Click for next page ( 116


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 115
Section 4 - Public Participation . BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES F ROM THE NCHRP 8~32 INTERACTIVE DATABASE CONCERNING INNOVATIVE METHODS FOR PUBLIC PARTICIPATION ABOVE THE PROJECT LEVEL 4-1. 2020 Florida Transportation Plan Public Involvement Process. Florida Growth Management Conflict Resolution Consortium. Florida. 4-2. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Public Participation Handbook Balog, J. N.; A. N. &hawarz; J. E. Rimmer, and M. M. Hood. (Project ACTION, National Easter Seal Society, Federal Transit Administration, Ketron, Inc.~. 1993. This handbook includes information regarding each of the public participation requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. They are: outreach; consultation with individuals with disabilities; opportunity for public comment; plans in accessible formats; public hearing; summary of significant issues raised during the public comment period; and an ongoing mechanism for the participation of individuals with disabilities. Each is discussed in a separate section. In addition, other important features of a public participation process are included: use of the media; surveys of riders and service providers; performance monitoring; and planning the public participation process schedule. Each of these is also discussed in a separate section. 4-3. Can Road Builders Join the Public in Influencing Transportation Policy? A Minnesota Case Study. Johns, R. C. and F. J. Corrigan. Transportation Research Record 1400. 1993, Pp 41~7. Tremendous changes are occurring in the formulation of transportation policy. The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) is revolutionizing approaches to transportation programs, funding, and decision-making authority. These new policies, which emerged and survived against more traditional approaches, are indicators of long-term changes and forces that are affecting transportation in American society. Transportation constituency groups in particular have been affected, with new groups being formed that represent the public's growing influence. This change has been suggested by researchers calling for new coalitions and demonstrated by increased public leadership in transportation projects and the emergence of new voices and groups in transportation policy debates. One constituency group, The Minnesota TransportationAlliance,is examinedto see how these forces have affected traditional transportation advocacy groups. The Alliance, formerly ~5 called Minnesota Good Roads, is transforming itself from a road builder organization to a broad-based public education and catalyst organization. It is attempting to bring together road builder groups and public representatives in a new coalition that will strengthen the position of transportation in its competition for attention and resources with other public issues. Whether or not it is successful remains to be seen, but its broad-based coalition and participation mechanisms may make it much more prepared for transportation challenges of the 1 990s than are groups that are clinging to old traditions or making only small incremental changes. Minnesota. 4-4. Can the Community Involvement Process be an Asset to Project Execution in Major Roadway Developments? A Case Study of a Delaware Experience. Alvarez, J. J.; R. Harbeson, Jr., and W. F. Kerr. Transportation Research Record 1262. 1990, Pp 169-180. After almost 30 years of controversy, the Delaware Division of Highways has begun construction of Delaware Route 1, the major, 47-mile component of a new north-south limited access highway system connecting Wilmington to Dover and points south. The controversy was resolved through a thorough, proactive effort to involve citizens in project planning and design. The process was structured so that the community involvement effort drove the engineering design work. It consisted of a series of cycles of thorough public discussion that commenced before any design work was completed and was repeated before each major decision point was reached. The process was interactive, incorporating stages of problem definition, conceptual solutions, multiple alternative solutions, and refined alternatives and finally selected an alternative. The process met all state and federal guidelines and regulations regarding public participation. Fast resolution of project location and design approval, about 5.S years from commencing location study to construction, resulted from the effort. This experience suggests that a proactive approach to citizen involvement could benefit highway and transit agencies fed ng ever more challenging political environments. The experience also reveals a tangential problem in project review procedures of federal agencies, such as the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Environmental Protection Agency,

OCR for page 115
Project Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 (1) that demand detailed review of project plans after public discussion has occurred. Delaware. 4-5. Citizen Participation IJsing a Soft Systems Perspective. Khisty, C. J. Transportation Research Record 1400. 1 993. Rational intervention in human activity systems such as transportation planning can be achieved through effective citizens' participation. Soft systems methodology provides one such framework and is an inquiring system used to tackle ill-structured problem situations in planning. It enables its users to learn their way to taking action and to improve a problem-ridden situation. This methodology marks a paradigm shift in dealing with complex planning problems. A soft system methodology, formulated by researchers at the University of Lancaster, United Kingdom, is described and this methodology is applied in a case study to demonstrate how it can be used in citizens' participation as applied to transportation planning. This methodology has proved to be effective and easy to use. Illinois. 4-6. Citizens Action Plan. The Tri-State Transportation Campaign. 4-7. Collaborative Transportation Planning. Guidelines for Implementing ISTEA and the BAAS Program for Community Problem Solving. Apr 1993, Working Paper. "The original version of this paper was written bv Marcelle E. DuPraw and William R. Potapchuk of the Program for Community Problem Solving at the request of the Business Transportation Council (BTC). The BTC is a volunteer group established to communicate the business community's perspectives on transportation issues to the federal government and to strengthen the working relationship between the federal government and the business sector. The paper was conceived as an effort to help the Council understand how collaborative planning models could be used to bring business leaders and other stakeholders together to develop regional transportation plans under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Act of 1991 (ISTEA). Subsequent discussions about the ideas contained in this paper with a broad range of parties holding stakes in transportation planning led the authors to believe that publishing a slightly revised version of it in partnership with a diverse set of transportation stakeholders would facilitate broader discussion of its content. We believe such discussion is crucial if the ideas this paper contains are to be useful. We are very pleased to publish this monograph jointly with the Business Transportation Council, the Surface Transportation Policy Project (STPP), and the National Association of Regional Councils (NARC). STPP is a network of diverse organizations and coalitions whose goal is to develop a national transportation policy that better serves the environmental, social and economic interests of the nation. NARC promotes understanding of multi-purpose regional councils, represents its members ninth Congress and the federal government, provides technical assistance and educational services, and fosters the exchange of information through its publications. The Program for Communitv Problem Solving (PC PS) assists communities all over the country in developing more collaborative ways of making controversial decisions and building a civic culture that nurtures collaborative decision making.U Quotedfrom the Foreward. 4-8. Community Involvement Manual. Federal Aviation Administration. Springfield, VA. National Technical Information Service, Aug 1 990,FM-EE-90-03. "Aviation noise remains one of the most serious constraints to expansion and improvement of the air transportation system. If the national system is to keep pace with the growing demand for air travel, a number of technical and policy issues must be resolved at the national and community levels. In recent years, communities near airports have become increasingly concerned about noise and more willing to get involved in this and other airport planning issues. Community involvement can be a very useful tool in developing acceptable approaches to the capacity and environmental issues facing airports. Experience shows that involving the community in the planning process can produce better plans. Further, plans developed with appropriate community involvement are more likely to be acceptable and, thus, more likely to be successful. The Community Involvement Manual is written for planning professionals and others dealing with airport development and the concerns of airport communities. Community involvement is a broad and evolving area of study. This document is not a textbook addressing all aspects of this topic. The manual is designed to provide practical guidelines for involving the common ty in a variety of aviation planning situations. Consultation with public affairs professionals through the FAA's Headquarters, Regional, and Technical and Aeronautical Center Public Affairs staff is encouraged. These professionals can help to identify the need for community involvement and to develop a successful program. Since planning and community involvement situations will vary with different airports, communities, issues, and points in the planning process, this manual outlines a process for identifying community involvement needs, evaluating techniques to meet these needs and designing a workable program." ~6

OCR for page 115
Section 4 - Public Participation Quoted from the Introduction. 4-9. Consumers and Users. Hayes, Sandra Echols; Cal Pipal; Delaine Eastin, and Kirk P. Brown. Transportation Research Record 1243: Future of Statewide Transportation Planning. 1989, Pp32. 4-10. Customer-Based Quality in Transportation. Stein-Hudson, Kathleen. (Howard/Stein-Hudson Associates, Inc., Boston, MA)., In Progress; NCHRP Project 20-24~1 0~. The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (MSHTO) and its member departments are committed to continually improving the quality of their organizations and activities - a process often referred to as Total Quality Management (TQ M). For example, AASHTO, along with the Federal Highway Administration and industry representatives, has become party to a National Quality Initiative and signed a National Policy on the Quality of Highways. Many organizational efforts on quality begin with concerns about products and employees. However, in recent years, American businesses have been more successful when they took a broader approach and focused on"customer-based"quality. Quality achievements in products and by employees are necessary and commendable, but a quality-oriented program must be firmly grounded in "customer-based" quality. All efforts to improve product development and employee performance could fail unless there is a clear understanding of the needs, desires, and expectations of the customer. Therefore, research should be undertaken to determine the following: (1 ) what the "transportation customer" needs, desires, and expects; (2) the components and indicators of quality as discerned by the customer; (3) transportation program objectives and performance measures for the movement of both people and goods; and (4) strategies for improving product development and employee efforts. 4-11. Customer Communications: The Media and the Messages. Stringfellow, William G. (Colorado Department of Transportation). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. Colorado. 4-12. Department of Transportation Public Involvement Programs: Hatton Canyon Freeway Project. California State Assembly Committee. (Sacramento, CA). 1989. Califomia. 4-13. Designing the Public Involvement Plan. Schwartz, Marcy S. (CH2M Hill). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1 995. 4-14. Determining Appropriate Levels of Public Participation in the Environmental Assessment Process. Driedger, T. (Athabasca University). Transportation and National Prosperity - Proceedings of the 1993 Annual Conference of the Transportation Association of Canada, Volume 4, Sep 19 1993, Ottawa, Ontario. Each project undergoing an environmental assessment has its own unique set of circumstances. Thus the approach to public participation suitable for one situation may not be suitable for another. When developing solutions for environmentally sensitive projects, the degree of public participation can vary widely. At one extreme there is little or no public participation. In this situation the proponent determines the "best" solution to a problem and submits this solution for an environmental assessment (command approach). At the other extreme, the proponent works with the public to develop a mutually acceptable solution, in effect it is joint decision making (consensus approach). This paper examines: 1 ) the options along the spectrum, 2) the situational variables which influence the selection of a particular approach to public participation, and 3) the implications different levels of participation have for a proponent. It also presents a mapping chart to help determine the level of participation appropriate for any given set of variables. References are made to two projects: 1) the proposal by Transport Canada to construct additional runways at Lester B. Pearson International Airport and 2) the activities of the Siting Task force established by the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources to examine locations for storing low level radioactive waste. 4-15. Developing Customer Focus in Statewide Transportation Planning Process. Kroeter, J. Errett; Lawrence F. Cunningham, and Clifford E. Young. (University of Colorado, Denver3. Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. 4-16. A Fair Say: Public Participation in Transportation Decislons. Hathaway, J. Surface Transportation Policy Project Res Guide. May 1992, Pp 4. This paper identifies the public participation requirements which affect transportation planning under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. 4-17. FHWA/FTA Interim Policy on Public Involvement. FHWA/FrA Questions and Answers ~7

OCR for page 115
Project Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 (1 ) on Public Involvement in Transporation Dec ision making. Federal Highway Administration and Federal Transit Administration. "Secretary of Transportation Federico Pena's Strategic Plan establishes the objective of putting people first in all of the Department's endeavors. Consistent with this objective, it is the policy of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) to aggressively support proactive public involvement at all stages of planning and project development. State departments of transportation, metropolitan planning organizations, and transportation providers are required to develop, with the public, effective involvement processes which are custom-tailored to local conditions. The performance standards for these proactive public involvement processes include early and continuous involvement; reasonable public availability of technical and other information; collaborative input on alternatives, evaluation criteria and mitigation needs; open public meetings where matters related to Federal-aid highway and transit programs are being considered; and open access to the deasiomnaking process prior to closure. ... This guidance responds to questions raised during the eight regional FHWA1FTA outreach meetings on the planning regulations (23 CFR 450) as well as at other meetings where the planning regulations have been discussed." 4-18. Finding the Balance between the Public Participation Process and Progress: A Dilemma. Butler, Gal F. (Dowling Colleg, Oakdale, NY). Submitted to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 171995, Seattle, Washington. 4-19. Focus Groups with Internal and External Customers. Finn, Deborah Wathen and P. Redeker. (New Jersey Transit Corporation). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. New Jersey. 4-20. Geographic Information System Environment for Transportation Management Systems. Johnson, Brad H. and Michael J. Demetsky. Transporta don Research Record 1429: Multimodal Priority Setting and Application of Geographic Information Systems. May 1994, Pp 67-73. The management systems that are required of states by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 have a common element in their need for a well-established data base. In this regard, computerized geographic information systems (GlSs) are emerging as efficient and effective tools for managing transportation information resources. These systems integrate geographic (or spatial) information displayed on maps, such as roadway alignment, with attribute (or tabular) information characterizing features, such as composition and age. The development of a prototype transportation management GIS data base for pavement management is described to illustrate the use of a GIS framework for transportation management systems. The data base that was developed covered two counties in Virginia, and the representation of the roadway system in these two jurisdictions established the reference for the pavement attnbute data. The same geographic data base could be used for other management systems, although it would need to include slight additions for safety and bridge management and additional faalities for congestion, ~ntermodal, and public transportation management. Virginia. 4-21. How I Turned a Critical Public into Useful Consultants. Johnson, Peter T. Harvard Business Review. Jan 1993, Pp 56-66. 4-22. Implementation of Citizen Advisory Committees as 8 Means to Provide Interactive Public Dialogue in the Development of an Environmental Impact Statement. Kusha, Siamak (Ayres Associates, Waukesha, Wl) and Brian Bliesner (Wisconsin Department of Transportation). Submitted to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1 99S, Seattle, Washington. Wisconsin. 4-23. Improving the Effectiveness of Public Meetings and Hearings. U. S. Department of Transportation. Jan 1991, Publication No. FHWA-HI-91-006. "During the past few years, effective interaction between transportation agencies and the public has become a significant factor in determining the parameters within which any highway project can be designed and constructed. Whereas a roadway proposal's viability once depended almost wholly on engineering and design criteria, the highway planning process today closely reflects a new set of values based on a combination of changing fiscal conditions and increasing environmental and social awareness. Accordingly, highway and transportation agencies throughout the country have attempted to develop techniques and programs that are designed to both facilitate community outreach and effectively utilize community input. The result, to date, is a compendium of public involvement processes and activities that reflects not only a conscientious approach to a new

OCR for page 115
Section 4 - Public Participation and difficult challenge but also a considerable amount of experimentation and creativity. Not surprisingly, the most innovative -- and effective -- community involvement activities that have been documented are those that relate to public meetings,and hearings. As the cornerstone of public participation efforts in virtually every state, the meeting/hearing component has been given the greatest amount of attention, analysis, and evaluation. It is for this reason that our guidebook, and the workshops to which it is a companion, focus specifically on the development and implementation of creative and realistic approaches to the preparation, conduct, and follow-up of meetings and hearings. Designed to serve as a "state of the art" report and introduction to a variety of techniques and processes, the guidebook is based on the practical community involvement experience of its authors, in combination with a review of public meeting and hearing materials developed by a cross-section of state highway and transportation departments. For the most part, the guidebook does not deal with the theoretical aspects of commun ty involvement. Instead, it attempts to relate theviability and effectiveness of a public participation program to such basic meeting and hearing elements as appropriateness of notification procedures; format; exhibits; handouts; presentations; and meeting conductor or hearing officer. In line with its practical orientation, the book focuses on relevancy and the need to treat each project, each agency, and each community as a unique entity with special resources and unavoidable constraints. It therefore functions literally as a"sampler" of community involvement techniques that are presented for consideration without recommendation or disavowal. Intended as a mechanism for the sharing of expenences, the guidebook will hopefully meet its objective by being of value to community involvement practitioners with diversified needs and interests." Quoted from the Introduction. 4-24. Increasing Public Participation in Rural Areas. Casteel, David B. and Joe P. Clark. (Texas Department of Transportation, Abilene, TX). Presented to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. The Abilene District of the Texas Department of Transportation consists of 1 3 counties composing 11,855 square miles of land; 3,629 centerline miles of highway; and a population of 242,400 persons. Approximately 120,000 persons IIVQ within the urban area of Abilene which comprises less than four percent (40/o) of the land area of the District Planning for transportation improvements in the urban area is the shared responsibility of the Abilene Metropolitan Planning Organization and the District, while planning for the remaining rural areas is the sole responsibility of the District. The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 placed greater emphasis on encouraging public input and participation in transportation planning. In 1994, the Abilene District initiated a systematic, proactive, public participation plan for the rural areas of the District. This plan utilized the basics of marketing and salesmanship and included county maintenance supervisors and area engineers as the first line contacts for project development. The plan relied heavily on mailouts, news releases, public surveys, and personal contacts with key City and County officials. Implementing the systematic plan, where contacts were at the local level, resulted in significant increases in public participation in the planning for transportation improvements in the rural areas of the District. Compared to 1993 numbers, attendance at public meetings to discuss transportation improvements increased over 275 percent (275%) with an excess of 140 persons attending informal and formal planning sessions. Written comments received in the District increased more than 200 percent (200%) over 1993 numbers, partially attributable to a simple transportation improvement request form made available at all District offices and mailed to City and County officials. Projects proposed by the public exceeded available planning allocations by more than 250 percent (250%~. This paper discusses the methods used to increase public participation in uch a vast sparsely populated area. Also discussed in the paper are aspects associated with accountability to the public for rejection or modification of their proposed projects and education of local office District employees in planning fundamentals. Texas. 4-25. Innovations in Public Involvement for Transportation Planning. Federal Highway Administration and Federal Transit Administration. (Washington, DC). Jan 1994. Federal regulations to implement the Intermoda Surface Transportation and Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991 call for proactive public involvement processes that respond not only to the requirements of ISTEA but also to those related Federal acts, such as the Clean Air Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act. This notebook contains a set of ~ 4 leaflets, each briefly describing a different technique of public involvement suited to both Metropolitan and statewide planning. It was prepared to support the public involvement processes required by the ISTEA and is intended to serve as a guide for transportation planners, citizens, public officials, and transportation providers. The notebook introduces agencies to some practical techniques of public involvement that can be used in a variety of situations. Each leaflet outlines the fundamentals of a technique along with its advantages or drawbacks, its potential applications and uses, its ~9

OCR for page 115
Project Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 (1 ) - utility to agendes and citizens, and its resource requirements. Examples of how these techniques are being applied across the country are included in this guidebook, along with telephone numbers for agencies where the technique is being used. 4-26. Involving Citizens in MPO Transportation Planning Under ISTEA Hoover, Julie. (Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade & Douglas, Inc., Jew York, NY). Jun 5 1995. "The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) and its accompanying Final Rule on Metropolitan Planning offer new mandates for public involvement in the transportation planning activities of Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs). Experience also suggests that effective Citizen participation can greatly benefit MPOs by increasing implementation prospects, reducing the risk of project delays and litigation, facilitating deasionmaking, improving planning, and enhancing the legitimacy of their planning processes. The purpose of this report is to help MPOs by gathering information about citizen participation in regional transportation planning and drawing lessons from it. Many of the reported techniques; principles, and trends are also applicable to statewide planning and project development. The participatory planning of the 1 970's had numerous, broad-ranging legacies. In all of the case study regions, there is a strong sense that citizen participation is important and an atmosphere of openness and responsiveness still prevails. Five of the six case study regions retain some or all of the planning approaches and participation mechanisms employed in the 1 970's. Here are the major - and still valid - findings of the 1977 case study research: (1) Sponsors of effective public involvement programs developed individualistic, creative processes tailored to local circumstances. It was difficult to generalize and draw standardized guidelines from the cases. (2) The only common ingredients in the most effective programs were attitudinal characteristics such as openness, responsiveness, and commitment. (3) Sponsors of successful. programs were willing to alter traditional planning processes and to accept new types of planning outputs. These might include policy planning, sub-area studies, and vision processes. (4) MPOs recognized that it is necessary to use tailored approaches for specialgroups such as minorities and persons of low income, as well as for supra-neighborhood groups such as theChamber of Commerce or the League of Women Voters. (5) Approaches based on involving the general public (in addition to community leaders and interest groups) are necessary." Quoted from the Introduction and Major Findings. 4-27. The Ithaca Model: Practical Experience in Community-Based Planning. Boyd, David S. and Amy G. Groniund. (Ithaca-Tompkins County Transportation Council). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. New Yorl<. 4-28. Minnesota'. ISTEA Area Transportation Partnerships: A Substate, Multicounty Geographic Basis for Making Transportation Investment Decision. Lowe, Robert, Jr., and Jon A. Bloom. (Minnesota Department of Transportation). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1 995. Minnesota. 4-29. Planning for Public Involvement. Bell-Stromberg, Janet. (Jefferson County, Colorado, Planning Department). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1 995. Colorado. 4-30. Post-lSTEA Public Involvement. Hoover, Julie. (Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade & Douglas, Inc., New York, NY). ISTEA and subsequent Final Rules regarding metropolitan planning, statewide planning, and management and monitoring systems call for increased citizen participation in transportation planning and programming. This paper reviews progress to date based on a survey of all 50 states and knowledge of over 100 MPOs. While some very good examples of participatory planning can be found, many states and MPOs seem to be responding to the ISTEA requirements in a fairly perfunctory manner. Examples of good practice and suggestions for improvement are offered. The purpose of this paper is fivefold: to summarize the recent history of public involvement, to gently prod those states and MPOs who are not embracing citizen participation wholeheartedly into doing so, to communicate information about successful participation so practitioners might benefit, to document the current state~f-practice for those who have interest, and to identify courses of action for public involvement advocates. Over the past three decades, the importance attributed to public involvement generally has tended to rise and fall rather significantly. In the 60s and early yes, the major goal of citizen movements in transportation was to stop highway projects in urban areas, an effort that was highly successful overall. By 1973, proposed highway projects were being blocked by citizens in all but one of the 55 largest Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs). With the slowdown in urban highway construction, citizen attention turned to alternative 120

OCR for page 115
Section 4 - Public Participation means of addressing urban transportation problems and to process. Dramatic shifts in public sentiment led to public acquisition of bus companies in many areas, New Start" heavy--and later~light rail systems, and subsidization of transit service. There was also growing interest in Transportation System Management (TS M), paratransit, and, eventually, high occupancy vehicle (HOV) faalities. Transportation planning became more focused on the short term, and there was an increasing emphasis on communly and environmental factors and a strengthening of the role of citizens. 4-31 . Public Involvement, 1 9g2-lJlay 1993: Community Outreach, Public Information and Media Coverage. Regional Transit Project. (Seattle, WA). 1993. Washington. 4-32. Public Involvement, 1992-May 1993: Public Information Materials. Regional Transit Project. (Seattle, WA). 1993. Washington. 4-33. Public Involvement at the Planning Level: A Case Study of the University of Maryland Eastern Shore Access Road. Rahman, M. A. Transportation Research Record 1400. 1993, Pp 48-52. Perhaps the most visible aspect of the Maryland State Highway Administration's commitment to quality in citizen participation is in the administration's forward thinking in the project planning process and in its efforts to assemble locally appropriate and environmentally sensitive solutions to the transportation needs of the state. This is accomplished by the special attention given to public participation and involvement in every aspect of the project planning and development process. Maryland State Highway Administration's public involvement program is highlighted, and the implementation of the program and its positive aspects are described using a case study of the University of Maryland Eastern Shore Access Road. Maryland. 4-34. Public Involvement in Statewide Transportation Planning. Lindquist, Kathy. (Washington State Department of Transportation, Olympia, WA). Presented to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. The Washington State Department of Transportation's ublic Involvement Program for the Statewide Multimodal Transportation Plan is designed to provide Citizens early, continuous and meaningful involvement in the planning process. The goal is to achieve the agency's mission through soliating the public's it evolvement by using both qualitative and quantitative techniques that meet both department and public needs. Beginning with the "Policy Plan for Washington State" in 1988, WSDOT instituted a process of involving Citizens early in decision making for its planning efforts. In July of 1994, the Department began implementation of a Public Involvement Program for the Statewide Multimodal Transportation Plan. The Public Involvement Program includes the specific identification of objectives to be achieved, the audiences to be reached and the methods that will be used to accomplish the objectives. A brochure was developed to actively solicit ideas from the public on how best to involve them in the planning process. The Public Involvement Program was designed to meet the needs identified from citizens with appropriate opportunities that will increase the public's knowledge and incentive to participate in developing the State Transportation Plan. The Public Involvement Program is being monitored to ensure it is meeting the objectives. The Public Involvement Program included articles in agency and stakeholder newsletters, wide distribution of the Public Review Draft of the Statewide Multimodal Plan, outreach to citizens, and a diverse media program. During September and October 1994, presentations were made to organizations throughout the state in addition to twenty-one regional forums. A 1-800 comment line was created along with an opinion survey in the Plan to give citizens and opportunity to comment. In addition displays were held at malls and fairs. A video was developed for statewide distribution and was also used as part of a cable TV program to discuss the modal choices. The Final Plan will be widely diseminated in the Summer of 1995 with additional public involvement opportunities including focus groups, newspaper and cable access coverage and surveys. Washington. 4-35. The Public Involvement Process. Exter, J. O. (Provincial Administration, Pretoria, South Africa). Submitted to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 199S, Seattle, Washington. 4-36. Public Involvement Process for Identifying Problems and Alternative Solutions for the Year 2010 Transportation Plan. De-Corla Souza, P.; H. Salverda, and D. Beckwith. Transportation Research RQCOnd 1 167. 1988, Pp 1 1 -20. The objectives of the Toledo Metropolitan Area Council of Governments (TMACOG) for public involvement in development of its Year 2010 Transportation Plan were (a) to assist system planners in obtaining a better understanding of the system users' problems, (b) to allow as many solution options as possible to surface, 12}

OCR for page 115
Project Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 (1 ) (c) to obtain the assistance of the public groups in plan evaluation so that the plan would truly meet their needs, and (d) to build a broad base of ownership and understanding of the plan and attract a broad base of support for individual projects on the plan. With these objectives in mind, the Long-Range Plan Task Force was established and became the body responsible for developing and implementing an innovative public involvement process. A series of five public meetings were held at scattered locations throughout the TMACO(3 region, culminating in a"Charrette," an intensive brainstorming session held over a short period of time. The purpose of the five pre-Charrette public meetings was to identify the transportation issues, problems, and needs within each geographic subarea, to assure that adequate information on subarea problems would be available at the Charrette, and to generate interest and excitement about the Charrette. The Charrette itself, which had more than 100 people participating within thematic subgroups, was intended to unlock the creativity of the participants by focusing their attention intensively over a period of 24 hours on solutions to transportation problems facing the Toledo area. The spirit of cooperation and trust fostered by the Charrette was maintained by the Long-Range Plan Task Force through its subgroups as they refined the ideas from the Charrette and developed plan alternatives for testing and evaluation. The most important outcome of the Charrette was the fact that over 100 community leaders have a better understanding of their stake in transportation planning and have ownership of the Year 2010 Transportation Plan. Ohio. 4-37. Public Participation Can be Key to a Project's Success. Hardeman, A. American Consulting Engineer. 1993, 4~3), Pp 28-30. Particularly in the environmental field, and increasingly in the transportation arena, agencies and engineering consultants are finding that successful completion of a project means working with the community on a meaningful basis: opening a dialogue, listening to issues and concerns, and negotiating everything from details to the need for the project itself. While this process, commonly called public participation, sometimes lengthens the early planning stages of a project as issues are being communicated and concerns negotiated, a successful public participation program can shorten the overall schedule of a controversial project. When the process involves the public, negotiation techniques are used to resolve controversial issues. 4-38. Redefining Public Involvement. Unsworth, D. J. Joumal of Management in Engineenng. Jul 1994, 10~4), Pp 13-15. The Montana Department of Transportation (M DOT) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) recently teamed up to consider new ways to involve the public in the project development process. The idea was to involve and inform the public before the final stages of project development, a situation that was occurring frequently. The author states that devising a public involvement plan early in the project development schedule, making frequent informal contacts with interested individuals and groups, and concentrating on clear communications will help avoid conflict at the eleventh hour. M DOT developed a simple handbook, which outlined their public involvement program, provided the statement of purpose, and highlighted the goals, procedures, and advice. Montana. 4-39. The Use of Urban Visualisation Models to Aid Public Participation in the Planning Process. Day, A. (Bath University, U.K.~. Informing Technologies for Construction, Civil Engineering and Transport. Proceedings of the SERC Sponsored Conference, Sep 1993, London, U.K. Pp 141-9. A detailed three-dimensional computer model of the City of Bath is currently nearing completion in the Centre for Advanced Studies in Architecture (CASA) at Bath University. The immediate requirement for the model came from the Sty planning department to be used in the assessment of the visual impact of proposed new buildings on the city's conservation area. However, it is clear that this is only one way in which the model can be used and applications in other areas are being developed. It is being used as the user-interface to a database of property related information where it offers an intuitive method of navigation which is particularly appropriate for non-expert users. This paper discusses how such urban models can be used to increase the public debate on matters of planning and design and highlights the problems encountered when using large 3D model in this way. 4-40. Why Should There Be Public Involvement? Schwartz, Marcy S. (CH2M Hill). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1 995. 4-41. Wisconsin Public Participation Process for MetropolItan Planning and Programming. Guidelines for Metropolitan Planning OrganIzatIons and Communities in Developing 8 Public PartIcipation Process. Wisconsin Department of Transportation. Nov 1993. The purpose of this document is to provide Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOS) with ]22

OCR for page 115
Section 4 - Public Participation options, ideas, guidance, resources, and support in thedevelopment of their public involvement processes. Under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991, governments are directed to solicit more public involvement than ever before, both from a vv der range of publics and at more points in the planning process. In addition, each MPO must develop a strategy for their public participation process. DUG to the increased significance of long range planning in transportation decision making under the ISTEA, there is heightened interest in transportation planning by organized interest groups, many of whom actively lobbied for the ISTEA. This raised level of interest means there will be a general need to build public invoh~ement processes which really work. Congress made it clear in the ISTEA that it is serious about more public involvement and that public involvement has a key role in implementing the new flexibility under the ISTEA. The Wisconsin Department of Transportation (Wis DOT) can provide guidance on the process, but it is ultimately up to the MPOs to open and implement their transportation planning processes in creative and effective ways. Development of the process will not eliminate conflict, but allows it to surface early enough in the process so that alternatives can be explored in a spirit of cooperation rather than confrontation. Wisconsin. 4-42. Working Wish New Partners: Transportation Decisions With the Public. Hathaway, J. and L. Wormser. Transportation Research Record 1400. 1993, Pp 36~0. Public participation is essential to ensuring that transportation systems serve community goals. Innovative use of a broad array of public relations and communications strategies can help to build public understanding and support for projects and techniques that improve transportation efficiency. Polls, opinion surveys, focus groups, alternative dispute resolution, and media campaigns may helpfully supplement more traditional public hearings, workshops, advisory committees, and task forces. 123

OCR for page 115
/2Y