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A.3 Example ITS Communication Designs and Costs This section win present He following: rrs Communication Infrastructure Cost Estimating Example llS Communication System Designs and Costs A.3.1 ITS Communication Infrastructure Cost Estimating Communication infrastructure costs are a function of many vanables including: Medium type; Terminals employed; Geography of ITS services coverage area including size and character~shcs; Communication architecture Rat defines redundant fault tolerant requirements, multiplexing employed, interfaces, standards, etc.; Topology of communication network`; and Numbers of ITS sensors, signs, cameras, etc., and their locations and communication loads. Communication medicine are generally classified as wire, fiber, and wireless. AR Wee require terminals. Wire and fiber require He instaBabon of a cable plant Hat Interconnects terminals and the acquisition of terminal sites and cable plant nght-of-way. Wireless requires the installation of terminals and acquisition of terminal sites. A.3.~.1 Fiber and TWP Cabie Plant Costs Although exact installation requirements and procedures are different, material arid installation costs for TWP and fiber are comparable. Current Single Mode Fiber Optic (SMFO) and Twisted Wire Pair (CLIP) cable costs are comparable, while Multimode Fiber Optic (MOO) cable is more expensive. L;wCHRP\Phase2~pt ~NCHRP3-51 Phase2FmalReport A3-1

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llS applications typically employ several cable plant instigation methods: cable in conduit, aerial on existing poles, direct bury, or cable in conduit under concrete (lack and horn r~nir~i v -_ a, a. The list of parameters for estimating installed cable plant costs is extensive. We win present cost models based on representative ITS Installations. The civil construction costs can vary widely, Bus these cost models must be adjusted as appropriate to actual installation requirements. Material and ~nstaBabon costs for fiber cable are presented in Tables A.3.~.~-la and A3.~.~- Ib. Typical rRs instaHed fiber cost profiles are presented in Table A3.~.~-2. The cost of 50 pair, 24 gauge, direct bury, aluminum shield, foam skin insulation TWP cable is approximately $.615Ifoot in early 1996. The cost should be adjusted as necessary for the following factors. I. Solid tougher insulation (add approximately 18%) over lighter foam skin insulation; 2. Number of pairs in Be cable 12 pair 35% 25 pair 60% 50 pair 100% 100 pair 185% 200 pair 350% 3. If steel shield is provided for rodent protection in direct bury inst~llabons (add approximately ~X%) 4. Air core suitable for aenal (-5%) or fined cable that withstands water penetration as requiem In direct bury ~nstalIabons and others 5. The current price of copper 6. The gauge of wire AS typically employs 24, 22, or 19 AWG TWP). An approximate gauge versus cost truth 24 AWG as base is: L:`Ncs~Ph ~NCHRP 3-51 Phase 2 Fmal Report A3-2

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26 AWG 75% 24 AWG 100% 22 AWG 150% 1 9 AWG These approximations vary th pair count of cable, but provide useful planning estimates. Other TWP installation costs are similar to comparable fiber costs. Typical ITS TWP material and installation costs are given in Table A.3.~.~-3. A.3.~.2 Typical ITS Communication Terminal Costs Communication terminals provide Me physical Interfaces to We comic cation medium and convert the video, voice, or data signal to We appropriate optical (fiber), RF (wireless), or electrical (wire) signal for transmission on the medium. Often additional functions are integrated into terminals such as multiplexing, routing, brouting, etc., which increases terminal costs. A.3.1.2.1 TWP Terminal Costs TWP terminals include: modems, him bit-rate Digital Subscnber Lines (HDSL), and Asymmetrical Digital Subscnber Line (ADSL). T} digital subscriber lines are applicable, but not being instaBed in new installation since HDSL has lower cost ~nstaBation requirements and ability to work on exposing telephone cable plants wad minimal rework. Table A.3.~.2.~-! presents an overview of TWP terminal costs For convenience, repeaterIess distances and bit rates are included In He table. A.3.l,2.2 Fiber TerminaICosts Fiber terminals consist of lower speed transceiver Interfaced and him speed SONET multiplexer interfaces. c.\NCHRP~Phasc2rp~\ NCHRP3-51 Phase2F~naIReport A3-6

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Table A.3.~2.~1 TWP Terminal Costs Modems Multidrop Model 400 Model 404 Typical Proprietary FSK V.29 Dialup or Private Point- to-Point V.32 V.322 his V.342 bits . Bit Rate RepeaterIess Number of (bits per secondJ Distance Typical Cost Wires Required Interhee 1200 7 - 10 miles $135 2 or 4 wire EIA 232 2400 7 - 10 miles $215 2 or 4 wire EIA 232 9600 5 - 7 miles $315 2 or 4 wire EIA 232 9600 5 - 7 miles $250 2 or 4 wire EIA 232 Up to 9600 3 - 5 miles $395 2 or 4 wire EIA 232 Up to 19,200 3 - 5 miles $150 2 or 4 wire EIA 232 to 28,800 ~ 3-5 miles ~ $250 ~ 2 or4 wire 1 E \232 1,544,000 112-18,000 1 $ ,000 14 wire 24 A W G DS-1 full duplex feet 6,200,000 $5,000- 2 wire 24 A W G 4-DS-1 64,000 9-12,000 feet $1 O,Ooo 1 -OS-O T1 Technologies HDSL2 ADSL2 'Extended Temperature Range Typically (-34, 74 C) 20-50 C Temperature Range, Extended temperature range should be available as technology matures / / L:\NCH0Phase2.rpt ~N~3-51 P~e2F~Re"n ~-8

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The costs for low speed terminals (or transceivers) using ELA 2327422/485, v.2l, v.35, and similar interfaces are presented in Table A.3.~.2.2-~. The bit rates supported by these devices are typically defined by Me interface (e.g., EIA 232, 0 to 38.4 Icpbs). The optical transceiver alla fiber cable are inherently capable of supporting much higher bit rates. Additionally, few standards exist for Me optical interface so that multivendor interoperability requires careful procurement specifications. SONET is the only fiber standard that defines this optical interface and supports multivendor interoperability. Many options exist for higher speed fiber terminals for Me T! digital hierarchy (e.g., DS-O, DS- I, DS-3, etc.) and SONET (e.g., OC-l, OC-3, OC4S, etc.~. We will present cost figures for terminal configurations representadve of ITS requirements. Due to emerging trends, it appears Mat SONET terminals offer the most cost-effective solutions and the following benefits: 1. Defined optical interface standards Mat support multivendor interoperability procurements; 2. Support for cost-effective multiplexer drop-and-add interfaces for lower speed interfaces at terminals; and 3. Support for many popular ITS lower speed interfaces including DS-O, DS-l, DS-3 interfaces, rate interfaces such as ElA-232/422, v.35, etc., and many LAN interfaces. The cost elements for higher speed fiber tenn~nals typically consist of: I. Standard equipment rack (i.e., 19" rack) and power supply, often wig optional redundancy, etc.~; Various optional configurations of SONET fiber transceivers (e.g., fault tolerate or not, transmit power for vanable link distances, venous receiver options, MMFO or SMFO option, etc.~; and 3. Interface cards for lower rate add/drop interfaces. c;\NCHRP\Phase:.~pr\ NCHRP3-51 Phase2F~nalReport A3-9

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l Table A.3.~.2.2-2 presents typical costs for these elements. Table A.3.~.2.2-3 presents Me cost for a typical ITS OC-! communication mode configuration. A,3.t,2.3 ITS Wireless Terminals Wireless has many advantages for ITS communication links. Up to the maximum repeateriess distance, Me cost of a wireless link is constant: the cost of two terminals for each end of the link. Microwave and spread spectrum technologies offer very compatible features for ITS. Table A.3.~.2.3-1 presents microwave link distances, frequency bands, ~nterfaces/bit rates, and representative costs. Spread spectrum radios are operated in the unlicensed ISM radio bands (see Section A.~.3.4~. Antennae are generally restricted to those supplied by the manufacturers to ensure compliance with FCC regulations. Thus, most spread spectrum radios include antenna and radio in the price. These unlicensed bands are in microwave bands so that line-of-sight propagation is dominant. FCC rules allow omni directional antennae and higher gain directional antennae. Thus, spread spectrum may serve point-to-point covering longer distances or multipoint areas covering shorter distances. For ITS, spread spectrum products are available that offer self configuring networks web software Mat automatically configures a network upon ~nstaNation and is suitable for communication for distributed ITS-related systems. Table A.3.~.2.3-2 presents a cost matrix summary of spread spectrum radio tenrunal costs. ~WCH~Phase:.rp`\ NCHRP3-51 Phase2F~nalReport A3-11

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