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I. Test Methods I.! Measurement Method (Metrics/ Materials/ Apparatus/ Measurement Time Frame/ Data Sampling) G-1

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GO Test Methods . _ c _ _ ~ ~_ _ _ G '> _ E o E F ', ; E , cat ~ ~ i, 2'_ c, con _ _ ~O ~A c O _ E _ (D , E _ E a) o o ~ ~ E q) _ _ lD 0 Q fD 00' C~ .~ {g u) CDC C ~ U} C US =~F -~1-18~8N ~ UTU ~ O O O O O O O O O l ~r ~ TT~: r r ~r ~r~rrT~T~ n r :~r ~: TT~E E] i ~ T: T~ :~ F e ~ ~ I ~ _ .C _ ~ o G ., .o - ~ c C G) 'u' E 8 u) .c ~ U) g ~ oE G-2

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GO Test Methods I.2 Protocol (Procedures/ Instructions/ Recording Sheet) G-3

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G-1: Test Methods 1. Summary of Testing Procedure and Instruction Phase Introduction Testing Procedure / Instruction . 1. Introduce a subject the prototype testing. 2. Ask the subject to sign an informed consent fond. 3. Record the participant profile. 4. Measure a max. grip force of the subject using the hand dynamometer three times; the interval time between trials is at least 2 min. The subject's right forearm and wrist should be in a neutral position while sitting comfortably; the subject's elbow should be flexed to 90 degrees; the grip span of the hand dynamometer should be set at 1.5 inch. 5. Measure a grip span of the subject using the grip glider three times. 6. Attach visual marks on the subject. 1. Set the seat to the initial condition (the seat should be placed all the way back and down). 9. Ask the subject to adjust the seat ensuring a comfortable driving posture, a natural reach, and a sufficient visibility. 3. Record the adjustments. . 1. Ask the subject to hold the mid of steering wheel at '9 and 3' (positions of a clock), and to reach the reference points of LIP / accelerator / brake pedal / floor mounted signals sequentially. 2. Measure each posture and evaluate each reach according to the reach rating table. 3. Ask the subject to evaluate the workstation from 1 (undesirable) to 5 (excellent) in teens of visibility, postural comfort, reach, and adjustability. 4. Ask the subject to get in and out the workstation three times and to evaluate the workstation in terms of ingress/egress from 1 to 5. 5. Ask the subject to assess discomfort of each body part in the workstation from 1 (uncomfortable) to 5 (very comfortable). 1. Set the components to the initial condition (the seat should be placed all the way back and down; the steering wheel should be at most upright position; the LIP and RIP should be placed all the way forward and down). 2. Ask the subject to adjust the workstation components (seat / steering wheel / left instrument panel / right instrument panel / . mirrors) ensuring a comfortable driving posture. . Driving Testing distance ~time (fur) speed 0.3 Pre-driving (standard bus) Pre-driving (prototype) adjusting workstation components stitic driving adjusting workstation components GO 0.2 0.3 0.2

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GO Test Methods 2. Prologue Testing P~i~ r ~-= ~ Section 0. Introduciion T. Introduce a subject the prototype testing. 2. Ask the subject to sign an informed consent fop-. 3. Record the participant profile. 4. Measure a max. grip force of the subject using the hand dynamometer three times; the interval time between trials is at least 2 min. The subject's right forearm and wrist should be in a neutral position while sitting comfortably; the subject's elbow should be flexed to 90 degrees; the grip span of the hand dynamometer should be set at ~ .5 inch. 5. Measure a grip span of the subject using the grip glider three times. 6. Attach visual marks on the subject. G-5

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G-I: Test Methods Section I. Pre-driving (standard bus) I. adjusting workstation components 1. Set the seat to the initial condition (the seat should be placed all the way back and down). 2. Ask the subject to adjust the seat ensuring a comfortable driving posture, a natural reach. and a sufficient visibility. 3. Record the adjustments. Il. static driving I. Ask the subject to hold the mid of steering wheel at '9 and 3' (positions of a clock), and to reach the reference points of LIP / accelerator / brake pedal / floor mounted signals sequentially. 2. Measure each posture and evaluate each reach according to the reach rating table. 3. Ask the subject to evaluate the workstation from i (undesirable) to 5 (excellent) in terms of visibility, postural comfort, reach, and adjustability. 4. Ask the subject to get in and out the workstation three times and to evaluate the workstation in teens of ingress/egress from ~ to 5. 5. Ask the subject to assess discomfort of each body part in the workstation from (uncomfortable) to 5 (very comfortable). GO

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Gel: Test Methods Section 2. Pre-d~riving (profotype) I. adjusting workstation components . Set the components to the initial condition (the seat should be placed all the way back and down; the steering wheel should be at most upright position; the LIP and RIP should be placed all the way forward and down). 2. Ask the subject to adjust the workstation components (seat / steering wheel / left instrument pane} / right instrument panel / mirrors) ensuring a comfortable driving posture, a natural reach, and a sufficient visibility. 3. Record the adjustments. Il. static driving . Measure the eye height of the subject, the horizontal distance of eye point from the workstation origin, downward viewing angles with the visibility pole, and the field of views of the left and right mirrors at the specified locations. 2. Ask the subject to hold the mid of steering wheel at '9 and 3' (positions of a clock), and to reach the reference points of LIP / RIP / accelerator / brake pedal / floor mounted signals sequentially. 3. Measure each posture and evaluate each reach according to the reach rating table. 4. Ask the subject to evaluate the workstation from 1 (undesirable) to 5 (excellent) in terms of visibility, postural comfort, reach, and adjustability. 5. Ask the subject to assess discomfort of each body part in the workstation from (uncomfortable) to 5 (very comfortable). G-7

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G-I: Test Methods Section 3. Driving fiprototype I. oval track driving 1. Ask the subject to grip the steering wheel with a maximum force and measure the grip force using the FSR glove. 2. Attach accelerometers on the floor and the hip of the subject. 3. Explain the driving course layout. 4. Apply the safety belt. 5. Ask the subject to drive the oval track once around for familiarization. 6. Ask the subject to simulate the picking-up/depositing passenger tasks at the bus stop C.179 through`643. 7. Videotape driving postures at the 2nd and 1 9th laps. 8. Collect accelerometer data at the 1 0th lap. 9. Ask the subject to assess discomfort of each body part in the workstation every ~ O laps from 1 (uncomfortable) to 5 (very comfortable). Il. lock-to-Iock driving I. Ask the subject to drive the durability track. 2. Let the subject wear the FSR glove. 3. Videotape driving postures. 4. Collect grip force data using the FSR glove. 0-8

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GO Test Methods Section 4. Post-clriving (prolotype) I. adiustin~ workstation components ~ ~ -= I. Ask the subject to adjust the workstation components (seat / steering wheel / left instrument pane! / right instrument pane! / mirrors) if necessary ensuring a comfortable driving posture, a natural reach, and a sufficient visibility. 2. Record the adjustments. Il. static driving . Measure the eye height of the subject, the horizontal distance of eye point from the workstation origin' downward viewing angles with the visibility pole, and the field of views of the left and right mirrors at the specified locations. 2. Ask the subject to hold the mid of steering wheel at '9 and 3' (positions of a clock), and to reach the reference points of LIP / RIP / accelerator / brake pedal / floor mounted signals sequentially. 3. Measure each posture and evaluate each reach according to the reach rating table. 4. Ask the subject to evaluate the workstation from ~ (undesirable) to 5 (excellent' in terms of visibility, postural comfort, reach. adjustability, strength requirement. nde quality, and ease of use. 5. Ask the subject to get in and out the workstation three times and to evaluate the workstation in terms of ingress/egress from ~ to 5. 6. Ask the subject to assess discomfort of each body part in the workstation from (uncomfortable) to 5 (very comfortable). IlI. open-end question I. Ask the subject to give any comments or recommendations on the work station. G-9

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G-I: Test Methods 3. Ergonomic Bus Operator Workstation Prototype Test Test Administrators: Section 0. Participant Prof le Name Test Date: Age: Gender: Male Female Stature: cm Weight: Ibs. Transit Company: Years of Bus Driving Experience: yrs. Present Vehicle Type & Model: Handedness: Left Right Max. Grip Strength: (1) Kg (2) Kg Grip Span: ( I ) cm (3) Kg (2) cm (3) cm G-lo

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G-I: Test Methods Section I. Pre-Driving (Stan card Bus) I. Adjustments Seat SRP hor. distance from W.O. cm SRP height from floor cm angle bwn seat-pan & seat-back deg. seat-back angle _ Il. Objective Measurement A. Posture Joint Movement APRP (right leg) un pressed BPRP (right leg) full pressed un pressed fil11 pressed High Beam (left leg) Steering Wheel (right am) LlPRP (left arm) shoulder extension (-) / flexion (+) elbow flexion (+) hip flexion (+) knee flexion (+) ankle dorsal (-) / planter (+) flexion B. Reach Reach Point | I | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 Mid of Steering Wheel LIPRP Accelerator Pedal RP Brake Pedal RP ~ High Beam Switch C. Ingress / Egress t: ~ __ 4_ .'' term '~~~~ ~~ . ~..... G-11

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Left Hip/Thigh aRer 10 lass Of after 20 laps of after lOCk-tO-IOCk oval track dOving oval track. dnvint driving N 23 23 23 Average -0.7 -1 .1 -0.9 S.D. 2.2 ~2.8 3.7 Comfort Right HiplThigh after 10 laps Of oval track driving 23 -0.8 2.3 . after 20 laps of oval track driving 23 Comfort after lock-to-lock 4.0 dnving 3.0 N Average S.D. Len Knee after 10 laps of after 20 laps of after lock-to-lock oval track Driving oval track driving Ending N 23 23 23 Average 0.0 0.1 0.0 S.D. 1 7 2.2 2.3 Comfort 4 0 3.0 G-II.4: Postural Comfort 2. Cumulative Body Comfort Level Change - Prototype Bus (Continued) Cumulative Body Comfort Change - Left Hip/Thigh 4 0 3 0 2.0 1.0 - 0.0 1 o aRer 1 Haps of aRer 20 laps of after loc3-to-lock oval track driving oval trap driving driving -2.0 - -3.0 - 4.0 Discomton Test Session Cumulative Body Comfort Change - Right Hip/Thigh 1 .o - o.o 1.0 aner 1 flaps of after 20 laps of aRer lock-to-lock oval track dnv~ng oval trap driving driving -2.0 - ~ -3.0 - ^.0 DiscomtoQ Test Session Cumulative Body Comfort Change - Left Knee 1.o o.o 1 o aRer 1 Haps of after 2~,1aps of after lock-to-lock oval Pack dnving oval track driving driving -2 0 -3.0 - 4.0 - DiscomtoQ Test Session G-152

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Right Knee after 10 laps of after 20 laps of after lock-to-lock oval track driving oval track driving driving N 23 23 23 Average -0.8 -0.9 -0.9 S. D. 2.4 2.7 2.8 Left Ankle/Foot after ~ O laps of after 20 laps of after lock-to-lock _ oval track driving ovi'! tack dr v ng driving 23 2 3 23 S D 0 2 0.2 1 4 Right AnklelFoot after 10 laps of after 20 laps of after lock-to-lock oval track driving oval track doping Unv~ng Ave age 23 -0 8 22 S.D. _~ 2.4 2.4 Comton Discomfort Comfon G-II.4: Postural Con~fo~t 2. Cumulative Body Comfort Level Change - Prototype Bus (Continued) Cumulative Body Comfort Change - Right Knee 4.0 _ 3.0 _ ~ 2.0 - c (~) 1.0 > 0.0 -1 o aRer 1161aps of aRer 29~1aps of aRer loql-to-lock oval trade driving oval track driving doming E -2.0 - ~ _ -3.0 4.0- Discomfort Test Session Cumulative Body Comfort Change - Left Ankle/Foot 4.0 3.0 ~ 2.0 1.0 0.0 -2.0 -3.0 - 4.0 . 1.0 aRer 10 laps of after 20 laps of aRer lock-to-lock oval track diving oval track driving ding Test Session Comfon Cumulative Body Comfort Change - Right Ankle/Foot 4.0 3.0 2.0 - J -1 .0 o 1.0 0.0 -2.0 -3.0 4.0 Discomlon - - - aRer 1.1aps of after 2~1aps of aRer loc'l-to-lock oval tram ding oval track driving among Test Session G-153 -

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G-II.4: Postural Condor 3. ANOVA Results on Bow Part Comfort I,eve! Changes in Prototype Workstation SourceAdjusted SS DF Adjusted MS F P a_ . Stature 39.8 219.9 9.72 0.000 Body Part 19.4 141.4 0.68 0.800 Test Session 23.2 211.6 5.67 0.004 Stature x Body Part 14.3 28 0.5 0.25 1.000 Stature x Test Session 45.3 4 11.3 5.54 0.000 Joint x Test Session 34.5 28 1.2 0.60 0.949 Stature x Body Part x Test Session 48.6 56 0.9 0.42 1.000 Error 1842.2 900 2.0 Total 2067.4 1034 G-154

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G-I1.4: Postural Co~nfort ._ ._ y 1_ o o ~n Q - - o o - ._ ._ - o m Q ,0 _. cn ., ~n - o o m . _ O .= a) o L a, _ - c y c C~ Ct ~D c y _ .= CD .C~ ~ t ._ m -Y: m CL "C _ ~ ~ T. .= ~ ~ .m "C I J,u, - 3 .~) D Ct U.! D LLl a, ~ :D ._ o cn a 0 ~ J o cn U~ o _ ~ ~ o _ N _ O N . ~ O U~. ~ OCR for page 533
II.5 Grip Force G-157

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2. ANOVA Results on Grip Force Data 2.1 Analysis of Variance on Max. Grip Force Source SS DF MS F P Gender439.71 1439.71 10.24 0.006 Stature Group8.86 24.43 0.10 0.903 Transit Bus Driving Expenence97.55 248.77 1.14 0.347 Error644.16 1542.94 Total1190.28 20 2.2 Analysis of Variance on Grip Force Exerted Using RMS Data OF MS FP Gend~6.38 1 6.38 0.80 0.385 Stature Group4.86 2 2.43 0.31 0.742 Transit Bus Driving Experience4.17 2 2.09 0.26 0.773 Error119.46 1 5 7.96 Total134.87 20 2.3 Analysis of Variance on Grip Force Exerted Using "Impulse" Data SourceSS DF MS F P .. 1 12.03 4.04 0.063 Stature Group13.64 2 6.82 2.29 0.135 Transit Bus Driving Experience1.58 2 0.79 0.26 0.771 Error44.60 15 2.97 Total71.85 20 G-158

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3. Correlation Analysis Results on Grip Force Data _ Grip Force Exerted Grip Force Exerted . ~Using RMS data ~Using "Impulse" Data Max. Grip Force 0.285 0.375 (p = 0.210) ~(p = 0.094) G-159

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II.6 Ride Quality G-160

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Il.7 Comments and Recommendations G-161

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1. Test Results of Comments & Recommendations on Prototype Bus Mo: Initials | Comments and Recommendations l 1 RXE hanging pedal and small steering wheel 2 JXB 1. needs more spacing between LIP and RIP for more knee clearance; 2. Iikes small steering wheel hanging pedal and RIP layout; 3. comfortable workstation 1. needs steering hub tilt since the subject was used to flatter steering wheel angle; 2. Iikes treadle pedal better than hanging 3 PKM pedal; 3. Iikes size of steering wheel; 4. safety factor with door open control - some kid could reach and open it 4 JXO 1. Iikes RIP layout; 2. treadle pedal needs foot travels between brake and accelerator pedals instead of pivoting around right heel; 3. Iikes size and padding of steering wheel; 4. no stretch in the workstation _ 1. Iikes RIP layout (hazard and door control locations) - fast and easy control; 2. the subject would like a 'cushioned' seat with 5 ~XB all air out in a lowest position; 3. rel 6 PEC problem for downward view 7 controls; 3. Iikes the stop announcement of the talking bus 8 JTB 1. beautiful workstation _ 9 BEM 1. farebox height and/or location obstructs too much. it needs to move farebox toward the driver so it doesn't block the filed of vision; 2. Iikes adjustability of the workstation; 3. Iikes the steering wheel; 4. the hanging pedal angle is a lot better than that of conventional bus 10 KJM 11 RAS = = the steering wheel; 3. the farebox creates a blind spot 12 SCR way. we have to push them with a whole leg 1. the plate area of accelerator pedal is too small; 2. needs too much force to press the pedals; 3. pedal separation is too 13 DC8 close together; 4. Iikes a bigger steering wheel; S. Iikes the seat; 6. the angle of steering column obstructs visibility of PIP at certain angles; 7. the subject would rather make an announcement by himself than using the play message of the talking bus 14 ALD 1. the operation of the play message button of talking bus requires taking eyes off from road. it could be moved closer in. RLH 1. high force is required on accelerator and brake pedals; 2. the subject didn't like the angle of the pedals because of high 15 sitting position. his posture is more suited to flatter pedals; 3. Iikes four-way flasher on LIP but locating it on RIP was not a bad idea; 4. the subject didn't like air seat unless it is stiff- didn't like bouncing of seat; 5. a bigger steering wheel might be better- 20 inch maybe 16 WAM likes having J-handle type of control for doors like the old way; 3. the subject didn't like separate switches for the two doors; 4. Iikes the seat 17 PEW 1. Iikes turn signals on floor; 2. the accelerator pedal was a little hard to press; 3. Iikes hanging brake pedal since he can get more foot pressure 18 MOW 1. pedal size is not big enough to find easily; 2. accelerator pedal requires too much force; 3. LIP is too close - make it thinne and longer to allow more clearance; 4. RIP is too close in towards the driver laterally; S. Iikes the seat; 6. Iikes the steering wheel tilt; 7. put the door open switch next to four way flasher; 8. Iikes two-piece mirror with a convex mirror below flat mirror 19 MAC 1. the brake pedal needs to move away from the steering wheel column; 2. prefers ODA controls to farebox controls _ 20 KAK 1. farebox obstructs visibility - moves it back towards rear of bus; 2. Iikes RIP layout; 3. Iikes steering wheel; 4. suggested convex mirrors under plane mirrors l | RA |1. LIP needs o move away laterally for more clearance of leR leg; 2. Iikes RIP layout with frequently user] controls together 22 CAM 1. accelerator pedal is difficult to press - high force requirement 1. instrument layout is excellent - made it easier to concentrate on the job; 2. Iikes hanging pedals - places more strain on hip 23 NRK instead of ankles and more strength capability of hip I A; ~ |1. the spoke. If the steering wheel were obstructing the gauges; 2. Iikes the no-bounce (stability) of seat; 3. Iikes the steering wheel adjustment: 4. more leg clearance is needed to LIP G-162