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A.0 Introduction The Inteldigent Transportation Systems (US) goal is to increase He efficiency of the nation's transportation infrastructure by: Using sensors to measure Be ongoing operations and to collect historical statistics, including the use of CCTV cameras for surveillance. Installing signal systems and Freeway Management Systems (FMS)to control the flow of traffic, including integration of multiple, local, regional, and national jurisdictional systems into regional systems. Integrating modes of travel including transit, air, and rail. Developing the fleet management function for CVO, transit, etc. Fusing data into "one-stop" Advance Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) to provide travelers with reliable, useful information for making travel decisions. A key element in achieving these goals is Me communication of travel-related data from/to field devices, to/from various public or private service providers, and to/from the public. Communication subsystems for these functions often represent 50% of the total system cost, as illustrated in Figure A.O-l, which details costs for several example signal systems. . . . . Transportation planners and managers need to understand communication systems and how to cost-effectively integrate these into their operations and systems. The communication industry is "high tech" and is experiencing rapid evolution that includes digital television, significant new wireless products and services, and high capacity fiber technologies. We will assume a digital communication network as this is Me modern trend that industry is increasingly evolving toward. Digital networks are supported by the most cost- effec~ve components, equipment, systems, and services and this trend will accelerate in the future. L:\NCHRP\Phase2.rph NCHRP 3-51 Phase 2 final Report AO- 1

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This report is organized as follows: Section A.0 Introduction Section A. 1 Communication Mediums, Protocols, and Terminals Section A.2 ITS Communication System Design Section A.3- Example ITS Communication Designs and Costs Section A.4 Communication System Support Section A.5 Strategies and Tools A.O.1 Extension of Communication Handbook The "Communication Handbook for Traffic Control Systems" (1993) provides a wealth of information on communication mediums. Since its publication, the Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS) name has been changed to Intelligent Transportation Systems FITS) to more accurately reflect the desired multimodal charter. This and many advances in communication technologies have broadened the scope of ITS communication requirements, as wed as the array of attractive solutions. This document will extend and supplement the Handbook in several important areas: i. Advancements in communication technology, products, and services. 2. Available standards to support ITS applications. 3. Example architectures for urban, suburban, metropolitan, and rural ITS communication systems, along with system level design examples. (These win include data and procedures for architecture, medium selection, operation and maintenance cost estimating, procurement L:WC~2.~\ NCH~3-51 P~2Fm~Re ~AO-3

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and installation cost estimating, reliability/ma~ntainability planning, and personnel skill requirements to operate and maintain the systems.) 4. garners to procurement of modern communication systems by the ITS community. 5. Example generic data sheets for communication mediums that offer Me most promise for ITS. Topics adequately addressed in the 1993 Handbook will not be repeated here, unless essential for clarity of discussion. A.0.2 The National ITS Program Plan The National ITS Program Plan, First Edition, March 1995, consists of four (4) documents: Volume I, Goals of ITS Volume Il. User Services An Executive Summary A Synopsis ITS deployments and operations will unfold through federal, state, and local partnerships Mat will encourage private company participation in developing and marketing ITS products and services. The National Plan develops the framework to support this evolution. As such, Me National Plan will: Promote shared ITS goals, Guide ITS investment decisions, Encourage coordination, Maintain a forum on deployment, and Ensure Mat ITS is intermodal. L:WC~~h~.~\ NCHRP 3-51 Phase 2 Few Ream AO-4

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The National Plan currently identifies 7 User Service Bundles and 29 subordinate User Services, as presented in Table A.0.2-~. Many systems have already been deployed (Table A.0.2-2 from National Plan) that include ITS functionality. These will be integrated, perhaps after upgrading, into future ITS deployments. The plan is actually a mulUphased process that builds upon itself. It is based on participation and input by federal, state, and local government stakeholders plus private stakeholders. It is based on currently defined requirements and visions; however, as it is refined by experience, the National Plan will be modified and subsequent editions published. Table A.0.2-1 ITS User Services and Bundles Bundle | User Services 1. Travel and Transportation 1. En-route Driver Information Management 2. Route Guidance 3. Traveler Services Information 4. Traffic Control 5. Incident Management 6. Emissions Testino and Mitication 2. Travel Demand Management 7. Demand Management and Operations 8. Pre-trip Travel Information 9. Ride Matching and Reservation 3. Public Transportation 10. Public Transportation Management Operations 11. En-route Transit Information 12. Personalized Public Transit 13. Public TravelSecuritv 4. Electronic Payment 14. Electronic Payment Services (Tolls) 5. Commercial Vehicle 15. Commercial Vehicle Electronic Clearance Operations 16. Automated Roadside Safety Inspection 17. On-board Safety Monitoring 18. Commercial Vehicle Administrative Processes 19. Hazardous Materials Incident Response 20. Freight Mobility 6. Emergency Management 21. Emergency Notification and Personal Security 22. Emergency Vehicle Management 7. Advanced Vehicle Control 23. Longitudinal Collision Avoidance and Safety Systems 24. Lateral Collision Avoidance 25. Intersection Collision Avoidance 26. Vision Enhancement for Crash Avoidance 27. Safety Readiness (Electronic Signs) 28. Pre-crash Restraint Deployment 29. Automated Highway System L:\NCHRP\Phasc2.rpt\ NCH"3-51 ~ Ph~2F - Rely AO-5

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Table A.0.2~2 Examples of Current ITS Deployments System Us r Sconces) Status Provided .. Transportation Management Los Angeles Automated Traffic Control ~Islands of ATMS Traffic Surveillance and . Incident deployment Control Management Limited deployment of video . Seattle Freeway cameras Management System Manual monitoring Phoenix Freeway . Primarily public sector Management System influence Las Vegas Area Computer Traffic SYstem . Travel Information Metro Traffic . Shadow Traffic Pre-trip Travel Radio and 1V broadcasts in Information most markets In-Vehicle Route Guidance En-route Driver Limited deployment of route O I d s m o b i I e G u i d e s t a r I n f o r m a t i o n g u i d a n c e Route Guidance Primarily private sector PC-based Software ~ Traveler influence City Streets Information Services AVUAVI Various Transit Systems . Public ~ ' Limited AVL applications/ Various Commercial Vehicle Transportation scheduling software Operators Management ~ Limited AVI deployment Various Emergency ~ Commercial Fleet Public and private sector Management Services Management influence Emergency Vehicle Mananement _ Electronic Toll Collection Illinois State Toll Highway ~ Electronic Payment Limited/isolated deployment Authority Services Public and private sector Oklahoma PIKEPASS by Electronic Clearance HELP, Inc. Commercial Limited/isolated deployment . Advantage 1-75 (Operational Vehicle Electronic . Public and private sector Test) Clearance influence Collision Avoidance Systems VORAD/Greyhound Bus Lines Longitudinal Limitedtisolated deployment Collision Avoidance . Primarily private sector Lateral Collision influence Avoidance No film schedules for deployment are presented; instead, 5-, 10-, and 20-year deployment visions are presented: 1. 5 years: Era of Travel Information and Fleet Management (Figure A.0.2-~) 2. 10 years: Era of Transportation Management (Figure A.0.2-2) 3. 20 years and beyond: Evolution of transportation data collection, dissemination, and traffic management. Evolution to the Automated Highway System (AHS). L:\NCHRP\Phase2.rpt\ NCHRP 3-51 Phase 2 Final Report AO-6

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I, ~ a Us I~ Palm con ~ ~ ~ . L] 1 ~ __ __ $ PRO: , ~ / _ ` ~tag ~- f ~ ~it, 1< ~ -~- d~^~ Aft_ _- ~_~ I If_ Aft_ ~_ _ _ ~ _ _ _ ~ ~ rn~'c ~ ~ r~ . ^ . ~ ~ 1 ~ I _ ~'l~1 . _ _ ~- ~ ~ . ~ ~ 1 ~ ~i ~ ~ .1 ~1 ~ I I -a ^ . _ _ ~~1 ~ n _~ ~ # d~ ~ ~ I ~8 A.0.2-1 5 ~ Year Deployment In 1 ~8 __ _~ Amen _~ \

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O~k~pn~=g~s #~ Muir DILL ~ ~ ' ~Ea4u~ I', ~ ~L/: Ho, 1~.~ S~*~5~th~_~ ~0 she - _~ ~by~r~ -~as~,.,.~hA~ Chime mess ~ in of ~or~c~ Ba of JQnspoff~ffon /U~nagement Old Ice m~.mode!; .~..,~ Norm Amp ~5~. iRANSPORlA;TlON at ~ : a~ an_ _ _________. _______ _ ~CINF0~4nON _ ACE PROVIDERS ~ ~-I . ear en - saner off ARM VOW . .~.ow WE ~WU~ =L~D~ ADA amoN~G ~ __ NOW CONSOI. , ~_ ~_ . _ ~ ;~ - Re~- 1 __=S SMARrCIRD ~ Ah_ Parr ICE Reprodv<:ed from: National tTS Program Plan Figure A.0.2-2 10 ~ Year Deployment Vision = . I,.. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ :, - , ~ ~ ~ ~l