highway Research Progran structural number specific pavement studies surface rating salvage value tandem-axle load 210
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TRRL TRS UMTRT VOC WASHO Transportation Road Research Laboratory telescoped rolling straightedge University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute vehicle occupant cost Western Association of State Highway Officials 211
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correlation with user response but for which insufficient information is available to develop a working specification at this time (Michigan DOT RQI, Janoff Ride Number [~moff] and Sayers ode Number Sayer Based on the five indices, properties of the equipment recommended for use in modern smoothness construction specifications were identified. These properties include the ability to accurately measure pavement surface wavelengths from 0.9 to 110 ft (0.27 to 33.5 m) with a sampling intermural of ~ in (25.4 mm). The static accuracy (precision and bias) of this equipment should be +0.005 in (0.125 mm) at 95 percent reliability. The 10-sample, single operator, dynamic precision for the equipment should be 0.015 In (0.38 mm) at a confidence level of 95 percent within the wavelengths of 0.9 and Il0 it (0.27 to 33.5 m). The dynamic bias of the equipment, as compared to high-precision rod anc! level or Dipstick baseline profiles, should be no more than 0.05 In (~.25 mm), according to the procedures described In ASTM E950-94. A must-gr~nd location feature should also be Included In the software. Over attributes, such as m~nunizing weight, Increasing speed, controlling horizontal wander, and automating data collection, calibration, analysis, and reporting should also be encouraged. Table 50 summarizes these recommended properties of smoothness-measuring equipment. The movement toward adopting a new pavement profiling system will not happen overnight. Many of the current smoothness-measuring practices are deeply Ingrained within Me highway agencies and paving industries that make it Impractical to quickly move toward the adoption of new equipment and smoothness indices. Highway agencies and paving contractors have invested significant resources In the current systems, which in many cases are providing satisfactory results. However, in order to make significant improvements to the way that smoothness data are collected and reported, a slow and gradual movement toward profile-based systems appears warranted, and effective training programs will be necessary to fully mdoctr~nate such systems into the mainstream of data collection activities. . ~- ~. 198