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rate and format of He codec. For example, a CODEC may provide a single video channel at a dual DS-1 rate (3.088 Mbps), or 16 channels at DS-3 (44.736 Mbps). Currently, He standardized test equipment to perform checks and diagnostics on dignitary compressed video is available for Motion Picture Experts Group (MPEG) 1 & 2. Test equipment for other compression aIgonthms like Motion-Ioint Photographics Expert Group (IPEG) and Vector Horace are not yet readily available. Service agreements for video compression equipment should be provided for depot-level repair of He unit by the manufacturer. Video test equipment should include: Signal generator with multi-burst and color bars Waveform monitor; and Portable signal generator. Table A.4.5-1 provides current cost information and areas of applications for the TMDE indicated. A.4.6 Life Cycle Cost Estimating AN Life Cycle Cost (LCC) estimates deal with the total cost to procure/install, plus the cost to Operate a system for some meaningful time period. The LCC concept is illustrated in Figure A.4.6-~. Increasingly, private and public organizations are using this method to evaluate and select from system implementation, operational, and maintenance alternatives. Although often difficult to creditably quantify, organizations increasingly are including He operation benefits (cost savings and value added) in the LCC of alternative implementations. The reason for using LCC is that yearly operational costs can easily exceed 10-20% of initial system acquisition costs. Alternatives that promote operational productivity and best achieve operational benefits frequently are the most cost-effective, even if initial acquisition costs are greater. A communication system serves He broader operational requirements of He ITS-related systems Integrated which will have operational costs. Over related costs include facilities, vehicles, etc. Our focus will be on Be direct communication system operating costs. u~NC~Phasc:.rp~\ NCHRP 3-51 Phase 2 Few Report A4-36

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Table A4.~1 TOME Current Cost and Application (Page 10f 2) Mast Equipment Nomenclature General Purpose Bench Test Equipment Survel71ance video . Jest Equipment Backbone Fber Plant Installation & Test On-premises fiber Plant Inst~a~don & Test MAN & Feed Optical Comn7unica~ons _ Optical L`W Communications Mainframe Optical Time Domain Reflectometer X X ortable Optical Time Domain Reflectometer Optical Light Source (LASER) 850 nm Optical Light Source (LASER) 1310 nm ptical Light Source (LASER) 1550 nm Optical Light Source (LASER) 7SO nm Optical Light Source (LED) 1350 nm Optical Light Source (LED) 1300 rim X X X ~ Optical Light Source (LED) 1300/1550 nm Optical Source, White Light ptical Power Meter Visual Fault Indicator Return Loss Test Set Fusion Splicers Optical Spectrum Analyzer Chromatic Dispersion Test Sets Variable Optical Attenuator O/E Converters Portable Ethernet Transceiver/Tester Bandwidth Test Set SONET/SDH Maintenance Test Set SONET/SDH Jitter Analyzer SONET STS-1 Test Set itter and Eye-Diagram Analyzer ATMlBroadband ISDN Test Systems ATM Protocol Analyzer SS7 Signaling Test Set FDDI Test Set Twisted Pair Wire Test Set WAN Protocol Analyzers DS-1 ATM Hand Held Tester DS-1 Hand Held Tester DS-3 ATM Hand Held Tester X x l x 1 X X X X OC-3 ATM Single Mode Hand Held Tester Digital Transmission Tester Telecom/Datacom Analyzer . PDH/SDHIATM Modular Transmission Test Sets 1 T1/Datacom Tester | Bit Error Rate Tester (BERT) Analog Multimeter X Digital Multimeter X Time Domain Reflectometer Cable Testers I X I 1 Ground Resistance Testers I X Insulation Resistance Testers Analog Non-Storage Oscilloscope Analog Storage Oscilloscope Hand Held Digital Oscilloscope Digital Storage Oscilloscope FunctionlSweep Generators Signal Generators (Radio Frequency) , ,- Power Meter (Radio Frequency) ~v Frequency Counters Circuit Breaker Test Sets Phase Angle Meters Power Line Disturbance Analyzers MODEM Test Set EthernetlToken Ring LAN Analyzer Signal - to - Noise (S/N)land Distortion SINAD) Meter TMD~.XLS X x x ~1 1 ~I

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Table A4.~1 TDME Current Cost and Application (Page 10f 2) Backbone Copper P/ant Installation & Jest On-premises ~ MAN & Feld Copper f~lant ~ W*eline Instalhffon & Test Communications . Copper-based LAN Cornrnunications AM/FM Radio Senriws Microwave Unk Ins=Jlation & Communica~ons Sproad Spec~um Link Installa~on & Communica~ons Personal Communica~dons Ser~ices (CeIIular) Test Equipment Cost Range fi'n Ss) . . _ X X X X . XX X x x 1 x ~lz,6eo - z2,800 9,213-13,995 1 x x x x x ~ : . 1 X x x x . . X X X X r _ x Xx 1 - x x i- 1 1 x 1 1 x ~x ~x L x | 1 x I i x 1 1 - _ x x _ 4,500- 15,995 690 1 1,255 - 1 380 1 1,690 690 695 - 995 795 - 995 1 995 345 795 - 4,159 745 - 9,425 13 450 33,990 - 27,285 36,000 - 48,000 1,795 - 8,470 35000- 53,000 29,000- 37,000 7,650- 25,000 48,500 > 50 ooo . 1 1 1 1 , 17,250- 28,000 l ! 1 18,000- 24,599 3,800- 6,500 5,000 - 25,000 6,995- 10,000 4,075- 5,995 4599 - 6,995 7299- 10,000 1 x 1 > 70,000 6,950- 16,000 5,995-78,000 50- 125 89- 1,100 2,995 - 3,805 ! x ~5,300 - 8,300 1 1 1 2,275 3,495 I 1 1 1,850-5,000 x 1 X 1 x 1 1 9,950 - 450 x 1 x ~1 1,995-1,695 x ! X 1 1 25,400 - 2,550 x 1 x 1 x 1 67,650- 1,ooo X Xx X 2,400 3i,000 ! ~11,475 - 20,150 x x 1 575 4 200 1 - 1 , x x X x x ~ 6,500- 32,000 4,825 - 8,000

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Table A.4.~1 TOME Current Cost and Application (Page 20f 2) l ! l On-premises I General Purpose Backbone Fiber fiber Plant I Bench Test Sunre'71ance Video Plant Installation Installation & ':TestEqu~pmentNomencl~re I Equ~pn~nt Jest Equipment & Test Jest _ __ Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) X Indicator Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) DigitallAnalog Cellular Test Set Analog Cellular Test Set . Capacitance Meter and Glass Probe . Spectrum Analyzer X Signature Analyzer | I . Prom Programmer | Prom Programmer Control | Radio Communications Test Sets I X . Digital Microwave Communications Test Sets . Digital Transmission/ Communications Analyzer Cable Locators/Fault Finders . Multipath Fade Simulator l Colorimeters/Photometers I X i X NTSC Automatic Video Measurement Set l Waveform MonitorslVectorscopes ~X Hand Held Waveform Mon~torsNectorscopes . . X NTSC Digital/Analog Test Pattern Generator _ . Hand Held Test Pattern Generator X MAN & Field Optical Communications Optical LAN Commun;w~ons

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Table A.4.~1 TOME Current Cost and Application (Page 20f 2) Beckbone I Copper Plan2 Or~prem~ses MAN & Feld Copper-based lUcrowaw Link Insta/ht;on & Copper Plant WireJ'ne L4N AM/FM Radio lnstalb~don & Test Installation & Test Commm7~cabons ~ Co/~=n~nicabons Sen~s Con7municobons _ . l l ~ X X X - T T ~ ~ ~X . X ~X X Spr~d Spectrum iink Installa~on & Communications Personal Communica~ons Sennces {CellularJ Test Equipment Cost Range ~n $s, X 500 - 350 X 1 0,000 4,800 100 21,000 - 39,800 1,100 - 8,100 350 - 3,000 1,180 20,000 - 13,000 X X X == X x r x ~: ~1 ' 1 1 ~I . 31,000 - 62,000 9,000 ~ 60,000 5,700 - 7,400 ~1,840 - 1,450 | 20,930 - 16,500 1 1 1,095- 1,195 4,995 1,795 - 6,750 1,995 - 2,455 1 5,250 - 9,625 T 895 - 1,475

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Our LCC examples win focus on the cost benefits of modern communication systems and equipment for rRs applications and, in particular, will focus tradeoffs on: Fault tolerance design; and High reliability equipment (approximately 50,000 hours MTBF). We win employ We LCC methodologies presented in reference 10, Value Engineering in the Construction Industry, 3rd edition, Alphonse I. DeD'Isola, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1982. We win simplify this matenal slightly for a more tractable presentation. In particular, we will not include the dine value of money and win only present parameters that are significant influences. To provide reasonably comprehensible discussion, our focus win be on a SONET fiber backbone communication networks. An important parameter of a system is its availability, or He percent of time Mat the system is operational ("up"~. Availability is often stated as a percentage (%) of hours or minutes per year that the system is up. Availability, MIBF and M1~, is related by: Availability (%) = MTBF MIBF+Ml-lK Individuals use different assumptions for inclusion of downtime (for reasons over Man failures, such as downtime for preventive maintenance, system (re~configurations, etc. Using these definitions, MOOR is denoted as down (or unavailable) time and ~BF is denoted as up (or available) time. Table A.4.6-! depicts the relationship between Availability (AV%), MIBF, and MT~ (or equivalent availability [AV%], uptime, and downtime). The two columns farthest right present He yearly available hours and unavailable hours for the AV% of column one. ,.~NCHRPPhase2~p~\ NCHRP3-51 Phase2Fn~Report A4~0

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J Table A.4.6~1 MTBF(hours) versus M1TR (hours) and Availability (AV /0} | AV % | MTTR 1 hr | 2 hr 1 4 hr| 8 hr| Yearly Ho firs | Yearly Hours Available Unavailable =8760 hr/yr) 900/09 hr 18 hr36 hr 72 hi 7884 876 99o/o99 hr 198 hr396 hr 992 hi 8672 88 99.9/0999 hr 1,998 hr3,996 hr 7,992 hr 8751 9 99.98%4 999 hr 9 998 hr19 996 hr 39 992 hi 8758 ~~~ 99.99/09,999 hr 19,998 hr39,996 hr 79,992 hi 8759 1 As MTTR increases and availability increases toward a common industry goal of approximately 99.98%, the required MTBF to support the availability becomes significant. As presented in Table A.4.3-3, the MTBFs of Table A.4.6-! are the subsystem MTBFs. Thus, the individual component MTBFs must be appropriately higher to achieve the subsystem and total system goals. To illustrate, consider the SONET backbone configurations presented in Figure A.4.6-2 Mat have a linear geographic layout. This network architecture has Be following characteristics: The SONET terminals are approximately 5 miles apart, as typical of many current Freeway Management Systems. A typical quoted industry MTBF for SONET equipment is approximately 45,000 hours. The typical on-site M=R for this equipment is less Man 1 hour. We vv~11 assume ~at, on average, an additional 3 hours maintenance is required for scheduling, travel, spare parts access, etc., for a total average 4-hour MUIR. The manufacturer warranty is for 5 years, wig one~ay overnight shipment of replacements from Be supplier. The warranty may be extended beyond 5 years for I% of purchase price per year. We will use a generally quoted industry figure of 4.5 fiber failures/year/IOOO miles of fiber and average of 4.5-hour MOOR. This equates to an MTBF of approximately 1,946,667 hours/mile of fiber. ~:`NCHRP`Phase2.rp~\ NC~P3-51 Phase2F~nalReport A4-41

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Although individual jurisdictional requirements maY vary. we win define the SONEI , _, , backbone subsystem failure as any failure Mat prevents communication to any backbone node. SONET equipment is electronic equipment similar to signal controllers so we win allocate preventive maintenance as Time Interval (~ of 90 days and Average Tune required of 4 hours. Thus, following the procedures outlined In Tables A.4.3~4 and A.4.3-5, Me required manpower to / maintain this SONET subsystem is presented in Table A.4.6-2a and A.4.6-2b, which calculate the following: MTBF, MTrR, and availability analysis for Me total system, calculated for bow 24-hour/7 day staffing and 40-hour/week staffing. Maintenance staffing requirements are based on 24-hour/7-day staffing, with a shaking Overhead of 5.377532, per Table A.4.3-2. at should be noted that Me overhead is only that required to achieve Manhour/ 7-day availability of maintenance personnel.) Life Cycle Cost Analysis assumes 8% spares, 5-year warranty, and I% per year of procurement cost for years 6 Trough 10 as a warranty extension. Refer back to Table A.4.6-2a for Me results, and to Table A.4.6-2b for Me spreadsheet equations for the calculations. Figure A.4.6-3 presents the same system except the geography of the equipment installations permitted implementation of a fault tolerant SONET ring. Using Me same assumptions above, Table A.4.3-3 calculates Me following: MIFF, =1R, and availability analysis for Me total system, calculated for bow 24-hour/7 day staffing add 40-hour/week staffing. / 1;WCHRP\Phasc~pt ~N~3-51 P~e2F - Ream A4-43

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Table A.4.6~2a Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Analysis for Linear SONET Fiber System MTBF. M7TR. and AVAII,,A~ll~f ANALYSIS MTBF hrJhilu" Fadwe Rate failurdhr SONET T~al F' - r- 5 mite ~nt C~ of one Tenr~ull~er S~PT~ 45,000.0 389,335.4 40337.7 2 ~E-05 2.56848E-06 2.47907E-05 Co~ all (N) SONETlF - r ~n~ Total System Av~bility N~rTomb~ - r 5~ (N) Tl (days) TR thoure) MT9F thours MTTR thoure) Yeuty P - vo~ M~nanos thoua) Yo~y Respo~ Maint~ (houre) Total Ma~ntonanco (hours) M~nan" St - ~ 24 hr par d8y, 7 days por w~k MTTR hrJrepair 4 4.5 4.051803: Repair Rab repa~r/hr 025 0~ 0246811369 806.8 0.001239535 50.00 90.00 4.00 806.75 4.05 811.11 44.00 855.1 1 0.52 or 1 person about half ffn. Ava - ;lity % 0.995002746 httyr down 43.78 Mai~tenance StaBirm Rowir~nts Individual Ebn~nts Mair~bnance Canpo"MTSF(lu)Failu~arHour~ar SONET T~nal9009.7338.93 Fibor- 5 ~b 5 -77871.125.06 Tobl10.8644.00 Life C`reb Cost Analv~is (sss~no maintenance naff svailshb sround ~e dock) SONET T~nals ( - ch) 50.00 S 25,000.00 each S1,250,000.00 5~1VtiloFibor Links 10.00 S 9.00 sm S 2,376,000.00 SD8r65 , SonotTerminald 8% of instdbd S 100,000.00 Total to P=c~ Yealy Operadog costs ~inbnanco P~l Spu" Rophnishn~nt (v~ 6~10) S 3,726,000.00 Houre Rab (S~lu) Years Cost (S~ 855.11 S 77.56 10 S 66,322.57 S663,225.69 1% 5 S 13,500.00 S67,500.00 Ten Y-r Oper~ Cost S730,725.69 Tolal Ten Year cost S4,456,725.69 costimi~ar co~~r YRSHRS04.E96 MTTR hr/ropdr 40 hour work w~k only ~__ ~ 12 12 12 Repair Rsto repsirdnr 0.083333333 0.06m3~33 0.0833~333 Avaibbillty % hrtyr down 128.39 0.985343585 S"5,672.57 S8,913.45 S1.69

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Maintenance staffing requirements based on 40-hour week staffing, who a staffing overhead of 1.280355 as per Table A.4.3-2. at should be noted that Me overhead is only that required to achieve 40-hour week availability of maintenance personnel.) Life Cycle Cost Analysis that assumes 4% spares, 5-year warranty, and ~ % per year of procurement cost for years 6 Trough 10 as an warranty extension. The 4% sparing is adequate due to enhanced availability of fault tolerant system redundancy. Refer back to Table A.4.6-3a for results, and to Table A.4.6-3b for calculations. Figure A.4.6-4 presents the same system except that each link and SONET node is redundant. It is assumed that a redundant SONET node costs 80% more while the redundant fiber link cost is 100% more. Using the same assumptions above, Table A.4.6-4 calculates Me following: MTBF, MUIR, and availability analysis for Me total system, calculated for both 2~hour/7 day staffing and 40 hour week staffing. Maintenance staffing requirements based on 40-hour week staffing, with a staffing overhead of 1.280355 as per Table A.4.3-2. at should be noted that Me overhead is only Mat required to achieve 40-hour week availability of maintenance personnel.) Life Cycle Cost Analysis that assumes 4% spares, 5-year warranty, and 1% per year of procurement cost for years 6 Trough 10 as a warranty extension. The 4% sparing is adequate due to enhance availability of fault tolerant system due to redundancy. Refer back to Table A.4.6~4a for results, arid to Table A.4.6-4b for calculations. The results of the three systems are summarized in Table A.4.6-5. The linear system has 24 hourO~ay maintenance staffing while Me Ring and Parallel systems have normal 40-hour/week staffing. L:`NC~Phase2~p~` NCHRP3-51 Phase2FinalReport A4-47

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Table A.4.6~3a Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Analysis for Fault Tolerant SONET Fiber Ring MTBF, MTTR, and AVAILABILITY ANALYSIS IrKlividual Sets SONET Ter~aI MTBF hdhiure FsiIure Rats hii,mlhr ~ E-05 fiber- 5 mi ~ Ant Composes of One TerminsUF - r Sent 45,000.0 389,335.4 40337.7 ~56848E-06 2.47907E-05 Con~ - (N) Sen" Ps~l SONET/F'ber so'Fnan~ P~hl S~s ~ single Link Total Sy~m (f~ure of both p~Ihl ~ stnglo ItnlC) N~r Tenr~rJFbor Sogments (N) TI (d~s) TR (l~ours) MTBF (hows MTTR (1~5) ye~ ~ ~ ~ou=) Y~ Respor~ Mdn~ (houre) Tobl Main~ (hours) Md~nu" St~ MTTR hrlrepair 24 hr "r day. 7days por w~ic Repair Rate repairmr 45 025 4.~ 0~ 024~9 806.8 O.OO1= 1.355,942.0 7.37495E-07 50.00 90.00 4.00 1,355,942.00 4.05 811.11 44.10 85521 0.52 or 1 porson about half ~ne 4.05 024680369 2.025901642 0.493607379 Ava lability % . o.ssssseso6 hrtyr down 0.01309 Maintonance Staging R-uir~ In~ Elon~n ~Mahtenanco Ca~MTBF(hr,Faihre~youHo~ar SONET Tem~nalsgoa9.738.93 F - r- 5 mDe s~rn76341.15.16 Total10.944.10 Maintu~anco HowsJ~ars b~d on OnJob hows W~ Cvcb Cost Ansh~s (assume nainter~nco ~ava'labb 40 housh~k) SONEr Temlin" ( - ch) 50.00 S 25,000.00 oach S 1,250,000.00 SMilo Fibor Unlo 11.00 S 9.00 sm s 2,613,600.00 SD~5 SonotTom~ls 4% of in~ed $ 50,000.00 Total to Proc~o S3,913,600.00 Y - rly O - ndag costsHoum Rato (S/hr)Years Cost (S~ ldainbn~co P~onnel85521 S18.4710 S 15,792.96 S 157,929.61 Sp~s R~1% 5 S 13,000.00 S 65,000.00 Cost ~ S m.929.61 TotalTon Year cost S 4,136,529.61 co~r cosU~ar co* - r YRSHRS04.E96 S413,652.96 S8,273.06 S1.57 40 hour wo k wook onl~r MTTR hr/ropair 12 Ropair Raze repairJhr o.os33i3333 12 0.083333333 0.083333333 12 O.OB3333333 _ ~ _ O^rr" . ~ W-WW ~ Availa~lity % 0.999995575 hityr down 0.0388

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Table A.4.~4a Life Cycte Cost Analysis for Paralle' ink Faull Tolerant MTBf, MTrR, and AVAILABILITY ANALYSIS 24 hr per day, 7days per week IndNdua S~ SONET T6minal MTBF hr~ailur6 45,~.0 Fdlura Rate *Dure/hr 7 ~F.0S Fber- 5 mite s~nt Compo~te of Ono Tambal/~ S - ment _ _ 389,335.4 40337.7 2~5~8E~ 47907E-05 Parallel Esch SONETJFbar s~monts Sarbs of Paraid Lhks Total Systom ffa~ of b~ p~d ~ ~ - ) Numbar T - minan/F - r Segman~ (~ Tl ( - s) TR ~us) MTBF ~outs MITR ~) Youly Pr~ Maintananca ~oS) Y6a~ Ras p o ~ l U a int6 n an ca ~ o u m) Total hlaintenance ~) Ma~tenanco Sta~h~ M1TR hrlrepair . 4 R6pdr Rste repairlhr 025 4.5 4.05 O-~r"~77 024R~R. 67,797.100.03 1.47498E.08 3,389,855,001.6 2.94998E-10 . 50.00 9.0.00 4.00 3,389,855,001.8 4.05 811.11 1 932.0.09 2013120 12.36 or 1 pomon about half time 4.05 02~69 2.025901" 0.4~07379 Availab~ty g o.sassasss~ br/yr clown 0.0000052' Maintonance Staffino R - uirements Indi~ndual E~n ~Mahtonanoe Con~aMTBFGhr)Faik,~parHou~a r SoNETT~iais ~45019.4777.87 Fbor- 5 "o s~m389322510.12 ~=~Total21.7287. - lUaintonance Hows~yeam based on Or~ ~b houis L~e Cvcb Cost Anah~sk (assun~ mahtanance s~mBsb~ 40 hou~ek) SONET T~ (esch)50.00 S 25,000.00 each80% S2~0,000.00 5~ FberUnks10.00 S 9.00 Slft 100% S 4,752,000.00 SDares SonetTa_496 of hstalbd S 90,000.00 Total to P ~S 7,092,000.00 Yaady Op~g cos~Houm Rate (S/h. Years Cost ~r) llai~ Pasonad2013120 S 18.47 10 S 371,758.98 S 3,717,589.78 Sparos Re~1% 5 S 23,400.00 S 117,000.00 ~ _ ~S 3,834,589.78 _ __ i~= co~ar S 1,092,858.98 ~ar S 21,853.18 co ~S 4.14 \ YRSHRS04.E96 ~frTR hdrepair 12 40 hour wol1c week only Rapair Rate mpa~hr A083333333 12 0.063333337 o.os3am33 12 0.0833333S3 0.1~B~7 A~r % _ _ o.sassessw hr~yr down A0000155 1

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