Cover Image

Not for Sale



View/Hide Left Panel
Click for next page ( 399


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 398
A.3.2 Example ITS Communication System Design and Costs This section win present representative rrs systems, develop communication system architectures, topologies, and designs; select communication mediums; and develop cost estunation models. These win be based on the general characteristics of advanced ITS-related systems currently deployed to define realistic geographic areas, ITS-related device types and numbers, and kink distances. Examples win be developed for urban, suburban, metropolitan, and rural systems. Table A3.2-1 presents the generic characteristics of ITS systems for which these examples will be developed. The most difficult and vanable ITS communication cost elements to estimate are the civil and construction costs to install the interconnecting infrastructure These costs have many variables that include: - Local cons~uchon practices and labor costs; Terrain and soil charactenstics; Construction requirements: direct busy, jack-and-bore under concrete, conduit, etc; Intervening roads, bndges, buildings, etc.; and Suitable existing infrastructure: conduit, poles, tunnels, etc. Thus, He examples should reasonably represent normal costs, but must be adjusted to account for many vanable local factors. As will be evident in He designs, CCI,V video is a significant factor in emerging lids communication infrastructure design. CCTV cameras have an analog baDdw~d~ of more than 6 MHz, uncompressed digital bit rate of more Han 45 Mbps, and acceptable compressed fuB- modon video bit rate of 3 to 6 Mbps employing modon JPEG or MPEG compression standards. The cost of video encoders in late 1995 remains him ($5,000 - 10,000 per channel per end); analog video switching is also expensive. The example designs have been developed u id compressed digital video for the following reasons: ~:~NCHRP`Ph~2~prs NCHRP 3-51 Phase 2 Final Report A3-16

OCR for page 398
In An - ~ - i. cad an cO ~- 9 ~ _ ~ ~ Cal _ - 1^ - CD _ -~ ~ - ~ _ _ _ _ O ~ 0 Cal -~ _ C\l _____ CO ~ C') ~- _ _ ~ _ Cal Cal 0 _ _ _ _ _ CM CO O _ ~ _ _ Cal ~- ~ ~ E E E ' on' ID 3 = ~ 0 0 ~ ~ ~ unit .~ O ~ w ~ . 0 D O o U) C, ~ ~ (D i O on -_" O cad ' |; - E E S cn A: cr Cal Oo ' o o ~ - _ =: == { - cn E ~ . ,o _ CM o ~ _ ~ CO ~ CO C\L _ CU C~ 0 ; ~ _ C~ CD-O _ C~ ~ _ ~ O - CO _ C~ C~ 0 C~ _ ~ _ C~ . _ ~ _ Co >, a) ~ ~ ~ C ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ CD_ ~ o ~: ~ C, _ o_ CD ~D CO Q ' ~8 iL~ ~ _ 0~o o U) C~ S ~ ,. ~ ~ 3 C' o C~ ,1- O IL 8 o CO C~ Uc s Ce os '3 _ Q <~) o Q 0'(, 0 `0~ C 'nt 0 co ~D o, ~ ~ ~ ~= ~ ,~ I.L ~ ~ O ~ ~ ~ u' 'e ~ ~ - ~ - - cO - - 0 c~ u) cO ~ ~ - - - - c~ c~ cD - - -= o _ 0-C\8 O O . ~D 3 a) .> ~n O L5x' 2 2 O cI5 (D cn ~.m o ~ Q C, ~CLO cn.~ 3.t _ O ~ (D ._ _ ~ 3 ~ O 8 t,8 O ~ O ._ _ -: 3 _ ~Q s . - z ~o - ~C

OCR for page 398
Due to emerging digital video standards and supporting FCC activities, He cost of digital compression components, equipment, and systems will decrease. Future designs will be Be most cost-effective wad digital video; Digital video ,i' s more cost-effectively switched in Me TOC; Digital video can be transmitted over long distances win essentially no degradation; Compressed digital video can be transmitted and switched using equipment which conforms to open, weB established communication standards (e.g. TI, SONET, etch; Digital video is easily addressed to multiple desdnabons, supporting Be integration goals of ITS; and Eventually, video wall be cost-effec~vely digitized at Be CCTV camera By employing equipment based on open standards, obsolescence of deployed equipment will be minimized, since new equipment using rapidly advancing technology will generally adhere to standards or provide for backward compatibility. A.3.2.1 Urban tTS Systems Urban systems installed in the central business district (CBD) and adjacent areas of major cities must accommodate the following characteristics: The streets layouts are often in a and system; Freeways typically surround the CBD and extend to metropolitan freeways; The typical urban city block is 500-1000 feet by 500-1000 feet; Most CBD intersections are equipped win traffic lights; adjacent area intersections are more sparsely equipped; u`NCHRP\Phase:.rp~\ NCHRP 3-51 Phase 2 Final Report A3-18

OCR for page 398
Traffic controllers are implemented with microprocessors; they are equipped wig loops for traffic actuation or, on command, Hey can operate on Time-of-Day (TOD) timing plans; Most of these existing traffic control systems (or signal systems) are supported by a communication system for coordinated traffic control; These urban areas are extensively concrete, so that new construction of wire and fiber cable plants usually requires expensive jack and bore installations; and TOCs are operated by the city and typically are PC or workstation based. Emerging urban US communications requirements vim include: Video surveillance, especially for sports and other special events in downtown arenas; The loops of intersection controllers wiB be used for measuring traffic flow and accumulating statistics. Additional loops, or equivalent technology, will be added along arsenals to better detect and measure traffic conditions; Coordination with other area ATMS systems, such as Freeway Management, over maffic control systems, etc., Mat require communications; More advanced traffic management capabilities, such as adaptive traffic control (e.g., SCOOT, SCATS); requ~nng expanded communication capabilities; Communication interfaces to over ITS services such as ATIS, transit, and emergency services; and Video fingerprinting, for vehicle tracking and specific identification of vehicles (such as probe vehicle). L:\NCHRP\Phase2.rpt\ NCHRP3-51 Phase2F'nalReport A3-19

OCR for page 398
A.3.2.1.1 Example Urban System Design A generic urban map is depicted in Figure A.3.2.~.~-1 and has We following characteristics: It covers a 3.5 mile by 3.5 mile area; The CBD is in the center and is 2.5 miles by 2.5 miles; Freeways cross Me CBD and extend out to suburbs and interstate highways; and Blocks in the area are generally 600 by 600 feet, street center to street center with some larger blocks generally in the outer area. The ITS system to be installed wall have the following charactenshcs: The area will be equipped wad 600 controllers, 60 CCTV cameras, and 20 VMS. The equipment count per quadrant is as presented in Table A.3.2.~.~-~. 400 of the 600 existing controller cabinets can be retrofitted and employed. An arrangement with the local telephone company allows fiber installation in existing conduit except for the SE quadrant of Me CBD. Spread spectrum radio win be employed In this SE quadrant to reduce commun~cabon infrastructure construction costs which would be $25-30 per foot in this quadrant for jack and bore construction. The city has employed T~me-of-Day (TOD) control with some loop-actuated control. Creasing traffic and daily var~abons warrant more responsive traffic coordination. A new TOC will be located In Be northwest Dart of Be CBD. lost outside Be freeways. , ., The system will be capable of emergency or backup operation from Be EMS TOC operated by the state DOT. The state DOT is 3 to 4 miles norm of the urban TOC with nght-of-way along tile freeway suitable for direct bury fiber installation along bow sides of the freeway. L.\NCHRP\Phasc2.rpl\ NCHRP3-51 Phase2FmalReport A3-20

OCR for page 398
+ ~5 c) c' a' Q _ 5 111 .a 11 En J up ~ of Oo J U) _ . 0 1- - 1U) At LL Z o cn '' beg O (D X ~0 o Cut) CO _ C) . i r n Cut (A U) V] iii - L~ V - :~1 lr) 1 Cat 1 ~ 0 _` - Cat O llJ Em. I z Z ~ oo . 11 11 LLJ C, ~ o 1 Z , Y' Z_ - zle a -` ~ a o 1 - 0 ' me Y en. ma m, I oh a,~ 1_ z m

OCR for page 398
Q cn = C~ ~E o C5 ~c) a) Q U) Q QQ Q ~ O c o e' CO C~ U~ ( -C~ CO C~ Q Q O .. C~ ~N ~ Co ~ LLl 'C, C~ _ ~1 ~. cn . u, a, {D a, _ ~-E oo ~8 g oo _ a) ~0 Q - Q Q D Q Q Q Q Q 53 Q 0 - 0 O `0 O `0 o C o o C o o C o ~ {D CO d. CD CD d. a' d. ~0 ~ a) c ~ o~ ~ mo ~ mo ~ m~ CM -CM CM -C ~CM -C~ N ~ ~ N ~ -~ ~ N ILI C~ C~1 llJ llJ c~ C~1 Ll] IU u ~ 111 I ggm ~ a, cn u, _ cn cn v, ce _ ~ cn cn cn co Q Q Q QQ ` ~QQ QQ ~= Q C' Q" QQ ~= Q O O O C O O O O C O O O O O O O O oO C ~ O 0 0~ ~ C\l O O CO C~ O CD ~ O C': CS, O t-O O CZ IS) O ~ ~ 1` LO O CO 0 _ ~ CtS ~ U, ctS ~ ~ Lt, C\l ~ COO COo S ~0 CD ~ S ~cn O O C ~O U, ~O U, {D g C ~ ~ ~ 3 e E = ~ E O ~ E .m ~.0 ~ 0 - z z a' g 0 ~ o 0 co ~ Q Q Q Q Q Q O O O O O O O O O _ _ . ~ O CM 1` 0 0, U~ C~- - 0 Q Q O O O _ 0 O CO 0 _ ~n o C. a' o Q - ~ - ~ c ~ cO .. v cD o c~ o c~ ~ ~ o 0 ce Cl) - ~ o ~ o ~ cO ts ~ ~ - o 52 , O ~ 'o - c~ v z ~o - ~c

OCR for page 398
Real-time traffic data must be provided to a regional ATIS system Mat is In development to provide area-wide one-stop traffic information service to citizens. This system is located in the state DOT. The communication system design and topology is overIayed on We map (refer back to Figure A.3.2.~.~-~) and consists of a SONET OC-3 backbone with 4 nodes located on the 4 corners of the CBD. CCTV video is transmitted as analog from the field camera equipment cabinets to these nodes, where it is digitized into dual DS-1 circuits. The camera control is on an ElA-232 at 9600 bps. The system is designed with analog video local links because current video encoder technology cannot cost-effectively support the video encoder at He camera or camera equipment cabinet. The cost trend, however, is down and the digitized compressed video signal is needed for switching/transm~ssion to multiple sites and to maintain video quality for long distance transmission to support emerging ITS goals of integrated video data sharing. The pertinent features of the design are as follows: A SONET OC-3, fault tolerant, counter rotating ring fiber backbone is employed wad 4 mul~tiplexers, one in each quadrant, interfacing to lower-speed local loops extending to individual field devices in each quadrant. . Analog video is employed from camera location to SONET node. Video dig~tizabon is accomplished at each node onto 2 DS-1 circuits or 3.088 Mbps. Current video compression technology is most cost effective in 16 video channel units at about $16,000 ($1000 per channel) per end (compression unit at node; decompression unit at TOC, or over location). Cost trends will decrease Me per channel cost and emerging new semiconductor products win permit moving the video CODEC to Me camera location. Analog video transmitters and receivers are employed at field camera locations and at SONET nodes, wig integrated EL\-232, 9600 bps, full duplex, transceivers for camera control that multiplex Me one way video and 2-way data on a single SMFO channel. Figure A.3.2.~.~-2 is a block diagram of the video and data local links. The VMS signs and traffic controllers are equipped win SMFO links win 9600 bps, ELA- 232 circuits employing drop-and-insert transceivers supporting fault tolerant counter rotating L;`NCHRP`Phase2.~prx ~ NCHRP 3-51 Phase 2 Fmal Report A3-23

OCR for page 398
~ - l As n' As By ~ llJ Q. 141 1~ CY 1~ Q O Q t:' > ty Z C: O ~ O ~ I Cot I O A: A, LO As - ~: o J Lo O I m Cal 0 m _~ ~ T ~ n ~ so \ o cn ---I o Z o ~ , l . ~ to ~ C' ALL so to LLJ ~ one (A C) At: Lo C] o z to L1J 0 m C~ cn I o ~n I1J X ~ r) kJ o ~ CL o U) O ~ Z . e~ <=C) Q: C~ ~ ~LLJ~ cn~ ~n 0~ C) llJ C] o z CY ~D e.- o - - ~- _ - L~ e~ e e C' z ~: Z -C) y ~ Z o O ~: ~ C) O ~ZO ~: o z m J z o c) c' 11 \ - Be mj - s ~: ce c, ~j c. cN y O _ r OCR for page 398
ring operation. Each ring is designed with a node transceiver and up to 10 field devices. This architecture supports future upgrade to higher speeds on We existing cable plant. Redundant SMFO fiber cables win be installed along bow sides of Me nor~-sou~ freeway between the City TOC and Me State FbIS TOC (approximately 4 miles). The path generally permits direct bury tnstaBation approximately $2.50 per foot win 24 fiber cable. The State ~ install the cable and it is not included in Me cost. The cost analysis for this design is presented in Table A.3.2.~.~-2. This communication infrastructure costs approximately $6,845.00 per field node. A.3.2.2 Suburban ITS Systems Suburban systems are typically instaBed in proximity to major cities. Smaller cities have similar characteristics, but wad a surrounding rural environment and fewer surrounding sister jurisdictions and associated infrastructures. Suburban systems have the foRovv~ng characteristics: Suburbs may be residential, commercial, manufacturing, business, or combinations. The street layouts are more random, with major thoroughfares for non-residential travel to shopping areas, business districts, and freeways. Freeways typically are in proximity for access to over metropolitan areas A typical suburban block is approximately 1,000 feet by 1,000 feet, although there is considerable vanability. Suburban intersections are equipped with traffic signals depending on need. Major thoroughfares and freeway access routes are usually equipped. Residential areas are usually not equipped. ~:\NCHRP~Phase:~p~\ NCHRP3-51 Phase2FtnalReport A3-25

OCR for page 398
Table A.3.2.~2 Urban Costs with Spread Spectrum Radios in SE Quadrant Unit price S/ft ~ 104 S 2.50 Fiber total CBD Configuration Shelf and 0~3 interface DS-1 interfaces ElA-232 Interfaces . . each multiplexer Total CBD MuKiDlexers TOO configuration Shelf and OC-1 interface DS-t interfaces EIA-232 Interfaces each multiplexer Total CBD Multiplexers local link fit er for data CBD | 12 fiber SMFO Awe |install outer 112 fiber SMFO cable install l local link fit ers for video 12 fitter SMFO cab e install Spread Sp. Drum radios in SE CBD quand~ ant Radio win EIA-232 Install local link ~ nxeh~ EIA232 . field equips ent conununicaion nodes went Analog video/data transceivers video Encoders at nodes video dens at TOO Equipment ins~tation md test Communication node insertion com interfaces in con~dlercabinents 1 Co Tur~ication lo Controller Costs |Con~ller. cabinet and install Coniroiier, refit eddying cabinet, ~ install 1 VMS costs Sign & con~ller Yideo Carr~as, equip'' ent cabinents Communication Cost per field d ~nce Non-Communication cosi Derfieid device To~ Cost per ffeld device UR~NXISA32112 S20 000.00 S800.00 S400.00 S20,000.00 S800.00 S400.00 Mile a~q. Cir. Lena~ _ _ 0.75 1 ~ Total Local link fiber costs Miles Avg. Unk distance 1 u~ cost S 6,000.00 l S 400.00 1 Total I 1 S 2,000.00 S 2,000 00 S 1.750~00 S 16,000.00 S 16 000.00 1 1 S120,000.00 S7,500.00 S100,000.00 l 1 1 Total I S 65,894.40 IS 158,400.W 1 1 -20,000.00 S 24 Ooo.oo 1 1 S 6,000.00 I S50,000.00 l S20,000.00 S48,000.00 S27,200.00 S95,200.00 S0.65 S2.50 S0.65 S2.50 ter cest S 0.65 S 2.50 S 432,000.00 S 28 800.00 S 210 OOO.oo S 64 000.00 S 64,000.00 S 50.00 S 50.00 St,SOO,OOO.OO 1~OO.OOO.OO To~ Non~renunica~on r ~ ; Grand Total I :T ,l . S 6,845~49 1 ; 4=~= 1 S11,624.90 1

OCR for page 398
Table A.3.2.3.~3a Metropolitan Costs with Fiber in Conduit Backbone Infrastructure IVIFO h condlit 12 for SlMlfO TOC to Node 1 ~2 TOC me Node 3 TOC ~ ~4 TOC ~ Node 5 TOC ~ Node i~ii Contain th Doe 6~ ~ _ - ~UA=13e

OCR for page 398
Table A.3.2.3.~3b Meiropolitan Costs Allernative with 10/~1 MHz Microwave Links to Nodes 1, 2, 3, and 4 UmP~ sm s o.es s o.es S &46 S 0.78 Tobl . . B_ ~ NAwork 1l~ Nod_ 123, ~ld 4. AD lai~ 11 n~ dTC 11G~lzhUa~UrJo 4 S401,1C0.00 1 .I3C8~ Ur44 FIb Is - S~FO 24~rSUFO-bb TOC 1 - No - , d~ct b ~1Sss0 80 TOC ~ - co~ C-llhit 1SS1.1S habll S0.80 TOC 2 - Nor~ dt ~SS0 80 TOC 2 - ~, di~ct by, 1SS1.15 TOC3-No~dmethav SS0; TOC 3 - sou~' C~dt 1sSl.ls hebll S0.80 TOC 4 - No - , amdult 15Sa80 TOC 4 - Soullt d~ct h~Y 1SS1.15 TCIC S. r~ ~ ~ ~ ~S1 1S TOC S. ~t con~lt 2BS1.1S b~bll S0.8C TOC ~S1.1S TOC 6, ~t, conduR ~Sl.lS h~ll S0.8C To~l bcY linlc tbe SONET~ . S2D,000.00 S80Q00 S400.00 _ S3.cmco moo S4C0.00 S1.100.CO s1,1=W S24.000.Go se,ooom S400.00 S,7S0.00 S1G,000.00 S16,0C0.00 uKco~ S7,S00.00 S3,0C0.00 S120,0C0.00 S7~C0.W S1CO,~ 00 Tdel N~n 1 G - nd Tdel | S 1e.~42 1 S 10,370.13 _ SZ7.176.SS , TOC _d Fiald-_- Nc-123,4 ShellandOC-3 hl ~1 DS-1 h ~32 a~232 W ~e ~d~ Total TOC md Fi" 8 TOC and Seld _ ~ - Na Sh It and OC-1 h~ce ~ ~_ _ "ch - _ Tdel TOC and F - d ~ To~b . _ bcal ~nk b~ _ EL&232 _ - 1f~d ~_ 1~nod"~ _ _ 1 ~_i~dnod.6_ r~ 7 hd~ ~d ~un ~ l_ : I _ ~bovk~b_ - n _ ~deo d~ at TC~C _ _ 1 ~i ~ _ _ 20 - hb~ h oor~ ~_ _ 1 _ 1 1~ l _ Ccn~rCoa ~_ _ 1Cd - . ~ and kid" _ Co~, ~DIIt~ng C~t & h~ _ l _ vas~T _ _ 1S~ & ar~r _ V - o C~ eq ~_ ~ ~ _ roc co" | _ l r l 1 ~ b_~ C~Co~ p - - d d. C~ f~d per -~ rOi~i c~c~f~d d ~I Ex1~d Tob S 13.72B0C S esis.OG s 1ss,s42.4c s 17,So32C andh~. S 1,eO4,400.00 s ~,080.00 s e3,3eo.00 s 91,080.00 s s3,3eQoo S sl,oe~co seL3~0.00 Ss1.oso.Go s0,380.00 Ss1.Geo.oo ss3,3eQOO s~,oso.GO s 0,3eo.00 s ~,ocooo s e3,3e0-.Go s meGeo.oo s 63,3eo`00 s 242 880.00 s 1es,seo.00 S7,~7200 1os~s24.Go S 121,440.= S s4,4eo.00 . . S 54,64aGO s 3s,01e~00 - - ~ s 20,G00.00 -s 2s.esooo . s 2.4D0 00 s 48,000.00 s 13,0moo 4s,~0a oo S 4,0mao ~eoo 00 Tabb Tdal S S2B 000.00 S 0,000.GO s- 4,000.00 s 437,smoo S ss'Goo.oo s 9~000.00 s so.oo Loo Tol~l S 2,966,000.00 s I I I Toble 1 1 1 l l ~1 I I S m.s31.eo

OCR for page 398
Fatal accidents attributed to high speed, longer distances, and fatigue are statistically higher per mile driven. Emergency detection and rapid response is a high priority requirement. Very few rural ITS-related systems have been implemented, although studies, operational demonstrations, and tests have been conducted. Emerging rural ITS system features and communications requirements include: Rural TOC operations typically conducted by the nearest FMS TOC and are typically a state DOT operation. FrMS freeways instrumented with loops in each lane, or equivalent technology, to measure the volume and occupancy of traffic and to detect incidents. Although no significant precedents have been established, loops are anticipated to be around entrances and exits and placed perhaps even 3-5 miles, depending on traffic and congestion. Motonst emergency alanns are anticipated to be communicated by cellular phone. CVO vehicles will be equipped with p~vate/commercial communication and automatic vehicle location (AVL) equipment to provide integrated interfaces to public interacting agencies. Coordination with over area AIMS systems, such as Freeway Management, over traffic control systems, etc., Hat require communications. Communication interfaces to over ITS services such as ATIS, transit, etc. An ATIS requirement that will be available to He public via ~ternet, PC with modems, public kiosks, etc. L.~h=~\ NC~3-51 Ph~e2F~Re~n A3~6

OCR for page 398
- ~ - ~ in J - o a) a) to o r' - - T LO o 111 CD `~- coo In o (D N _ In _ O CD _ In . , O 1' l _ LLJ lo 1 =0o _ QZ I moo 111 m a: C) o 3 LO m is C: ~0 -me_ LIZ l ZoOo ~ me_ i_ ___ ~ ZoOo ~. _ - _ o l ~ > c~ r) 0 cn c~ 0 LLJ CO 3 L~ C~ C~ ct 1-~< ~ Nw0 O ~ O~ O _ Z.m C) 35 C~ ~ ~ O _ coc~o LLI CD C~ r cn c~ 1 -~< LLI _ 00 ,__-~ >O O ~ O ~ 0m Z L,J ~ _ ~5 C~ ~r)O _ U) C`l o L~ tD LLJ C~ _ V ,_ _ _ O O O 1- :~ o o -1 _ ~ T o ~C {] > o L~ ~_ c ~a . 1~1 m~g ~_ _ CO a, LLJ C~ tn _ r' z tt7 vo 1- u) J o o _ ~ O C) 1 > o o C~ ct) ~ ~ <: LLJU) OJ - ~ O tn L'J LLI C) 3:, O cn c~ 0 LLI CD 3: <: a~ L1J cn r, Z I Z tn c - 1 ~Z Q I o 1 tY 1 c:, 1 J o ~r z o C) 1' ~: J Q X - G ~1 U ~, N I ~ I kJ I ,' 1 C~ I ~ I

OCR for page 398
A.3.2.4 ~ Example ITS Rura/ System A map of a rural area wig typical llS characteristics is depicted in Figure A3.2.4.~-1 and has the following charactenstics: The area consists of a 300-me interstate freeway with state borders on each end. The traffic on Me freeway consists of approximately 40% CVO traffic of which 60% is through traffic. WIM and border inspection stations are located near the state borders as shown on the map. Three cities are bypassed by He freeway and are located as shown on He map. The center city has been selected at He site of the rural TOC for the northern part of the state. The area has significant tourist traffic, especially during He summer. During the winter, ice, snow, and high winds can create travel problems at isolated locations. Automated weaker stations are to be placed strategically along He route so motorists can be alerted by kiosk terminals and VMS. A Freeway Management System is to be instaDed to provide modem ATMS and ATIS services to the area. Key capabilities are to collect weather data and provide it to motorists, detection incidents, and manage emergency management. The ITS rural FINS to be instaHed has the following charactenstics: Except in the cities, the freeway has en~ances/ex~ts at approximately 5-mile intervals. Four CCTV cameras are to be installed at all entrances/ex~ts and win be positioned to cover bow freeway directions and entrances/ex~ts. Loops are to be placed in all lanes approximately 1/3-mule before and after each entrance/ex~t to measure speed, volume, and counts. The state ugly use the count data for statistical purposes instead of placing alternate counting devices. ~;\NCHRP~Phasez~p~\ NCHRP3-51 Phase2F~nalReport A3-48

OCR for page 398
WIM devices win be employed in the communication network and will replace commercial dial-up lines. Five weaker stations wall be located as shown on He map. The state DOT's legal department has recently ruled that He DOT may initiate a program to trade "nght-of-way" for commun~cadon infrastructure access. The field equipment count is presented in Table A.3.2.4.~-1 and includes composite data loads as well as loads of various geographical areas. Referring back to Figure A3.2.4.~-l, we see He backbone topology overlaid. Two alternative designs will be developed: one win microwave and one web fiber backbone. The system design has He following charactenstics: The backbone communication links win employ redundant circuits down bow sides of the freeway. SONET OC-3 drop/add circuits will be deployed with nodes at miles 30, 90,150, 210, 270. Nodes 3, 4, and 5 will be on one circuit and nodes ~ and 2 on He other circuit. The repeaterIess distance for standard fiber transmitters and receivers over SMFO is approximately 20 miles. Optional, higher-cost, transmitters wad greater transmit power and receivers win better sensitivity will be employed to extend the repeateriess distance to more than 60 miles. This win add an additional cost of approximately $5,300. Each win be equipped with dual DS-1 interfaces for each CCTV camera. The local links will employ drop and repeat SW;O fiber transceivers win a repeateriess distance capability of ~ ~ miles. Spread radio spectrum were considered for the local links, but were more expensive because the controllers are close to He fiber cable. CCTV cameras will emclov dedicated fibers from a node to each camera. Analog video is ~ ~ , employed from camera to node on fiber win a full duplex, EL\-232, 9600 bps camera control channel multiplexed on He same fiber. Redundancy will not be employed on these circuits. L;\NCHRP\Phase2.rprx NCHRP3-51 Phase2F,rIalReport A3-49

OCR for page 398
Table A.3.2.4.~-1 Rural Field Count and Data Load Analysis Count --b] m~ ~ ~ Total Composite CClV Camera Video673.09E+06206,896,000 Control 9.60E+03643,200 controllers134960128,64 Vl\/IS10960096,00 weather stations4960038,400 Total 207,763,840 Node 1 CCTV Camera Video133.09E+0640,144,000 Control 9.60E+03124,800 controllers2696024,960 VMS2960019,200 weather station196009,600 Total 40,322,56 Node2 CClV Camera Video143.09E+0643,232,000 Control 9.60E+03134,400 controllers2896026,880 VMS2960019,200 weather station196009,600 Total 43,422,08 Node 3 CClV Camera Video143.09E+0643,232,000 Control 9.60E+03134,400 controllers2896026,880 VMS2960019,200 Total 43,412,480 Node4 CClV Camera Video143.09E+0643,232,000 Control 9.60E+03134,400 controllers2896026,880 VNIS2960019,200 weather station196009,600 Total 43,422,080 Node 5 CCTV Camera Video123.09E+0637,056,000 Control 9.60E+03115,200 controllers2496023,040 VMS2960019,200 weather station196009,600 Total 37,223,040 ~_ Multiplexing Analysis Total Load Nodes 1 and 2 CCTV Camera Controllers - Totals 83,376,000 368,640 83.744.640 Total Load Nodes 3, 4, 5 CCTV Camera123,520,000 Controllers537,600 Totals124,057,600 RURAL.XI~S A32411 i.'. \

OCR for page 398
The entire freeway system has right-of-way suitable for direct bury fiber installation. A 24- fiber SMFO cable will be employed. This cable win provide fiber for the backbone and the video and controller local links. Table A.3.2.4.~-2 presents an analysis of the fiber cable count requirements. The cost analysis for this design is presented in Table A.3.2.4.~-3. The communications infrastructure win cost approximately $32,104 per field node. It should be noted that $27,!12 of this is for fiber installation and is the dominant cost element. Rural EMS systems are excellent candidates for public/pr~vate partnerships trading nght-of-way for fiber infrastructure. This is due to Me low density of field devices along the freeway. It should be noted however, Mat Me cost of this example system would be much more if the fiber cable plant could not be employed for the local links with access at the required locations. ~:`NCHRP`Phasc2.rprx NCHRP3-51 Phase2FinalReport A3-51

OCR for page 398
Table A.3.2.4.~-2 Rural Fiber Count Analysis Weather station . Controller/ Node Direction |VMS |Fibers(1) | Cameras Fibers |E ackbone(2) |] otal fibers required 1 east 1 14 4 7 7 1 2 ~13 west ~ 5 4 6 6 10 2 east 16 4 7 7 2 13 west 1 15 4 7 7 1 2 1 13 3 east 15 4 7 7 2 13 west 15 4 7 7 2 13 4 east 15 4 7 7 2 13 west 16 4 7 7 2 13 5 east 13 4 6 6 10 west ~14 4 ~6 6 ~2 ~12 (1 ) Assuming 10 drop and repeats per circuit with 2 fibers (full duplex) each (2) 2 Fiber for full duplex counter rotating rings on each side of the freeway R~AL.XLS A32412

OCR for page 398
Table A.3.2.4.~-3 Rural Costs miles _ Bacmone SMFO in conduitquan6b _ 24 fiber SMFO cable600 . Direct bury fiber total _ SONET Muffipl.3xers_ Fleld Mulffplexers - Nodes 1,2,3, ~ c^ Shelf and OC 3 interface DS 1 in~s EIA-232 In~aces ~ great 3r repeaterless fiber Tx/Rx . each mulff~exer . T-_ . Unit pnce sn S1.04 S0.80 S1.84 Total S20,000.00 S800.00 S400.00 S5,300.00 - Nodes 1 and 5 could be config ~red wi~ few 3r DS-1 inh3~aces TOC Multiplexers -for Nodes 1 and 2 SW and OC-3 interface 1 DS 1 in~laces 54 EIA-232 Interfaces 7 ~er repeater ess fiber T~Rx 1 each multiplexer Tota Multi~exer 1 TOC MulI~exers - for Nodes 3, 4, and 5 Shetf and 0~3 interh~ce DS 1 in~rracss i . IA-232 In~s . ~ repesterless fiber TxlRx sach muffiDlexer Total Muliipl~r . Multplexi Totals . ng .F'ber EIA-232 SMFO Trar#ceivers |At Coniinunication Nodes 7At con~ler cabinents 7instal1 spread spacb~m radios V-30 Com' 1unica~don ~quiprnent Analog videoldata transceivers ~ndeo Encodes at nodes ~ndeo damdem at TOC Equipment ~ nstallaffon and test Communicaffon node ir~talla~on com. inte~s in con~ller cabinenis Communicabon Inhasbu~ Con~ler Costs ICon=Uer cabin" and ins~ll Contrdler, re~ofit e~ng cabinet, & install VMS cos~ I 7Sign & controller deo Camera, equipment cabinet, Communicabon Cost per field device . Non~comm~caffon Cost per field device Total cost per field device | RURAIJO5 A32413 S20,000.00 S800.00 ; S400.00 ; S5,300.00 S20,000.00 S800.00 S400.00~ S5,300.00 S1 100.00 S1,100.00 S200.00 S1 750.00 S16,000.00 S16,000.00 unit cost S7,500.00 S3,000.00 S120,000.00 S7,500.00 S100 000.00 Tot~ Non~ricabon Grand Total S 32 018.23 S 7,965.12 S39,983.35

OCR for page 398