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Jack Faucett Associates Inc. , 1. INTRODUCTION AND RESEARCH APPROACH Final Report _ March 1997 Transportation planning in public agencies traditionally has been organized around single modes. Most of the planning was concerned with highways and streets since this was the predominant mode for which public agencies were re.snnn~ibit? n~rtirl~l~rl~r ~ the :.. ~ :~__._ ~ 21 ___ _ 1 _ , ~. . r~~~ ~ r~~~.~ l~Vlll L11~ ~1~pG~iVO O1 1111~51=c~e development and preservation. Federal, state, and local agencies also jointly are responsible for infrastructure development for air and water modes (airports, inland waterways and ports, and seaports). Infrastructure planning and investment for the rail and pipeline modes is left to private companies subject to public agency regulation and permitting for right-of-way. The operational use of all of this infrastructure is almost entirely the province of the private sectors under safety regulations proscribed by federal, state and local agencies, and anti-monopolistic route and rate regulation on the commercial operators by federal and state agencies. User fees are generally exacted from the users of public infrastructure to amortize the investment of public funds. The concept of multimodalism is not new to public transportation planning agencies since the role of each mode in the transport of people and goods has always been recognized in planning for public infrastructure development. However, this planning was done in separate agencies (e.g., highway departments, port authorities, and aviation departments) and often under separate funding authority that was not well-coordinated until recent decades with the formulation of state departments of transportation (state-DOTs) and, more recently, metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) with responsibility for coordinated multimodal planning. What is new is that recognition has now been accorded to the efficiency of coordinated planning to meet the need for transnortatinn .f~rvirPc instead of a focus on individual modes. In addition, the concept of intermodalism is not new since transportation planning, especially for passenger travel, has long involved consideration of highway and street access to airports, transit, and rail terminals. Less attention was accorded to freight intermodalism although connections between surface transport and water transport were important in highway planning. . Increasing congestion in motor vehicle transportation, especially in urban areas where land for new infrastructure is limited and expensive, has led to the realization that more efficient use of existing infrastructure, and planning to facilitate the use of public transit, is often more cost-effective in alleviating congestion than expanding the roadway infrastructure. Concerns about environmentally damaging emissions from motor vehicles have also reintorc~rl tier=. need for infPr~rqt^~ In planning in urbanized areas. 1L A-__1 ~1 1 ~ ~. ~ ~ ~^ ~_ ~^~4 4~1 C~L~1 111~J~l~1 vl~uumoca~1sm considers the full range of transportation alternatives, since there are many different approaches to solving transportation problems-ranging from those that increase the supply of transportation (e.g., new roads, new rail lines, exclusive freight lanes, more bus routes, etc.) to those which reduce demand (e.g., rideshare programs, parking restrictions, pricing mechanisms, etc.). Multimodalism ensures that all potential solutions to transportation problems are considered within the context of the planning process, and stresses comprehensive and integrated planning that strives NCHRP-Mul~nodal Transportation Planning Data s Project 8-32(5)

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Jack Faucett Associates, Inc Final Report March 1937 _ . _ to better equilibrate travel demand arid supply while concurrently minimizing externalities such as air pollution, energy consumption, safety, arid congestion. In response to the move toward multimodalism, the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act-1991 (IS TEA) and the 1990 Clears Air Act Amendments (CAAA) set the stage for new or revised multimodal transportation planning at both the metropolitan planning organization (MPO) and state deparunent of transportation (state-DOT) levels. In addition to representing the first transportation legislation that has specific mandates supporting the objectives of the Clean Air Act, ISTEA sets forth new requirements for both metropolitan and statewide transportation plarming. Specifically, ISTEA requires MPOs and state-DOTs to consider the factors shown in Exhibit 1 in developing transportation plans and programs. It also suggests the development arid implementation of six transportation management systems which would include the followings 2 identification of performance measures; data collection and analysis; determination of transportation needs; . evaluation and selection of appropriate strategies arid actions to address the needs, as well as the data required to support the planning process; arid evaluation of the effectiveness of the implemented strategies arid actions. The new planning structure stemming from ISTEA highlights the change in planning focus from analysis that evaluates capacity expansion projects, traditionally viewed as necessary to equilibrate travel demand and supply, to multimodalism which improves the use of the current infrastructure to meet grown in travel demand stemming from economic and demographic factors, ensures preservation of the current system, and concurrently minimizes the detrimental externalities associated with transportation. iThe following management systems are elective in ISTEA since mandated implementation was later suspended: Pavement Management System (PMS), Bridge Management System (BMS), Safety Management System (SMS), Congestion Management System (CMS), Public Transportation and Equipment Management System (PTMS), and Intermodal Management System (IMS). In addition to these six management systems, states and MPOs may develop, establish, implement, and operate a traffic-monitoring system (TMS) on a continuous basis. The purpose of TMS is to provide planners with traffic data Mat support the six management systems. 2Dane Ismart, State Management Systems: Overview of ISTEA Requirements and Current mplementaiion, TR News 173, July-August 1994. NCHRP - Multimodal Transportation 6 Project8-32~5) Planning Data

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Preservation of existing transportation facilities Results of the management systems Planning consistency with Federal, state, and local energy conservation programs. goals, & objectives Federal, state, or local energy use goals, objectives, programs, or requ~ranents Relieve and prevent congestion from occurring where it does not yet occur Strategies to incorporate bicycle transportation facilities and pedestrian walkways Effect on and consistency with land use and deYelopmentplans International border crossings and access to ports, airports, intermodal facilities, ete. Programming of expenditure on transportation enhancement activities Transportation needs of areas outside of metropolitan planning areas Effects of transportation projects within the area International border crossings and access to ports, airports, international facilities, etc. Conaeetivity of roads outside/inside region Any metropolitan area plan Connectivity between metropolitan planning areas within the state and within other states Recreational travel and tourism Transportation needs identified through the use of the management systems Preservation of Rights-of-way Social, eeonomie, energy, and environmentaleffeets of transportation decisions Any state plan developed pursuant to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act TSM and inves~nent strategies to make most efficient use of existing transportation facilities Social, eeonomie, energy, and environruental effects of transportation decisions Life-eyele cost in the design and engineering of bridges, tunnels, or pavement Methods to enhance the efficient freight transport _ Methods to _ _ __~ ~ _ _ ~_ _ Capital investments that would result in increased transit system security Methods to reduce and prevent congestion where it does not yet occur Methods to expand and eahanee transit services Effect of transportation decisions on land use and land development Strategies for identifying end implementing transportation enhancements Use of innovative financing mechanisms Preservation of right-of-way ~ ong-range needs of the state transportation system for movemeatof persons and goods Methods to eahanee the eff'eient moYernentof eommereial motor vehicles Lif~eyele costing in the design and engineering of bridges, tunnels, or pavements Coordinationof metropolitan transportation plans and programs In~restrnent strategies to improve adjoining state and local roads Concerns of Indian tribal governments

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Jack Faucett Associates, Inc. Final Report March 1997 The new focus imbedded in ISTEA is in part a response to the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The 1990 CAAA fostered a new relationship between transportation and air quality planning that changes the type of data necessary to support each planning process. Many metropolitan areas across the country are now required to design transportation improvement projects that will not compromise a region's ability to meet National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in the future. Known as "conformity", this ruling is the determination by MPOs and the U.S. DOT that transportation plans and programs in nonattainment areas meet the purpose of the area's air quality plan as reflected in the State Implementation Plans (SIP). The underlying purpose of the SIP is to reduce pollutant emissions to levels that comply with the NAAQS. According to the 1 990 CAAA' transportation plans and programs cannot: create new NAAQS violations in a region, . increase the frequency or severity of existing NAAQS violations in a region, nor delay the attainment of the NAAQS by the region. In addition, the 1 990 CAAA set the stage for the development and implementation of transportation control measures designed to mitigate motor vehicle emissions by decreasing travel demand or the grow~inVMT. Such transportation demand strategies require the collection or development of new date to facilitate the measurement of a strategy's effectiveness in reducing VMT, the number oftrips, and emissions. Similarly, conformity creates new data needs for ~v~lilpitin~ ~ n~rtirl~lqr ~rr`;~tc~ impact on air quality. ~ ~ r~ ~1 ~ ~1 JO VJ ~ L ~ Together, ISTEA and the 1990 CAAA expand the spectrum of the type and quantity of data necessary to support the transportation planning process. New and emerging planning requirements of ISTEA and the 1 990 CAAA accord new responsibilities to planning organizations-especially the emphasis on multimodal planning coordination, congestion and demand management, and environmental concerns. For instance, the development, deployment, and evaluation of the six management systems suggested by ISTEA (but no longer mandated) require new and expanded data for passenger and freight multimodal planning activities undertaken by state-DOTs and MPOs. However, no comprehensive guidance exists for planning organizations to assess data needs, assess alternative collection methods and sources, and integrate databases for improving the efficiency of data access' updating' and use. A major objective ofthis study is to develop a convenient and comnrehen.sive qa~,ro.e rif inEnrm~timn ^~.+ ~ ~ ~.,~ ~ __11 __._ _ _ ^_ _1_ ' ~ ~uvuc unto I I;;, miu ~;ollec;~lun lecnmques ror performing strategic assessments of data needs. Specific objectives include providing transportation planning organizations with a manual to guide their assessment of data needs, select among alternatives to meet these needs, and improvise to fill gaps in available data or gaps in data that are expensive to collect. Other objectives of this study include specifying methods for data integration that nrnmot~ ~ffiri`~n~`r in Acts q^~=c~c' ^~1 distribution among the various users. -"~ ~r ~~ ~-^~~~~~~} lA1 ~ CL~J~_~O Hillel NCHRP-Multimodal Transportation 8 Project 8-3265) Planning Data

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Jack Faucett Associates, Inc. Final Report The overall study is divided into the following seven tasks. `~arch 1997 Task 1: Perform a Strategic Assessment of Multimodal Transportation Planning Data Needs of MPOs and State-DOTs. Task 2: Evaluate Current MPO and State-DOT Data Organization Frameworks and Propose New Frameworks that Reflect Data Needs Stemming from ISTEA and the 1990 CAAA. Task 3: Develop an Interim Report that Documents the Results of Task 1 and Task 2. Task 4: Develop a Compendium of Primary and Secondary Data Collection Practices Employed by MPOs and State-DOTs. Task 5: Perform an Economic Analysis of Transportation Data Programs. Task 6: Examine Data Integration Strategies to Relate Transportation Demand, Supply, Performance, and Impact Data in the Context of Multimodal Planning Models. Task 7: Prepare a Final Report with a Stand-Alone Appendix of Guidelines to MPOs and State-DOTs. A major purpose of this research is to sort out the data issues and to identify how planning agencies need to cooperate in sharing data of common usefulness among the planning agencies. Central ideas emerging from Tasks 1 and 2 are important to this major purpose as set forth below. The planning organization should adopt a classification system for exchange of data but have no obligation to apply an unique classification system to the vast amount of data that is only internal to its operations. The diversity of its responsibility for internal operations leaves it an option as how to organize data for its internal operation. There is a definite limit to which data need to be interchanged between MPOs and state DOTs. The most amount of data in the custody of MPOs is primarily administrative data. Much of the administrative detail must be left to competitive leadership among the local bureaucracies. Competitive demonstration ofthe efficient functioning of the transportation system within the local area challenges the competence ofthe officials in charge. The internal administration includes most of the maintenance and operation of the system. Most of the expansion of the system involves detailed internal planning of the local system in context with approval of state DOTs that are concerned with route connectivity beyond the local scope of area. NCHRP-MultimodalTransportation 9 Project8-32(5) Planning Data

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Jack FauceaAssoc~ates, inc. Final Report _ Marc, 1997 . _ Strategic planning in each planning organization must be concealed with Me internal operations arid the external interface relationships with which the local agencies must cope. Strategic assessment of data needs is the focus of Task 1. The emphasis is on the consolidation of data needs based on the identification of the mission of the specific planning agency arid stresses the need to reduce overlap in data detail. However, the detail with which the internal data is organized he the nI~nnin~ err;> ;' Of `~ `~ 1~:~:_ _ ~_~_! for ~ up, ta teJ~ C(J line ucc~szon or each agency. we have simply recommended art organization that can save resources. Any decisions on implementation and We time schedule remains flexible to the operation affecting data internal to planning agencies. The external concerns of the planning agencies are the elements of strategic planning that require interchange of data information. Ibis requires cooperation among Me planning agencies in defining and standardizing the data exchanged. This activity facilitates the exchange and enhances Me efficiency of Me cooperative planning processes. Therefore, it is essential that a standardized data system needs to be established to include any data of inter-agency concern. The system outlined in Task 2 classifies data into four components: supply, demand, performance arid environmental impact. Data elements and data items under each component are illustrated. The planning agencies must understand that this system or some other standardized system must be agreed upon and only the appropriate data cells must be implemented. General information theory as it applies to internal data (discussed in Task 2) is elective on the part of planning agencies. However, a good reference on strategic planning as it applies to external interfaces among planning agencies is John Al Bryson's Strategic Planningfor Public and Nonprof t Organizations, Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco, CA, 1995. This dichotomy of strategic planning responsibility among the planning organizations is of utmost importance. NCHRP-Multimodal Transportation 10 Project 8-32(5) Planning Data