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Jack Faucett Associates. Inc. Final Report 2. FINDINGS March 1997 The progression toward multimodalism, supported and strengthened by ISTEA and the 1 990 CAAA, provide an impetus for change in transportation planning and project implementation. As a result, all levels of government are now confronted with a rapidly changing focus and set of constraints as they provide mobility for both people and goods. The changing focus has added considerable complexity and data needs to the planning process. In this study, multimodal transportation planning is defined to include activities undertaken by MPOs and state-DOTs that ensure equilibrium between transport demand and supply consistent with other societal goals. Multimodal transportation planning strategies that strive to accomplish the following objectives. Anticipate and manage growth in travel demand stemming from changes in the economic and demographic composition of a region, known as secular growth. Improve and better manage system performance (e.g., decrease congestion on highways). For example, strategies such as ramp metering decrease congestion downstream along the equipped freeway, and decreases in congestion increase level-of-service along the Leeway. Preserve existing system to ensure integrity. This planning activity ensures that supply does not deteriorate to levels that increase user costs. Expand system to meet secular growth in demand. This planning strategy represents traditional capacity expansion projects that have been the focus of highway planning in recent decades. Although ISTEA calls for integrated and cooperative planning between MPOs and state-DOTs, various planning activities will be undertaken independently by either MPOs and state-DOTs. For example, travel modeling and forecasting is predominantly conducted by MPOs, although some states do develop, calibrate, and execute travel models. This planning activity is integral to the demand side of transportation planning as defined above. Likewise, strategies to mitigate traffic congestion and to promote shifts from single occupancy vehicles to high occupancy vehicles (e.g., transit) are predominantly developed, implemented, and evaluated by MPOs since such strategies address local transportation problems. On the other hand, state-DOTs are predominantly responsible for planning strategies that address system supply, either via expansion projects or system maintenance. Consequently, the definition of multimodal transportation planning facilitates the identification of differences in planning activities conducted by state-DOTs and MPOs. Differences in planning responsibilities are important from the perspective of assessing data needs. However, the development of a comprehensive, integrated data program should transcend jurisdictions so that all users can access information from a centralized source to meet their planning needs. (Data NCHRP Multimodal Transportation 11 Planning Data Project 8-32(5)

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Lack Faucett Associates Final Report March 1997 - integration is the subject of Task 6). The definition of planning stated above is employed below to assess data reeds separately for MPOs and state-DOTs. 2.l Task I: Strategic Assessment of Data Needs The definition of multimodal transportation planning provided above encompasses a wide range of planning missions, oh jectives, and strategies imbedded in MPO and state-nOT nl~nnin(, In order LU J USt1~ me selection or a given strategy to support the planning mission and objectives, MPOs and state-DOTs need to collect arid analyze data that describe the strateov'.s imnn~.t On try APmanA am system supply. ~_ 1 _ ~^1 1 ~, , . . .. ~. ~_ c,. ~J _ _ ~ ~ At __ ~ ^^ ~^ ~ ~ ~.1~l ~1~ This section presents the results of a systematic, strategic assessment of multimodal transportation planning data needs stemming from the progression toward multimodalism. Section 2.1.1 provides an overview of state-DOT and MPO planning requirements generated by multimodalism. The purpose of Section 2.1.1 is to define the planning requirements that are driving the need for more expansive and detailed data. Section 2.1.2 reviews strategic planning models that can be employed to assess data needs and describes the model chosen for this study (i.e., the Business Model). Finally, Section 2.1.3 applies the Business Model to assess selected state-DOT and MPO multimodal transportation planning data needs. 2.1.1 Overview of Planning and Information Requirements GSTEA and the 1990 CAAA! Multimodalism, ISTEA, and the 1990 CAAA are generating major revisions in the process and products of transportation planning conducted by state-DOTs and MPOs. The 1990 CAAA sets forth specific data collection, analysis, and reporting requirements for regions not in attainment of national air quality standards for ozone, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter. ISTE:A sets forth specific requirements for metropolitan planning and statewide planning and calls for programs at the state-DOT and MPO levels to manage data systems in a comprehensive and integrated manner. This sub-section summarizes the impact of ISTEA and the 1 990 CAAA on metropolitan and statewide planning and data collection and analysis. The goal is to develop an analytical baseline for a strategic assessment of data needs.3 2.1.1.1 ISTEA Planning Requirements As articulated in ISTEA, the new mission of the transportation planning process is as follows: 3For a more detailed overview of data requirements stemming from Federal legislation see: U.S. Department of Transportation, Identification of Trarlsporfatiorl Planning Data Requirements in Federal Legislation, DOT-T-94- 21, July 1994. NCHRP-Multimodal Transportation Planning Data 12 Project 8-32~5)

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Jack Fa~ccettAssoci'~es, Ine. Final Report March 1997 ...to develop a National Intermodal Transportation System that is economically efficient, environmentally sound, provide* the foundation to compete in the global economy and will move people and goods in an energy efficient manner. The recent six mandated management systems under ISTEA have been suspended under the National Highway System Designation Act and states may elect not to implement any of the six management systems. The six systems are described below with the mandated terminology deleted. Later references to the previously mandated six systems are now described as suggestions or as elective. ISTEA 's Ma~zageme'2t Systems-The term "management system" implies a systematic process designed to assist transportation planners and decision makers in selecting cost-effective planning strategies to improve the efficiency and safety of the transportation infrastructure. Management systems represent objectives that the planning process should strive to satisfy. Specific strategies to support the development and implementation of management systems constitute chosen transportation decisions designed to optimize the efficiency of the transportation system. Data are suggested to develop a management system and to also design, evaluate, and implement strategies supporting each management system. Exhibit 2 depicts the relationship he.tween Ohio mana~-m~nt systems and state-DOT and MPO transportation planning. ~~-r ~- .,~ _ The ISTEA management systems require data to define and monitor the magnitude of transportation system problems, to analyze alternative solutions, and to measure the effectiveness of the implemented strategies. Some data needs, such as traffic volumes or travel demand, may be common to each of the six systems, while other data requirements will be unique to specific system strategies. The principal types of date needed for the development and implementation ofthe ISTEA management systems and supporting strategies for traffic monitoring and control include: traffic counting programs, travel time surveys, home interview surveys, employer surveys, vehicle occupancy counts, screen line counts, travel behavior studies, surveys at activity centers, parking inventories, site impact studies, cordon surveys, on-board transit surveys, and others. Much of the traffic data required for strategy development and implementation under a CMS, IMS, and/or PTMS, originates Mom the Traffic Monitoring Systems (TMS) deployed by MPOs. Data to be included in the TMS originates Mom continuous traffic counts, short-term ~aff~c monitoring, and vehicle occupancy monitoring. Typical data elements regarding traffic volume include: annual average daily traffic, design hourly volume, peak hour traffic percentage, peak period volume, and VMT. It is envisioned that congestion management will provide the most comprehensive information for planning since the CMS is required to continuously collect arid monitor data in order to determine the duration arid magnitude of congestion. Actual data to be collected depends on the performance measures that are selected to assess congestion and to estimate the chance in Win `'uh~n proposed mitigation strategies are implemented. ~_ =,_~~-an,- ,, -en NCHRP-Multimodal Transportation 13 Project 8-32(5) Planning Data

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Jack Faucett Associates, Inc. Final ReFon AIarc1l 1997 The PTMS will identify and evaluate strategies related to improving the efficiency of public transportation. Besides a comprehensive inventory of facilities, the PTMS will collect data on the number of vehicles and ridership for dedicated right-of-way at the maximum load points in the peak direction and for the daily time period. Likewise, the IMS expands the identification and evaluation of strategies for improving the efficiency of intermodal transportation. As such, the IMS involves the identification of performance measures to determine the efficiency of intermodal facilities and systems. The data collection and monitoring aspects of the IMS include a base year inventory of the physical and operating characteristics of facilities and a survey of the facilities to assess performance. The other management systems that states may implement in collaboration with MPOs include the Pavement Management System (PMS), the Bridge Management System (BMS), and the Highway Safety Management System (SMS). The development and implementation of these management systems also requires a systematic, comprehensive, and integrated approach to data collection, storage, distribution, and analysis. The PMS requires data on the following: the physical pavement features, including the number of lanes, length, width, surface, type, functional classification, and shoulder information; pavement- related transportation projects such as the project dates and types of construction, reconstruction, rehabilitation, and preventive maintenance; pavement condition such as ride, distress, rutting, and surface friction; and system usage such as traffic volumes, vehicle classifications, and system loads. The BMS must contain a data base and an ongoing program to collect data on bridge inventories, bridge inspections, and bridge maintenance costs. The SMS involves the coordination of safety programs such as motor carrier, corridor, and community-based traffic safety activities into a comprehensive approach to ensuring highway safet.v that accounts for the identification of hazardous conditions and the needs of special user groups (e.g., older drivers, pedestrians, bicyclists, etc.). Data required by the SMS includes information pertaining to crashes, traffic, pedestrians, enforcement, vehicles, bicyclists, drivers, highways, and medical services. MPO Long Range Plans-An MPO's transportation plan must have a 20-year horizon, and must "include both long- and short-range strategies/actions that lead to the development of an integrated intermodal metropolitan transportation system that facilitates the efficient movement of people and goods." There are several specific considerations that must be included in the plan, some of which imply the development of new planning paradigms and supporting data. First, an MPO's transportation plan must identify the demand for transportation services originating from the need to move both individuals and goods. Second, it must identify congestion management strategies that demonstrate a systematic approach to addressing current and future transportation demand. Third, the plan must identify pedestrian walkway and bicycle transportation facilities and assess the demand for these facilities. NCHR~-Multimodal Transportation 15 Planning Data Project 8-32~5)

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Jack F'zuceu Associates, . . Final Renoir March 1997 Fourth, the plan must assess capital investment requirements and other measures to preserve and most efficiently use the existing system. Fifth, it must describe existing and proposed transportation facilities in nonattainment areas to permit conformity determinations. Sixth, it must include a multimodal evaluation of the transportation, socio-economic, environmental, and financial impacts of the overall plan. Seventh, it must reflect the area's comprehensive long-range land use plan and metropolitan development goals. Finally, an MPO's transportation plan must present a financial plan that demonstrates the consistency of proposed transportation investments with known and projected sources of revenue. ISTEA does not specify the models that should be employed to develop an MPO's transportation plan that accounts for the considerations described above, nor does it specify the types of data that are required to support planning strategies. It is envisioned, however, that the majority of the information required to support the metropolitan transportation plan will come from three of the six ISTEA management systems that may be implemented by the state and the MPo.4 Specifically, results from the implementation of a Congestion Management System (CMS), Intermodal Management System (IMS), and Public Transportation Facilities and Equipment Management System (PTMS) win have direct relationships to the development, implementation, and evaluation of planning strategies since they will identify transportation needs to ensure system efficiency. In turn, data for these three management systems largely will originate from an area's Traffic Monitoring System, household and business trip generation data, and forecasts of land use and socio-economic characteristics. MPO TIPs-The development of an MPO's TIP has a different focus than~atofthemetropolitar~ transportation plan. At a minimum, an MPO's TIP must cover a 3-year period arid must identify all transportation projects within the area proposed for Federal Finding. Only projects that are consistent with the transportation plan cart be included in the TIP. For informational purposes and air quality analysis all regionally significant projects to be fielded with non-Federal fiends also must be addressed in the TIP. 4Section 1034 of the ISTEA describes regulations that were to be issued for the development, establishment, and implementation by the State of the six management systems. However, ISTEA also specified the designation of urbanized areas win populations of over 200,000 as Transportation Management Areas (TMAs), that must develop, establish, and implement a CMS. Furthermore, ISTEA recommends that all MPOs consider We implementation of the six management systems. NCHRP Multimodal Transportation Planning Data . 16 Project 8-32(5)

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.lack Faucett Associate.', Inc. Final Report March 1997 - As with the metropolitan transportation plan, the planning and data requirements for the TIP are not explicitly stated by ISTEA. However, a review of the various elements comprising a TIP indicates the types of data that may be necessary to support its development, especially with respect to conformity determination. For example, in nonattainment areas and TMAs, the TIP must provide the following data: air quality impacts for each proposed project within a nonattainment area; list of projects from previous TIPs that were found to conform with the area's SIP and that are now part of the base case for conformity analysis; and a list of projects that are proposed as required TCMs. In addition, TIPs must also include data on project cost, funding sources, and performance information on projects proposed in previous TIPs that were implemented. State-DOT Long Range Plans-Statewide transportation plans must cover a 20-year period, must be intermodal in focus, must contain a plan for non-motorized transportation, must be coordinated with metropolitan transportation plans, must contain information on short-range planning and policy studies, and must provide data on the availability of resources to carry out the plan. Furthermore, the plan must be coordinated with the metropolitan transportation plan. State-DOT STIPs-Requirements for the STIP are very similar to those for the TIP. First, the STIP must contain a list of transportation projects to be carried out in the first three years of the STIP. Metropolitan planning area TIPs must be included without modification after being approved by the MPO and the Governor. Second, the STIP must contain only projects consistent with the statewide plan. Third, in nonattainment areas and TMAs, the STIP must contain only those transportation projects found to conform to the conformity regulations. Fourth, the STIP must be financially constrained and must include information to demonstrate that funds can be expected to be available for project implementation. This requirement implies that the STIP must contain a list of funding sources. Summary of MPO and Sfate-DOT Information Requirements-The planning requirements discussed above imply important changes with respect to the tools and information that are employed by transportation planners. Some of the data needs for multimodal planning efforts include the following: data from traffic data analysis including data from HPMS and the Traffic Monitoring System; data resulting from arty management systems identifying statewide transportation needs, including data on physical facilities and system performance; NCHRP Multimodal Transportation 17 Planning Data Project 8-32~5)

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J ck Faucef.t Associates, Inc. Final Re.port data on bicycle and pedestrian tripmaking; data on recreational travel and tourism; March 1997 data on the social, economic, energy, and environmental effects of transportation decisions; land use projection data including economic, demographic, environmental, growth management, and land use activities; financial data for plans and programs; . . data on existing and potential rights-of-ways for future transportation; and data on commercial motor vehicle efficiency. The development of TIPs and STIPs requires detailed data on the travel and traffic impacts of projects for the purpose of conformity determination. This is particularly the responsibility of MPOs, since STIPs are a compilation of metropolitan area TIPs. The data needed for conformity goes beyond the traditional characterization of spatial travel and traffic relationships to spatial and temporal relationships. Data needs associated with the 1 990 CAAA are reviewed below. 2.~.~.2 1990 CAAA Requirements Related to Transportation Planning The 1 990 CAAA stipulate various requirements that directly impact the types of analyses that must be conducted by transportation planners, predominantly at the MPO level. First, all ozone and carbon monoxide nonattainment areas are required to develop base year emission inventories characterizing the contribution of transportation sources (i.e., motor vehicles, locomotives, and watercraft) to the air pollution problem in the region as defined by the nonattainment boundary. Second, depending on the classification of nonattainment (i.e., moderate, serious, severe, extreme), those areas with the worst air pollution are required to implement transportation control measures whose purpose are to reduce growth in tripmaking and VMT and, thereby, mitigate the contribution of motor vehicle travel to future emissions within the region. Finally, all nonattainment areas are required to demonstrate conformity between transportation and air quality plans, as described in the introduction to this report. Emissions Inventories and Emissions Budgets- An emissions inventory is a current, comprehensive, and accurate inventory of actual weekday emissions for the applicable season (i.e., CO or ozone) from all sources in the nonattainment area, including a 25-mile radius beyond the nonattainment area boundary as required by EPA guidance. The development of emission inventories for transportation-related sources is the responsibility of both MPOs and a state's department of environmental quality. MPOs usually are responsible for developing emission NCHRP-Multimodal Transportation 18 Planning Data Project 8-32~5)

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"rack Fauceu Associates, Inc. Final Report A,larcn 1997 estimates for on-road sources, while the emission contributions of nonroad transportation-related sources are developed at the state level. On-road sources are defined to include virtually all types of motor vehicles that operate on highways and roads across the country, and that provide for the transport of both passengers and freight. This definition includes: 1) passenger cars, usually referred to as light-duty gasoline vehicles; 2) pick-up trucks, often broken down into a) light duty gasoline trucks up to 6,000 pounds of gross vehicle weight (GVW), b) light duty gasoline trucks between 6,001 and 8,500 GVW, and c) light duty diesel trucks up to 8,500 GVW; 3) trucks, broken down into heavy duty gasoline vehicles rated at GVWs above 8,500 pounds and heavy duty diesel vehicles rated above 8,500 GVW; and 4) motorcycles. However, on-road motor vehicles are not the only modes of transportation that contribute to air pollution. Locomotives, airplanes, and watercraft are also sources of emissions. Emissions from these modes of transportation are included in nonroad sources. Therefore, in order to accurately characterize the contribution of transportation activities to air pollution problems in regions across the country, it is necessary to include rail, aircraft, and watercraft emissions in the analysis. However, since the estimation of emissions from nonroad sources is not the responsibility of transportation planning agencies, data required for this purpose are not discussed in this report. Motor vehicle emissions (specifically tailpipe emissions) are generally a function of the speed and grade at which the vehicle is operating, which affects the vehicle's emission rate, and the number of miles that the vehicle is driven during a specified time frame. The following equation characterizes the general relationship between these parameters and a motor vehicle's emissions: EFi x VM[j, where 1 Speed itself is a function of the type defines the specific vehicle type or class; j = defines the time frame (e.g., pounds per day); EFi; = defines the emissions factor, in grams per mile, attributable to a particular vehicle or vehicle class which is a function of average speed, grade, engine size, horsepower, etc. (estimated via an emissions factor model such as MOBILE or EMFAC); and VM[j = represents miles traveled during the specified time frame. Of roadway on which the given vehicle is operating during the specified time frame. As a result, emissions are expected to differ by type of roadway and by time- of-day. For a given calendar year, MOBILE (or EMFAC) estimates emissions factors using various transportation-related inputs characterizing travel patterns within a region or a region's motor vehicle fleet. These inputs include, but are not limited to, the following: VMT bY vehicle class: annual NCHR~ Multimodal Transportation 19 Planning Data Project 8-32(5)

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Jack Falicett Associates, lilac. Final Report March l~97 mileage accumulation rates by vehicle class and model year; vehicle registration distributions by vehicle class and vintage; trip length distributions; VMT by speed class; VMT by time of day; and VMT by functional road class. Target level inventories are also required under the 1990 CAAA for ozone nonattainment areas for each three year period until attainment of the NAAQS for ozone. Target inventories are important because control strategies must then be developed so that actual emissions will meet the target levels. Target levels already account for tailpipe emissions improvements, so that mobile source emissions reductions must come from reductions in activity, specifically VMT and tripmaking. Furthermore, annual VMT forecasts (including base year estimates of actual VMT) are required for the development of emission inventories by both ozone and CO nonattainment areas (CO nonatta~nment areas classified as moderate, but with CO concentrations above 12.7 ppm). Estimates of actual VMT must be based on FHWA's Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS). In addition to estimates of actual VMT, forecasts of annual VMT from the base year to the year of attainment are required by the 1990 CAAA. Moderate, serious, severe, and extreme CO and ozone nonattainment areas must use network-based travel demand models for this purpose. TCM Analysts and Conformity Determil2ation -The marriage between air quality and transportation planning is most apparent in the need for and development of tr~n~n~rt~inn Unfree measures (TCMs) and in the assessment of conformity. rat r r Depending on an area's nonattainment status, TCMs are required for emissions control on the basis of VMT reduction. However, the standard transportation planning models are not sensitive to many ofthe TCMs being proposed to control VMT growth, and MPOs are evaluating the effectiveness of TCM strategies exogenously to the conventional 4-step travel modeling process. Although not identified in EPA's TCM guidance documents, data needs associated with TCM analysis are extensive and include highway system data (e.g., lane miles, lane miles of HOV, etc.), transit system data (e.g., vehicle miles, routes, riders, etc.), demand data (e.g., VMT distribution by trip length, duration of peak period, number of trips, etc.), and time or cost data (e.g., person hours of delay, parking cost, average speed, etc.). In general, data need to be developed at a more detailed spatial level for example, at the intersection level to conduct "hot-spot" emissions analysis. ~r`={^r~;t~T rl~f=~;~^f;~ ~^ +~ ~^+ ~11~:_~ ~ ~ _ ~ ^. 1 1 ~ , ~VlllVI1111~) -~lllItIl"~} ~-V~ tti~ til'V~t ~g ~-=l5pVrt~tlV'n pla~lng problem stemming from Federal legislation. It dictates the content of the metropolitan transportation plan in nonattainment areas, and sets the stage for interagency consultation in the development of transportation plans, TIPs, and SIPs. Transportation plans adopted after January 1, 1 995 in serious, severe, or extreme ozone nonattainment areas and in serious CO nonattainment areas must describe the transportation system envisioned for future years called horizon years. For the horizon years, the plan must formalize the relationship between travel and land use, and describe regionally significant additions to the highway and transit network in sufficient detail to allow modeling of NCHRP-Multimode] Transportation 20 Project 8-32(5) Planning Data

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Jack Faucett Associates, lac. Final Report March 1997 transit ridership and travel times under various volumes. Furthermore, conformity determination must use the latest information on TOM effectiveness. Exhibit 3 depicts an example of conformity planning. The general data requirements associated with conformity for the transportation plan and TIP are listed below: estimates of current and future land use patterns, population, demographics, and employment; estimates of background levels of pollutants, transit fares, service levels, arid ridership; on-going Transportation Demand Management (TDM) or Transportation System Management (TSM) activities; emission estimates of regionally significant projects currently under construction; and TCM effectiveness estimates. In effect, conformity determination implies specific modeling requirements that go beyond the capabilities of current travel models. First, the use of a network-based model is required for conformity determination. Unlike traditional models used in the 4-step process, the network- based model used for conformity determination must account for off-net~vork travel, estimated speeds and delays in a manner that is sensitive to estimated volume of travel on each roadway segment, and provide peak and off-peak travel demand and travel times. In response, effort is underway to improve current travel models and to develop new models. Section 2.2. 1.3 describes changes to the 4-step travel modeling process that are being developed to address specific planning requirements of ISTEA arid the ~ 990 CAAA. 2.1.1.3 Planning Requirements and Strategic Data Needs Assessments The overview presented above facilitates the development of a strategic planning platform for data needs assessment. It is evident that data needs are invariably dependent-on the types of strategies that MPOs and state-DOTs will develop, implement, and evaluate to solve transportation problems and to increase system efficiency. Some strategies may evolve from planning requirements such as TCMs or the CMS, and others may evolve from the objectives that specific planning agencies strive to satisfy. Some MPOs, for instance, will not need to conduct conformity analyses, nor will they be required to develop a CMS. Consequently, one of the most pertinent questions that a planning agency must respond to is "what are the planning requirements given the region's population and NCNRP-Multimodal Transportation 21 Planning Data Project S-32 (5)

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Jack Faucett Associates, Inc. Final Report demanding and increasingly dependent upon demonstration Marc* 1997 of performance in measurable terms. Improvements in data collection, quality, and analysis stimulated through data integration programs can prove to be an effective advantage in improving the performance of transportation programs. Cost Effectiveness and Productivity - Although there has been little, if any work conducted on the costs and benefits associated with data integration, there is an inherent belief that developing an environment that promotes data integration, sharing, and cooperative collection will ultimately reduce or eliminate redundant collection of data, reduce the time spent maintaining data, improve the quality of data and, therefore, the quality and time spent analyzing data. An example of the potential improvements that can be realized from a sophisticated and integrated data collection and storage system can be found in Michigan's recently adopted $20 million management system (described further in section 8.3). Since the adaptation of the system, the percentage of time spent maintaining data has gone from 70 percent to 30 percent, while the time that can now be spent on analyzing the data has been able to increase from 30 percent to 70 percent. Accountability - Improvements in the public's information access and ability to actively participate (i.e., review and make comments regarding public documents) continue to advance nation wide. In coordination with this is the increased need for cost-effective and efficient transportation. The result will be increased public pressure to hold the government, state or local, more accountable regarding the use of public funds and expenditure of other governmental resources. Air Quality and Congestion - If regional air quality fails to improve or degrades, there will be an increase in both public and regulatory pressure to improve air quality and reduce the congestion causing it. If improvements in decision making and analysis can be engineered through improvements in data integration, it could help to avoid some of the unpopular management tools such as pricing mechanisms and lessen the public pressure. In addition, improvements in air quality could lead to a relaxing of regulatory requirements (e.g., lower attainment status) and a freeing up of resources for other management goals. Implementation by Domina'2t Data Controllers - In many states, there are only one or two transportation organizations, usually the state DOT and a large MPO, if any, that collects and organizes most of the data for the state. The smaller local and regional organizations play a minor role in the collection process and may rely heavily on state data and resources. In such situations, these major players have the opportunity to shape the data management system into a coordinated and integrated system merely by changing their own system. Their influence over the minor organizations will force them to come on-line with the new system or be left to find other sources for their information needs. System-wide Improvements - There are even reasons for data integration which are solely self- motivated. Tangential transportation organization (e.g., New York and New Jersey DOT's), as well NCHRP Multimodal Transportation 120 Planning Data Project 8-32~5)

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Jack Faucett Associates, inc. Final Report March 1997 as state and regional organizations can benefit from data sharing and cooperation because many of the congestion and air quality problems flow from one region to the next. For example, poor congestion management in Manhattan can cause similar congestion on the in-bound New Jersey side. Data cooperation between the transportation organizations involved (e.g., Port Authority, Path, highway departments, local planning agencies, etc.) can improve congestion on both sides and relieve some of the public pressure caused by unwanted congestion. 2.4.7 GIS Research Once some of the institutional and functional constraints have been addressed at each organization and system wide, attention should focus on the technological systems that will be most useful in meeting the integration goals of the transportation community. This subsection describes some of the recent research conducted in the area of GIS and GIS-T. As was previously expressed, GIS is not vital to the success of an integration system. Rather, GIS is discussed because of its basis in locational referencing and the logical connection to the geographic components of transportation data. In addition, GIS's ability to display data in a geographic environment allows for a more comprehensive and understandable analysis and communication of the transportation data. 2.4.7.1 National Digital Geospatial Data Framework The impetus toward GIS has been so pronounced that the USGS has formed a committee known as the Federal Geographic Data Committee. It is the mission of this organization to develop a framework within which to collect, store and disseminate digital geospatial data. Essentially, the Federal government is in the process of developing a large-scale data integration framework for spatial data. This framework is described below. Purpose and Goals The framework is a basic, consistent set of digital geospatial data and supporting services that will: Provide a geospatial foundation to which an organization may add detail and attach attribute information Provide a base on which an organization can accurately register and compile other themes of data Orient and link the results of an application to the landscape The framework should be widely used and widely useful: Framework data should be data you can trust and should be certified as complying with standards Framework data should be the best data available NCHRP Multimodal Transportation 121 Planning Data Project 8-32~5)

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Jack Faucett Associates Inc. Final Report March 1997 Along with these high-resolution data, the framework should contain consistently generalized' lower resolution data to support regional and national applications: Users must be able to integrate framework data into their applications while preserving their existing investment Framework data should be accessible at the cost of dissemination, free from use criteria or constraints. arid available in non-propr~etary forms Additionally, framework data must include geodetic control; digital orthoimagery; elevation data; transportation (roads, trails, railroads, waterways, airports, ports, bridges, and tunnels. Attributes include a permanent feature identifier and name. Where available, linear referencing systems will be used as the identifier. In addition, roads will have the attributes of functional class and street address rarlge.) hydrography; gove~nental urlits; cadastral. This framework would be operated and maintained by a group of participants that agree to provide digital geospatial data that meet content, quality, policy and procedural criteria including a data producer, area integrator, data distributor, theme manager, theme expert, and policy coordinator. Currently, work is underway to develop an implementation strategy. The implementation will be phased, with the goal to have an initial implementation of national geospatial data framework by the year 2000. 2.4.7.2 GIS-T Research Within the past five years there has been an increasingly wide-spread effort to research the applicability of GIS to transportation modeling. Some of the basic differences between the GIS approach to networks and the transportation modeling approach is depicted in the table below. NCHRP MulI-imodal Transportation Planning Data 122 Project 8-32(5)

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Jac* Faucet' Associates, Inc. Final Renort Geographic Information System Multi-pu~pose Data-driven Geographic context Many topologies (point, arc, polygon, network) Chairs structures Spatially-indexed Many fields March 1997 Transportation Model Single purpose Model-driven Abstract context Single topology (link-node) Link-node structures Sort-indexed Few fields Source: Sutton, J.C. "The Role of Geographic Information Systems in Regional Transportation Planning." presented at the Fifth National Conference on Transportation Planning Methods Application, Volume 1 ~ Final Report, June 1 995. Two of the larger GIS-T related research efforts are described below. NCHRP Project 20-27 - NCHRP Project 20-27 was initiated in response to the need to define the basic structure of GIS-T based on current and anticipated needs and characteristics of transportation agencies. A number of different reports were published in conjunction with this project including "Implementation of Geographic Information Systems in Transportation Agencies", "Management Guide for the Implementation of Geographic Information Systems in Transportation" and ``Adaptation of Geographic Information Systems for Transportationt,. Pooled Fund Study - The departments of transportation of 39 states and the District of Columbia combined resources under the sponsorship of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department to create a Pooled Fund Study. The title of the study is "Geographic Information System for Transportation ISTEA Management Systems Server Net Prototype". The purpose of the study is to create a systems architecture and demonstration prototype to address the requirements of the management systems mandated by the 1991 ISTEA within the context of a GIS environment. The system architecture will consist of a set of non-proprietary models of the ISTEA statewide and metropolitan planning and project selection arid supporting activities from multiple perspectives: data, functional, technological, arid institutional. These models will provide an organizational and technology independent perspective ofthese functional areas concentrating on providing a consensus based national framework suitable for individual adaptation and modification. It is intended that these models will be developed using information engineering principles, methods, arid tools and will be based on the conceptual framework defined by the NCHRP 20-27 research effort. There are four phases of this research effort. Phase A has resulted in the following: NCHRP Multimodal Transportation Planning Data 123 Project 8-32(5)

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Jack Faucett Associates, Inc. Final Report . March 1997 An entity relationship data model illustrating an integrated database supporting all six management systems. 2. An activity model defining the general areas implied by the scope of the ISTEA systems illustrating an integrated approach to transportation program development. 3. An integrated systems architecture illustrating the data flows between these systems. 4. Evaluation of the Information Engineering methods used in the analysis. Phase B of this effort is Demonstration and Design and has resulted in the following: 1. 2. 3. A database design, including table arid column definitions. System pseudo code outlining art integrated approach to systems development. Evaluation of the software engineering methods used to develop these functional specifications The Phase C objective is Demonstration Development and has resulted the following: 1. Integrated databases, integrated computing networks, integrated software codes, integrated command and control systems. 2. Specific examples of ISTEA marla~,ement systems implemented in a GIS-T context. Phase D, Research Results Transfer, is Me method Mat the Study Team proposes for vendors and consults to sponsor this study. 2.4.7.3 Benefits of GIS-T and Integration The most readily apparent benefits of an integrated system arise from the reduced costs of doing business that result Tom enhanced productivity44. The increased productivity is realized Trough the reduction or elimination of redundant data arid the associated collection and organization activities, as well as the updating of multiple data bases managed by different units. Other benefits include: Reduced time/cost of cartographic production arid updates; Enhancement of thematic maps (e.g., those used for traffic counts); Quicker response time in creating new traffic analysis zones (TAZs) or revising existing ones; New capabilities (e.g., linking of land use, transportation, and air quality data arid models); Increased response time to unexpected events (e.g., emergency evacuation). 44Vonderohe, A.P. et al., "Adapting Geographic Information Systems for Transportation.,' TR News 171, March- April 1994, pp. 7-9. NCHRP Multimodal Transportation 124 Planning Data Project 8-32~5)

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Jack Faucett Associates, Inc. Final Report March 1997 The use of GIS can also lead to intangible benefits which are not immediately apparent until after GIS has been implemented. For example, the mapping and visual display of transportation data (e.g., travel time) can allow transportation professionals to more easily identify problem areas aIld locations where new data is needed and can ultimately lead to better decision making and better data collection. 2.4.7.4 Current Limitations of GIS-T4s The above discussion of GIS-T and the associated benefits does not mean to imply that GIS is a panacea for all transportation data collection, analysis, and organization problems. The relative newness of GIS as a transportation tool understandably results in some limitations that are associated with the technology and its capabilities. GIS products provide the means to manage the procedures that link spatial and attribute data. Many ofthe user-friendly GIS software available are designed as "canned" applications which give the user fewer options or macro tools to develop their own application. whereas hiah-nerformin~ .sv~tem~ require a lot of training and programming experience. , (, ~, The following are brief descriptions of common kar~sportation scenarios that may present a GIS system with some difficulty and may prove to be limitations of the system or entail additional GTS editing. 1. ~- .] Network topology problems - A situation such as a bridge passing over a roadway _ which does not provide a connection to the road below can present a problem if routing is the primary objective. Network based route connectivity - Another example where GIS also has difficulty is the situation where multiple transit networks (e.g., bus, light rail, special bus) each operate on the same street with various route constraints. GIS is unable to operationalize the three sub-networks which have different levels of connectivity and topological representation on We base street map. Schematic Network Integration with GTS - An example of these GIS limitations is evident in situations where HOV lanes are part of the primary highway or freeway. Representing these lanes as offsets would build inaccuracy into the GIS network representation. Problems such as these are enhanced when transit networks are also intertwined (e.g., light rail in the mediarl) arid present further difficulties for GIS. 45Su~on, J.C. aThe Role of Geographic Information Systems in Regional Transportation Planning." presented at the Fifth National Conference on Transportation Planning Methods Application, Volume 1, Final Report' June 1995. NCHRP-Multimodal Transportation Planning Data 125 Project 8-32(5)

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Jack FG~COtt Associates, Inc. Final Report - March 199, 4. Transportation routing - GIS routing is performed none to node rather than at links. If' however' special situations arise such as U-mrn3 they must be coded individually. The frequency ofthese special situations can resultin aninordinate amount of coding and prohibit GIS routing from being cost-effective. 2.4.8 Case Studies 2.4.8.1 ~ Standardization A necessary first step for successful data integration and sharing involves standardizing the methodologies by which data is collected and organized. New Mexico - The New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department has been implementing its Traffic Monitoring Standards since October 1, 1988. The impetus for the development of standards were the problems being caused by multiple definitions for the same data, data being reported from non-working counters, incomplete data being filled in various ways and with varying amounts of disclosure. The standards are annually reviewed and participation is open to all New Mexico transportation professional in both the public and private sectors. The guidelines adopted by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) are used as the default standards if is not addressed by the New Mexico standards. The standards describe acceptable methods for data collection, such as minimum periods for data collection sessions, sample size, and equipment testing guidelines and operational tolerances. The key to the New Mexico's success in standardizing monitoring traffic monitoring standards is its link to funding. In order for traffic monitoring to receive state or Federal funding, it must be in compliance with the New Mexico State Traffic Monitoring Standards. If, due to a lack of resources, there is no established standard for a particular monitoring practice, the monitoring must be done at least to the same level as practiced by the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department. The adoption of standards also established an excellent foundation for the rest of the necessary elements for a successful data program. For example, the uniform methods allowed the design and implementation of processing software to be more easily achieved. In addition, the standards provided a common language for characterizing and analyzing statistics on various agency reports. NCHRP Multimodal Tr~sporta~on 126 Planning Data Project 8-32(5)

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Jack Faucea Associates, .,nc. Final Report 2.4.8.2 Data Sharing March 1997 Bay Area Partnerships - The Bay Area in California covers 7,000 square miles, includes over 100 cities, with approximately 6 million residents. The transportation system includes 1 8,000 miles of roadway and eight primary public transit systems. The complexity of the system was a major impetus for the Bay Area Partnership which consists of the top managers from 31 agencies responsible for transportation and environmental quality in the region. The Data Integration Task Force was formed by the Partnership to examine the issues regarding data collected and used for planning and managing transportation, land use, air quality, and other environmental issues. The three primary objectives of the Task Force included: I. Increase joint use of infonnation and meet multiple needs for data more efficiently 2. Identify additional data needs and fill data gaps where warranted. Identify opportunities to streamline current data collection and dissemination processes. In an attempt to meet these objectives, the task force conducted a survey of many of the agencies within the Bay Area regarding their available data. The result of the survey was a catalog which includes data available from certain agencies and issues related to the data sources such as where the data is reported, the method of collection, location frequency, etc. In addition, where applicable, the discussion the use of GIS and accessing the information through the Internet is provided. 2.4.8.3 GIS-T Precedent Not only are large research studies into GIS-T being performed, but actual GIS systems are being implemented throughout the country. Descriptions of some of these systems being implemented for transportation planning purposes are provided below. Michigan DOT - The Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) is in the final stages of the development of the most comprehensive Transportation Management System in the country. The project was begun in 1992 arid two of their main objectives were to 1) eliminate or reduce duplication arid 2) implement GIS. The MDOT has invested approximately $20 million in Me this two-tier client server system which houses over 600 data tables. The development of the system was a top-down effort designed by users. The data is organized around the management systems outlined In ISTEA and is able to be accessed remotely via modem by over planning agencies in the state. 46Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC). Data Integration Project Catalog of the Bav Area Partnership, MTC, Oakland, CA, March 1996. NCHRP Multimodal Transportation 127 Project 8-32~5J Planning Data

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Jack Faucea Associates, ~c. Final Report March 1997 The new system has already proven to be effective in allowing MDOT professional to make beher use of their time with respect to transportation data maintenance and analysis. The percentage of time spent maintaining data has gone from 70 percent to 30 Dercent. while the time .~nent I data has gone from 30 percent to 70 percent. ~r - ^~ I- ~ Similar to the Data Task Force proposed by MA as part ofthe Data Program, the MDOT uses a data committee, consisting primarily of state management system experts, that oversees the cooperating in data collection and decides which organizations are going to collect what data. I/~ A_ ~ By ~_ ~t ~1 Or A ACTS . ~- _ I ~ Briny en `runspariUllan (~AQ1J - 1ne VAQ1 IS currently developing an integrated transportation information system (ITIS). It is one of the first efforts at an ITIS in a state DOT context. Their goal is to unify databases across separate agency divisions to allow common access to all data and to provide an integrated environment to meet agency needs. NCTCOG - North Central Texas Council of Governments has begun using GIS as part oftheir long range transportation planning program for the Dallas-Fort Worth Urban area. GIS software is used for spatial analysis, data coding, and attribute display in support oftheir travel forecasting model. NCTCOG maintains four primary data sets for input to their travel forecasting model: 1) the regional highway network, 2) the regional transit network, 3) zonal attributes and 4) traffic count data. Prior to implementation of the GIS, maintenance of these data sets required many separate computer programs and considerable mar ual effort. Now with the GIS the data sets can be easily edited and updated using the GIS graphical interface and the results verified using a variety of thematic maps. Wisconsin DOT - Wisconsin DOT has a expert system-GIS for pavement management. The GIS provides the tools to develop the spatial database required for input to the expert system. The expert system codifies the knowledge and experience of pavement engineers in evaluating pavement condition and making recommendations for maintenance and improvements. Central Artery/Tunnel project in BOStOM - Boston used a GIS as an integral part of the program for automation of project management, engineering and construction. In addition to preliminary highway design files, final highway design files are produced for the project using a GIS/CADD system. Other GIS applications include generation of soil profiles, identification of ROW needs and environmental remediation sites, traffic surveillance and control during construction and identification and mitigation of adverse construction impacts on the community. Newton, Massachusetts - Newton has been forward thinking in evaluating how to better manage and analyze its planning and engineering data and is currently developing a citywide GIS. Newton built _ 1 ~ 1 1 ~ Y ~ . . ~ ~ . ~ . applications within a Lip environment to include traffic assignment, routing applications (such as school bus route generation), network location problems (such as fire station location), and traffic zone reapportionment. In this system the analytical tools reside as modules within the GIS as NCHRP MultimodalTransportation 128 Project8-32~5) Planning Data

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lack Faucet! Associates, lac. Final Report - March 1997 opposed to either transferring data through ASCII files to the model or interactively using a common database. Atlanta - The objective in developing a prototype GIS-T was to design a svelte to help the r.~,niv agency better manage its transportation program. _0~ ~--~ r ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ,, Application modules included in the prototype are an integrated a accident record system, traffic engineering, pavement management, transportation planning and land use, and transit. Charlotte' North Carolina - A GIS-T was developed to conduct an analysis of ~nter-area commuting patterns. TransCad was the GIS package modified for this analysis. Traffic was simulated over the network and preliminary forecasts of traffic were made. Additionally, LAND SAT imagery is being used to identify and categorize land uses in alternative corridors for the parkway. The three types of data included in the system are network description and related data, population and employment data, and trip data. 2.4.9 Future of GIS-T and Integration As exemplified by many ofthe case studies above, there has been a definite push towards integration and the incorporation of GIS in the transportation community in recent years. Due to the speed with which new technology and software is developed and brought on-line, the future of transportation information systems is somewhat unknown. Some of the possible developments are discussed briefly below. Movement towards ar' open system - The diverse number of transportation applications produces a need for tools that cart utilized in coordination with other information technologies to leverage their use most productively. which allow linkages to programs that the user desires which may be external to the specific product. In pursuit of this goal, the Federal geographic Data Committee and Spatial Data Transfer Standards have encouraged GTS vendors to develop software by 1997 that will allow spatial data to be transferred between platforms. I'2 creased use of object orientedprograms - The Pooled Fund Study described earlier has completed extensive research on adapting art object-oriented approach to GIS. Utilizing the defined objects, the project constructs specific application data models that address transportation problems. One of the primary benefits of the research is that it is providing usefi~1 object definitions. Integration of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and GIS-T- Although many ITS developers claim that GIS is inadequate for their needs, areas have been identified where the NCHRP Multimodal Transportation Planning Data 129 Project 8-32~5)

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Jack Faucett Associates, Inc. Final Report - combination of the two technologies may prove benef~cial. These include the use of dynamic graphics for traffic monitoring and using GIS as part of real time customer information systems.47 March 199? - 2.4.10 Conclusion The regulatory and public pressures demanding cost-effective transportation management to relieve both transportation and environmental problems is rapidly influencing the evolution oftransportation information systems. State and regional organizations are quickly realizing that, in order to meet these demands within their diminishing budgets, data integration, sharing, and cooperation can no longer be thought of as a distant reality when technology and resources become available. Steps must be taken today which will initiate the integration process and allow the cost savings and quality improvements in data and analysis to be realized. Care must be taken not to immediately affix time and resources to addressing the technology issue. Although GIS appears to be where the industry is headed, merely installing a GIS system will not equate to data integration. The main constraints to integration will be found through an institutional and functional analysis' ~ A1 ~1 ~1 ~1 , 1 ~- both within organizations and system wide. ;~1(l(ll-f-~:~lrl ~IO0~!0 lC?Oll-C! ^~- ^= tO^lrl~r ~ ~^ 4~1 ~At `1_ _ 1 , The methodology for v_ ^~ __ &~ ALAR t>w Balm 111 Ill-will ~ ~11~ way as me Data needs assessment outlined in Task 1. The Business Model and the strategic plan to initiate integration outlined above follow the same logical path and it may prove more cost-effective to address and perform both exercises simultaneously. Integration is also similar to the prior discussions on data needs and organization in that the need for a task force to handle the coordination of the integration process is not only necessary but probably vital to the success of the program. Committee's such as the Federal Geographic Data Committee may handle the standardization of GIS at the national level, but committee's are needed to address the institutional and functional constraints as well at the state and regional level. . 47Sutton. NCHRP Multimodal Transportation Planning Data 130 Project 8-32~5)