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135 REFERENCES 1985 Highway Capacity Manual, Transportation Research Board, Special Report 209, Washington, 1985. Manual of Uniform Tragic Control Devices, United States Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., 1988. Akeelik R and Tro~beck R (1991), "l:mplementation of the Australian Roundabout Analysis Me~od In SIDRA", Highway Capacity andFI'vel of Service, A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 1991. Adams, W.F. (1936), "Road Traffic Considered As A Random Senes", Journal of the Institute of Civil Engineers, 4, pp. 121-130,1936, Ashwor~, R (1968>, "A Note on Be Selection of Gap Acceptance Criteria for Traffic Simulation Studies", Transportation Research, 2, pp.171-175, 1968. Ashworth, R (1969), "The Capacity of Pnority-Type Intersections with a Non-Un~form Distribution of Critical Acceptance Gaps", Transportation Research, 3, pp. 273-27S, 1969. Ashwor~, R (1970), "The Anslysis and Interpretation of Gap Acceptance Data", Transportahon Research, 4, pp. 270-2SO, 1970. Boesen, A., Kyte, M:, and Rindiebacher, B. (1991), Traffic Data Input Program: Program Documentation and User's Manual,~Un~versil~,r of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, March 1991. Brilon,W.,editor (19SSa),IntersectionsWithoutTra~ic signals, Spr~nger-Veriag Publications, Bergen, l9SS. Briton, W. (19Sgb), "Recent Developments In Calculation Methods for Unsignal~zed Intersections In West Germany'', Intersections Without Tragic Signals, Spr~nger-VerIag Publications, Berlin, l9SS. BnIon, W., editor (1991), Intersections Without Tragic Signals rr, Springer-VerIag Publications, Berlin 1991. Briton, W. and Grossmann, M. (1989), "Development of a Simulation Mode} for Intersections Without Traffic Signals", Schriftenreihe Strassenbau und Strassenverkehrstechnik, Vol. 554, Bonn, l9g9. Briton, W. and Grossmann, M. (1991), "Actualized Calculation Procedure for :Entersechons without TraRic Signals", Schriftenrelhe Strassenbau und Strassenverkehrstechnik, Vol. 596, Bonn, 1991. Brilon, W. and Grossmann, M (1991), "The New German Guideline for Capacity of Unsignalized Intersections", Intersections Without Tragic Signals II, Springer-Veriag Publications, Berlin, 1991. Briton, W.; Grossmann, M. and Stuwe, B. (1991), "Towards a New German Guideline for Capacity of Unsignalized Intersections" Transportation Research Record, 1320, Washington, D.C., 1991. Brilon, W. (1995), "Delays at Oversaturated Unsignal~zed Intersections Based on Reserve Capacities", Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 1995. Cassid~,r, M., Samer, M., Wang, W. And Yang, F. (1994), "Unsignali~d Intersection Capacity and Level of Service: Revisiting Criticap Gap", Transportation Research Record 1484, Washington, D.C., pp. 16-23, 1994. Catchpole, E.A. and Plank, A.W. (1986), "The Cap acid of a Pnority Intersection, Transportation Research, 20B(6), pp. 441-456, 1986. Cowan, RJ. (1975), ''Usefill Headway Models" Transportation Research, 9(6) 371-375, 1975. Cowan,RJ.~1984),"Adams' Formula Revised", Tragic Engineering andFControl,Vol. 25~5),pp. 272-274, 1984. Cowan, RI. (1987), " An Extension of Tanner's Results on Uncontrolled Intersections: Clarification of Some Issues", Queueing Systems, 1, pp. 249-263, 1987. Daganzo, C.F. (1977), "Traffic Delay at Unsignalized Intersections: Clarification of Some Issues. Transportation Science, 1l,1977. Drew, D.R (1968), Tragic Flow Theory and Control, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968.

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136 Intersections: CIarificabon of Some Issues. Transportation Science, 11, 1977. Drew, D.R (1968), Tragic Flow Theory anal Control, McGraw-F~, New York 1968. Gerlough, D.L. and Wagner, F.A. (1967), "linproved Criteria for Traffic Signals at Individual Intersections", NCHRP Report 32, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 1967. Gipps, P.G. (1982), "Some Modified Gap Acceptance Formulae", ARRB Proceedings, Vol. 11, Part 4, p.71, 1982 Grossmann M. (1988), "KNOSIMO-A Practicable Simulation Mode} for Unsignalized Intersections", Intersections without Tragic Signals, Springer-VerIag Publications, Berlin, 1988. Grossmann, M. (1991), "Methods for Calculation and Judgement of Capacity and Traffic Quality at Intersections without Traffic Signals", Ruhr-Un~versity, Bochu~n~ Germany, Chair of Traffic Engineering, 9, 1991. Harders, I. (1968), "The Capacity of Unsignalized Urban Intersections", Schriftenreibe Strassenbau und Strassenverkehrstechnik, 76, 1968. Harders, I. (1976), "Critical Gaps and Move-up Times as the Basis of Capacity Calculations for Rural Roads", Schriftenreihe Strassnbau und Strassenverkehrstechnik, 216, 1976. Hewitt, AH. (1985), "A Companson Between Some Methods of Measuring Critical Gap", Traffic Engineering anal Control, 26(1), pp. 13-21, 1985. Hewitt, AH., (1992), "Using Probit Analysis with Gap Acceptance Data", Department of Civil Eng~neenug, University of Glasgow, 1992. Heidemann, D. (1991), "Queue Lengths and Wa~ting-T~me Distributions at Priority Intersections", Transportation Research, 25B, (4) pp. 163-174, 1991. Henry, RD., Calhoun, I.H.~., Pfefer, RC., and S - led, RK. (1982), "Peak-Hour Traffic Signal Warrant", NCHRP Report 249, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., September, 1982. Jacobs, F. (1979), "Capacity Calculations for Unsignali~d Intersections", Lecture manuscripts, University of Stuttgart, Germany, 1979. Kimber RM. (1976), "The Capacibr of Some Major/Minor Junctions", TRRL Report LR 735, 1976. Kimber, RM.; Summersgill, I. and Burrow, IJ. (1986), "Delay Processes at Unsignal~zed Junctions: The Interrelation Between Geometric and Queuing Delay?', Transportation Research, 20B, 6, pp. 457~76. Kimber, RM., Marlow, M., and Holds, E.M. (1977), "Flow/Delay Relationships for Major/Minor Priority Juncdons' Tragic Engineering andlControl, 18(11),pp. 516-519. Kimber, RM. and Coombe, RD. (1980), "The Traffic Capacity of Major/Minor Priority Junctions", lark Report, SR 582, 1980. Kimber, RM. and HoHis, E.M. (1979), "TraBic Queues a n d D e l a y ~ a t R o a d ~ ~ m c t i o n s " , ~ ~ a b o r a t o r y R e p o r t , LR 909, 1979. Kremser, H. (1962), "A Complex Problem ofDelaywi~ Poisson-Distributed Traffic Flows", dsterreichisches Ingenieur-Archiv, 16, 1962. Kremser, H. (1964), "Delays and Queues wig One Poisson Process Merging into Another One", C'sterreichischesingenieur-Archiv, IS, 1964. Kyte, M.; Zegeer, I. and Lall, K. (1991), "Empirical Models for Estimating Capacibr and Delay at Stop-Controlled lotersections in the United States", Intersections without Tragic Signals it, Springer-Verlag Publications, Berlin 1991. M. Kyte, C. Clemow, N. Mahfood, B.K. ball, and C.~. Khisty (1992), "Capacity and Delay Characteristics of Two-Way Stop-Controlled Intersections", Transportation Research Record 1320, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 1992. Lithe, I.D.C. (1961), "A Proof of the Queueing Formula L= W'', Operations Research, 9, pp.383-387, 1961.

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137 Lee, C. et al. (1982), "Application of the Texas Model for Ar~ysis of intersection Capacity and Evaluation of TraBic Control Warrant", Center for Highway Research, University of Texas at Austin, 1978. McDonald, M. and Armitage D.~. (1978), "The Capacity of Roundabouts, Traffic Engineering and Control, 19~10), pp. 447~50, 197g. MiDer, A.~. (1972), "Nine Estimators of Gap Acceptance Parameters", Traffic Flow and Transportation, Proceedings, International Symposium on the Theory of Traflic Flow and Transportation, Berkeley, June 1971. Morse, P.M. (1962), Queues, Inventories and Maintenance, John Wiley, 1962. Newell, G., (1982), Applications of 0ueueing Theory, 2nd Edition, Chapmap and Had Ltd., London, 1982. Pline, I., (1992) editor, Traffic Engineering Handbook, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1992. PoeschI, F.J. (1983), "The Unsignalized Minor Street Entry as a Generalized M/G/1 Queueing System", Operations Research, 27B, 1983. Ram, M.S. (1950), "A Volume Warrant for Urban Stop signs", The Eno Foundation for Highway Traffic Control, Saugatuck, Connecticut, 1950. Sampson, D. (1992), "Warrants for Traffic Signals", Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Eng~neer~ng, Untversibr of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 1992. Semmens, M.C. (1985), "PICADY 2: An Enhanced Program to Mode} Capacities, Queues and Delays at Major/M~nor Priority Junctions", D2RZ; Report, RR36, l9g5. SiegIoch, W. (1973), "sap acid Calculations for Unsignalized Intersections", Schriftenreihe Strassenbau und Strassenverkehrstechnik, 154, 1973. SiegIoch, W. (1974), "Capacity Calculations for Unsignalized Intersections", Schriftenrelhe Strassenbau und Strassenverkehrstechnik, 1, 1974. Sullivan, D. and Troutbeck RI. (1994), "The Use of Cowan's M3 Headway Distribution for Modelling Urban Traffic Flow?', School of Civil Eng~nnenng, Queensland University of Technology, Australia, 1994. Tanner, I.C. (1961), "A Derivation of the Bore} Distubudon", Biometr~ca, 48, p. 222, 1961. Tanner, I.C. (1962), "A Theoretical Analysis of Delays at an Uncontrolled Intersection", Biometrika, 49 (! and 2), pp 163-70, 1962. Tanner, I.C. (1967), "The Capacity of an Uncontrolled Intersection", Biometrika, 54 (3 and 4), pp. 657-65g, 1967. Tracz, M. (1988), "Research of TraDic Performance of Major/~nor Prion~ Intersections", Intersections without Tragic Signals, Springer-VerIag Publications, Berlin 1988. Tracz, M. (1991), "Polish Guidelines for Capacity Analysis of Priority Intersections", Intersections without Tragic Signals, Springer-VerIag Publications, Berlin 1991. Tracz, M; Chodur, I., and Gondek S. (1990), "The Use of Reserve Capacity and Delay as the Complementary Measures of Junction Effectiveness", Proceedings of the International Symposium, Transportation and TraDic Theory, Yokohama, 1990. Troutbeck RI. (1975), "A Review of the Ramsey-Routledge Method for Gap Acceptance Times", Traffic Engineering and Control, 16~9), pp. 373-5, 1975. Troutbeck RI. (1986), "Average Delay at an Unsignalized Intersection with two Major Streams Each having a Dichotomized Headway Distribution", Transportation Science, 20 (4), pp. 272-286, 1986. Troutbeck RI. (1988), "Current and Future Australian Practices for He Design of Unsignalized Intersections", Interseetins without Tragic Signals, Spunger-Veriag Publications, Berlin 1988. Troutbeck RI. (199Oa), "Roundabout Capacity and Associated Dell', Proceedings of the 1 l th International Symposium on Transportation anal Traffic Theory, Yokohama, Japan, 1990.

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138 Troutbeck RJ. (199Ob), "Tragic Interactions at Roundabouts", Proceedings of the l Sth Australian Road Research Board Conference, 15(5), pp. 17-42, 1990. Troutbeck, RI. (1991), "Unsignalized Intersection and Roundabouts In Australia: Recent Development", Intersections without Traffic Signals rr, Spr~nger-Veriag Publications, Berlin 1991 Troutbeck RJ. (1992), "Estimating the Cntical Acceptance Gap from Traffic Movements", Research Report 92-5, March 1992. Virtues, M. and Elayada~, S. (1994), "Pedestrian Density Characteristics and Shockwaves", Proceedings of the Secondlinternational Symposium on Highway Capacity, Australian Road Research Board, Vol. 2, pp. 671-684, Victoria, Australia, 1991. Wegmann, H. (1991), "A General Capacity Formula for U n s i g n ~ i 7 e d T n ~ e r s e c t i o n s " , ~ n t e r s e c ff o n s w i t h o u t T r a f ~ i c Signals Il. Spnuger-Verlag Publications, Berlin, 1991. Yeo, G.F. (1962), "S~ngle-server Queues with Modified Service Mechanisms", Jou real of Applied Probab ibid, pp. 297-310, 1964. Yeo, G.F. and Wrest, B. (1964), "Delays to Road Traffic at an Intersection", Journal of Applied Probability, pp. 297-310, 1964. Yu, L. and Van Aerde, M. (1995), "implementing TRANSYT's Macroscopic Platoon Dispersion in Microscopic Traffic Simulation Models", Transportation Research Record, in press, Washington, D.C., 1995. NCHRP 3-46 Working Papers M. Kyte, W. Kittelson, W. Brilon, R Troutbeck Z. Tian, and Z. Mir, "Annotated Bibliography: Unsignali7ed Intersections, A Survey of the Literature", Working Paper 1, February 9, 1993. M. Kyte, W. Kittelson, W. Brilon, R Troutbeck, Z. Tian, and Z. Mir, "Reference List Data Base: Unsignalized Intersections", Working Paper 1 (Supplement), February 9, 1993. M. Kyte, W. Kittelson, W. Bnlon, R Troutbeck, Z. Tian, and Z. Mir, "Candidate Models for Capacity and Delay Analysis of Unsignalized Intersections: An Titian Assessment", Working Paper 2, January 31, 1993. M. Kyte, W. Kittelson, W. Brilon, R Troutbeck Z. Tian, and Z. Mir, B. Robinson, and M. Vandehey, "User Survey?', Working Paper 3, April 1993. M. Kyte, W. Kittelson, W. Brilon, R Troutbeck Z. Tian, and Z. Mir, B. Robinson, and M. Vandehey, "Candidate Procedures: Refinement and Recommendations", Working Paper 4, March 14, 1993. M. Ky~ te, W. Kittelson, W. Bnlon, R Troutbeck Z. Tian, and Z. Mir, B. Robinson, and M. Vandehey, "Data Collection end Analysis Plan", Working Paper 5, Apnl lo, 1993. M. Kyte, W. Kittelson, W. Brilon, R Troutbeck Z. Tian, and Z. Mir, B. Robinson, and M. Vandehey, "Interim Report", June 18, 1993. M. Kyte, W. Kittelson, W. Bnlon, R Troutbeck, Z. Tian, and Z. Mir, B. Robinson, and M. Vandehey, "Data Set Documentation", Working Paper 6, September 6, 1993. M. Kyte, W. Kittelson, W. Brilon, R Troutbeck Z. Tian, and Z. Mir, B. Robinson, and M. Vandehey, "Phase Report", November 22, 1993. M. Kyte, W. Kittelson, W. Brilon, R Troutbeck Z. Tian, and Z. Mar, B. Robinson, ~ Vandeh~y, and Marc Butorac, "Phase ~ Supplemental Report", Working Paper 7, December 30, 1993. Z. Mir, "SlnnmaTy of Site Cha~ristics", Working Paper 9, September 29, 1994. Z. Tian amd Z. Mir, "Slnnn~ry of Traffic Charactenstics" Worldog Paper 10, September 29, 1994. Z. Mir, "Data Base Format Report", Working Paper 11, September 29, 1994. M. Kyte and Z. Mir, "Capacity Mode! Testing Plan and Related Issues for TWSC Intersections", Working Paper 12, September 29, 1994. Z. Mir, "Analysis Plan-AWSC and TWSC Intersection

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139 Delay Models, Working Paper 13, Fall 1994. Z. Mar, "Analysis and Testing of Capacity Models for All- Way Stop-Controlled Intersections", Working Paper 14, September 29, 1994. M. Kyte and M. Zoll, "Stupor Site Characteristics", Working Paper 15, April 2S, 1995. Z. Tian, R Troutbeck W. Briton, B. Robinson, and M. Kyte, "Estimating Critical Gap and Follow-up T~mes For TWSC Intersections", Working Paper 16, April 9, 1995. B. Robinson, Z. Tian, R Troutbeck and W. Briton, "Analysis and Testing of Gap Acceptance Capacity Models", Working Paper 17, April 30, 1995. W. Briton and L. Bongo, "Simulation Mode} Test", Working Paper lS, June 7, 1995. R Troutbeck, "Analysis and Testing of Delay Models for TWSC Intersections", Working Paper 19, Apnl IS, 1995. M. Kyte, Z. Mar, and Z. Hameedmansoor, "Saturation Headways for AWSC Intersections", Working Paper 20, April 5, 1995. M. Kyte, Z. M'r, and Z. Hameedmansoor, "Senice-T~e Based Capacitor Mode} for AWSC Intersections", Working Paper 21, April 24, 1995. Z. Hameedmansoof'Analysis and Testing of Emp~ncal Capacity Models for AWSC Intersections", Working Paper 22, March 16, 1995. N. Wu and W. Briton, "Two Stage Gap Acceptance", Working Paper 24, June 1995. B. Robinson, "Effect of Pedestrians on TWSC Capacity'', Working Paper, October 4, 1995. B. Robinson, "Effect of Upstream Signals on TWSC Capacity?', Working Paper, October 4, 1995. Briton, W., Wu, N., and Lemke, "Two Stage Gap Acceptance", Working Paper, 1995. .