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Section 5 - Rural Planning BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES F ROM THE NCHRP 8-32 INTERACTIVE DATABASE CONCERNING MULTIMODAL ISSUES IN RURAL TRANSPORTATION ~1. Auburn Intermodal Freight Terminal, Auburn, Maine. Connors, Dana F. (Maine Department of Transportation, Augusta, ME). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, NOW Orleans, Louisiana. The project includes design and construction of an intermodal freight terminal to be served by St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad. The associated freight rail intermodal service vail provide Maine shippers with low cost access to world markets through high quality access to the North American intermodal rail freight network. FJIaine. 5-2. Development and Application of Performance Measures for Rural Public Transportation Operators. Carter, D. to. and T. J. Lomax. Transportadon Research Record 1338. 1992, Pp 28-36. Despite the increased interest in performance indicators for large transit systems, there has been no equivalent effort at establishing similar techniques for small and rural systems. This project has developed a methodology to evaluate the relative performance of operators of rural transit service funded through the Section 18 Program of the former Urban Mass Transportation Administration (now the Federal Transit Administration). It was found that the agenaes could be compared using measures of cost efficiency, cost-effectiveness, service utilization, vehicle utilization, quality of service, labor productivity, and accessibility. The transit agencies and the Texas Department of Transportation can use these measures for analysis of performance trends, evaluation of overall system performance, transit planning, and technical assistance. The procedure uses a standard score methodology to compare the performance of individual agencies to the mean of all rural transit operators in Texas. It was determined that the use of peer groups of similar agencies would not significantly change the conclusions. Peer groups would, however, increase the time to prepare a performance evaluation, and the agencies within each peer group would change annually, making trend comparisons more difficult. Transit operators indicated a desire for information and suggestions from staff members of the Public Transportation Division of the Texas Department of Transportation on methods to improve performance. The findings indicate that more review of the statistics provided by the operators and greater communication between the operators and Public Transportation 125 Division staff would increase the usefulness of the performance measures. Texas. 5-3. Development of a Rural Congestion Management System. Creasey, F. Thomas (Wilbur Smith Associated, Orlando, FL) and Susan Sadighi (Florida Department of Transportation, Orlando, FL). Submitted to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apt 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. 5-4. The Development of a Rural Transportation Planning Assistance Program in Virginia. Clarke, Bruce R. (Virginia Department of Transportation). Presented to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) recognizes the importance of involving local jurisdictions in the transportation planning process. We have long accomplished this goal in the urbanized areas by the use of PL funds. With federal funds provided by ISTEA it was decided to make planning money available for this effort in the rural areas also. Through legislation in the 1960s, Virginia established a series of planning district commissions which encompass the entire state and have boards on which all jurisdictions are represented. Therefore, these commissions were a natural avenue to distribute the funds. Also, in some cases, the existing personnel could serve as a basis for staff to conduct the rural planning studies. The areas were given some suggested planning topics to consider including: review of statewide highway plan and compilation of local government comments; review of annual statewide transportation improvement program, including all modes; assessment of impacts of major developments; development of regional consensus on priorities of highway and transit programs for consideration by the Commonwealth Transportation Board; identification of major regional issues pertaining to transportation safety, road capacity, and accessibility; identification of methods to expand and enhance transit services and to increase the use of such services. The purpose of this paper is to discuss Virginia experience in developing a locally driven rural transportation planning process. Among the topics to be covered are how the program was organized, how it was administered, what problems arose, and what results were obtained! Virginia.

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Proiect Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 (1 ) 5-5. Development of Ideal Model for Identification of Rural Public Transit Needs. Black, W. R. Transportation Research Record 1402. 1 993, Pp 1 07-1 09. As part of a statewide multimodal planning effort, Indiana recently undertook the development of a procedure for estimating rural transit needs in each county of the state. A ridership model based on small urban areas in the state was used along with average fares and costs to generate total revenues, operating costs, and subsidies. A computerized analysis system developed during the research allows the evaluation of different service scenarios. Indiana. 5-6. Employment and Commuting by Rural Women on the Metropolitan Periphery. MacDonald, H. 1. and A. H. Peters. (Midwest Transportation Center, Iowa University, Iowa City, IA). Jul 1993. This study surveyed rural women in four eastern Iowa counties, collecting and analyzing data on their work experiences and commuting patterns; this analysis is a basis for policy recommendations aimed at reducing the burden commuting currently imposes on women workers in rural areas. The report is organized in seven chapters. Chapter One provides an introduction. Chapter Two reviews previous research on rural employment and compares employment in the study area and its economic structure with those of the state of Iowa as a whole and with the nation. Chapter Three discusses the demographic profile of the survey respondents. It addresses the first of four research questions: How important a disincentive is commuting cost for women who are engaged in home-based paid work or who choose not to participate in the labor force at all? Chapter Four focuses on the 333 survey respondents who were employed outside the home. The first section of the chapter answers the second research question: How do commuting costs vary between different forms of labor force participation (defined by occupational sector, part- or full- time status, or location of job)? Next, the costs in time and money that commuting entails for different groups of employees are analyzed, to assess how commuting patterns affect individual employees. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the effect of metropolitan adjacency on the labor market choices of rural women. Chapter five analyzes respondents' own evaluations of a set of job attributes (including commuting distance) and develops an explanatory model of commuting behavior. An empirical model of the differences among the three principal groups of women workers answers the third research question: What rewards do different categories of women workers receive in return for the commuting costs they bear, and which rewards are most important in explaining why some women commute longer distances than others? Conclusions are drawn from the analysis in order to answer the fourth research qustion: How do the costs of mobility constrain or shape rural women's participation in the labor force, and do these effects differ among categories of current and potential women workers? Chapter Six discusses the policy options identified for policy responses outlined above. It first looks briefly at local economic development strategies for bringing jobs to rural areas. It is concluded that, in the short term, rural women would benefit more from access to metropolitan labor markets than from rural economic development initiatives. The remainder of the chapter thusfocuses on access and transportation-related policy issues. An analysis of modal choice is presented, and policy solutions based on rural public transit and ridesharing or vanpooling are explored. The final chapter integrates the findings of the telephone survey and the analysis of labor market structure to present a coherent picture of the relationship between commuting burdens and labor market choices. Iowa. 5-7. Federal Aid and Rural County Highway Spending: A Review of the 1980~. Walzer, N. and S. C. Deller. Policy Studies Journal. Summer 1993, 21~2), Pp 309-324. The effect of federal aid on spending for infrastructure has been subject to debate for many years. Some studies have indicated that federal aid is stimulative, while others report that federal aid substitutes for local resources. This article examines the effect of state and federal aid on county highway spending. The analysis demonstrates that, in 1987, federal aid was stimulative but state aid was not. In light of changes brought about by the Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA), we can expect federal aid to have a stronger relationship with local highway spending. 5-8. A GIS and Transportation Optimization Model Approach to Determining Highway and Rural Road Commodity Flows. Ellis, John R. and Eric L. Jessup. (Washington State University, Pullman, WA). Presented to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. Evaluation of alternative transportation policies is greatly enhanced by a detailed knowledge of the system being considered, and many potential ISTEA system plans will require very specific details concerning commodity and product movements. Such detail will be key components of a coherent transportation policy analysis. The Eastern Washington Intermodal Transportation Study (EWITS) includes a substudy addressing grain commodity flows from the farm to final market and the resulting impact on rural roads as well i26

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Section 5 - Rural Planning as state, U.S., and Interstate Highways in the region. This presentation provides the data acquisition procedures as well as those for combining the USQ of a Geographical Information System with a traditional cost minimization model. Details concerning data acquisition procedures for on-farm storage locations, crop production and elevator locations, modal usage, and route to market choices will be presented. Procedures for use of this and other pertinent data, as well as a step by step review of data development into a GIS format with subsequent use in the least cost optimization model, will be a major component of the presentation. The paper will conclude with a discussion of potential applications in transportation planning. Washington. 5-9. Increasing Public Participation in Rural Areas. Casteel, David B. and Joe P. Clark. (Texas Department of Transportation, Abilene, TX). Presented to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 199S, Seattle, Washington. The Abilene District of the Texas Department of Transportation consists of 1 3 counties comprising 11,855 square miles of land; 3,629 centerline miles of highway; and a population of 242,400 persons. Approximately 120,000 persons live within the urban area of Abilene which comprises less than four percent (40/o) of the land area of the District Planning for transportation improvements in the urban area is the shared responsibility of the Abilene Metropolitan Planning Organization and the District, while planning for the remaining rural areas is the sole responsibility of the District. The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 placed greater emphasis on encouraging public input and participation in transportation planning. In 1994, the Abilene District initiated a systematic, proactive, public participation plan for the rural areas of the District. This plan utilized the basics of marketing and salesmanship and included county maintenance supervisors and area engineers as the first line contacts for project development. The plan relied heavily on mailouts, news releases, public surveys, and personal contacts with key City and County officials. Implementing the systematic plan, where contacts were at the local level, resulted in significant increases in public participation in the planning for transportation improvements in the rural areas of the District. Compared to 1993 numbers, attendance at public meetings to discuss transportation improvements increased over 275 percent (275%) with an excess of 140 persons attending informal and formal planning sessions. Written comments received in the District increased more than 200 percent (200%) over 1993 numbers, partially attributable to a simple transportation improvement request form made available at all District offices and mailed to City and County officials. Projects proposed by the public exceeded available planning allocations by more than 250 percent (250%~. This paper discusses the methods used to increase public participation in uch a vast sparsely populated area. Also discussed in the paper are aspects associated with accountability to the public for rejection or modification of their proposed projects and education of local office District employees in planning fundamentals. Texas. 5-10. IntercIty Bus Transportation: New OpportunItIes for Rural America. RTAP National Program, Technical Assistance Series. Community Transportation Association of America and Federal Transit Administration. (Washington, DC). 1993. Because of the passage of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991, the FTA's Section 18 rural transit program now has funds set aside for intercity transportation in rural areas. This brief describes intercity transportation and the new opportunities it offers rural transit agencies. The purpose of the series is to extend the reach of the FTA/RTAP National Peer-to-Peer Technical Assistance Network. S-11. IntermodalSurface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991: Workshops for Officials of Rural and Small Urban Areas. Federal Highway Administration. (Washington, DC). Dec 1 993. The eight regional workshops on the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) for rural and small urban area officials have been completed. The objectives of the workshops were twofold -- to provide ISTEA information and to facilitate participation in the Statewide transportation planning process. To further encourage rural and small urban area participation in the planning process, the workshop cosponsors committed to compiling and distributing a report of workshop activities and products. This publication is that report. It is a resource guide for building on the ISTEA workshops. The following information from the workshops is included: ISTEA action plans; speakers by workshop; participants by state; tSTEA state contacts; and ISTEA information sources. 5-12. IntermodalTransportation Facility. Clark, Larry E. (Presque Isle Industrial Council, Presque Isle, ME). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. The project Oil focus on the requirement for TOFC/COFC service in Northern Aroostook County, Maine, using Presque Isle Industrial Park as the base of operations adjacent to a rail line sewed by Aroostook }27

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Project Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 (1 ) Valley Railroad. A preliminary economic and market planning study will also identify the requirements needed to encourage the use of transloading and warehousing between highway and rail for break bulk and bulk commodities, in addition to TOFC/COFC service. Maine. 5-13. IVHS Applications for Rural Highways and Small Towns. Wallace, C. E. and A. K. Kilpatrick. Proceedings of the IVHS America 1993 Annual Meeting. Surface Transportation: Mobility, Technology, and Society, Apr 14 1993, Washington, DC. Pp 39-53. To explore the potential for IVHS applications in rural areas, the University of Flonda Transportation Research Center (TRC), is investigating the applicability and feasibility of current IVHS technologies for rural roads and small towns, as well as special traffic enerators like scenic roads, native American territories and rural tourist attractions. Additionally, new concepts that are unique (or at least more app'lcanie) to these and are being investigated. This paper presents the preliminary results of this study and contains specific recommendations for Advanced Rural Transportation Systems (ARTS) for consideration of funding authorities, product development and user adoption. It concludes that there are imperatives for IVHS applications in rural areas, and recommends an ag 9 ressive, but p rud e nt cou rse. Flonda. 5-14. Methodology for Determining and Analyzing Commodity Flows in Rural Areas. Jessup, Eric L. (Washington State Unviersity, Pullman, WA). Presented to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. 5-15. A Needs Assessment for Advanced Rural Transportation Systems: A Colorado Perspective. Reay, M. and J. Kiljan. Proceedings of the IVHS America 1993 Annual Meeting. Surface Transportation: Mobility, Technology, and Society, Apr 14 1993, Washington, DC. Pp 27-34. This paper addresses the need of rural roadway agencies and the efficient use of maintenance forces, equipment and materials. It also outlines potential IVHS solutions to uniquely rural needs: maintenance dispatching and logistical planning, advisory radio, variable message signs "intelligent" warning systems, pavement and weather sensors, weather and traffic congestion information, information on motorist services, cellular telephone networks for incident detection and improved emergency response, and opportunities for public/pnvate partnerships. Colorado. 5-16. Passenger Assistance and Sensitivity Training for the Florida Rural Assletance Program. Phase I - Final Report. Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida. (Tampa, FL). Sep 1994. Many transportation providers in rural areas have few resourcess to devote to training. The Rural Transit Assistance Program was established nationally and within Flonda to address this need, among others. The Flonda Department of Transportation discovered a particular need for passenger assistance and sensitivity training and, in Spring of 1994, contracted with the Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR) to prepare and present three training workshops to Florida's rural transportation providers under the Florida Rural Transit Assistance Program. This report presents the highlights of the project. Florida. 5-17. Regional Mobility Program. Technical Assistance Brief. Federal Transit Administration. (Washington, DC). 1992. The bulletin provides an introduction to the Regional Mobility Program of the Office of Mobility Enhancement. The goals of the program are: (1) To mitigate metropolitan and extra-urban congestion in cost-effective ways that make efficient use of existing highway and transit capacity; and (2) To increase mobility for all transportation market segments in urban, suburban, and rural areas. The four program elements, each representing a focus area or set of methods and concepts designed to enhance mobility are: Transportation Demand Management; Innovative Transportation Services; Entrepreneurial Services; and Rural and Specialized Transportation Services. 5-18. Rural Applications of IVHS In Minnesota. Sobolewski, M. and J. L. Wright. Proceedings of the IVHS America 1993 Annual Meeting. Surface Transportation: Mobility, Technology, and Society, Apr 14 1993, Washington, DC. Pp35-38. The application of advanced technologies in a rural highway environment continues to gain an increasingly significant degree of exposure within the IVHS community. As part of the Minnesota Guidestar IVHS program, emphasis will be placed on an investigation of rural applications of advanced technology in the state. This emphasis has Eliminated in the development of a major program to operationally test and evaluate advanced technologies in a rural environment. This paper outlines some of the concepts proposed in this program. Minnesota. 5-19. Rural Public and Intercity Bus Transportation: A Bibliography With Abstracts. 128

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Section 5 - Rural Planning _ Federal Transit Administration. (Washington, DC). Sep 1 993. This bibliography was prepared for the 11th National Conference on Rural Public and Intercity Bus Transportation held in Park City, Utah on 26-29 September 1993. The references included in this bibliography have been retrieved from the Urban Mass Transportation Information Service (UMTRIS) database, a subtile of TRIS, the Transportation Research Information Service. It contains a TRIS literature search on rural and specialized transportation, 1988-1993. The bibliography contains both abstracts of completed research and summaries of ongoing research. The abstracts are categorized by topic, and each topic field is divided into FTA-sponsored research and non FTA-sponsored research. 5-20. Rural Public Transportation In Alaska: Present and Future Options. Botha, J. L. Transportation Research Record 1338. 1992, Pp 37~5. Environmental conditions and the isolation of communities in Alaska impose unique constraints on transportation. As a result, public transportation plays a more important role than would be experienced elsewhere. The objectives of this paper are to report on a study conducted to obtain general information on the type of transit and paratransit service options currently utilized in rural Alaska and to discuss issues related to future implementation of public transportation as well as future studies and information exchange. It was found that a wide range of options was utilized. Although it is not surprising that a taxi service is found in very small communities, the existence of a regular bus service there is unexpected. However, there is room for further implementation of public transportation in Alaska. Documentation on the use of public transportation in rural Alaska is largely nonexistent. Communities in Alaska could benefit greatly from the dissemination of public transportation case studies. These studies include the organization and regulation of public transportation, joint use of vehicles, and increased use of public transportation during emergencies and periods of inclement weather. The Rural Technology Transfer Program of the Federal Transit Administration could play a valuable role in the exchange of useful information. Alaska. 5-21. Rural Transit Level of Service in Regional Planning. Miranda, Lynn E. (Henigar & Ray, Inc., Seattle, WA). Submitted to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. 5-22. Transportation Analysis Needs for Small and 129 Medium Sized Urban Areas. DeCorla-Souza, Patrick. (Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC). Transportation Research Board 74th Annual Meeting, Jan 221995, Washington, DC. Many small urban areas do not currently have four-step travel demand models, and may not need to develop full-blown four-step models. A good traffic monitoring program supplemented by manual analysis techniques for demand analysis may be all that is needed, in many cases; or a simple demand modeling computer package, such as ORS 11, may be adequate. This paper focuses on those areas which currently have four-step models, or are required to have them because of air quality, conformity requirements. When travel models were first developed in the 1 950s, their purpose was to provide a means to evaluate major highway and transit investments and transportation system plans. Only a crude level of accuracy of forecasts was necessary. Today, however, these models are being called upon to evaluate, in addition, demand management policy impacts as well as pollutant emissions impacts. These uses require a finer level of accuracy as well as sensitivity to new variables which were not incorporated into the models of most small and medium sized urban areas which currently have models. The expansion of the role of travel models has resuked primarily from mandates in the Clean A'` Act Amendments (CAM) of 1990 and the intermoda' Surface Transportatin Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991. Conformity regulations issued in November 1993 pursuant to the CMA have spelled out certain "standards" that travel models are required to meet for conformity analyses. Planning and Congestion Management regulations also issued in the Fall of 1993 pursuant to the ISTEA will require many (not all) urban areas to develop enhanced modeling and technical analysis capabilities to address multimodal evaluation issues, as well as issues relating to land use and demand management and evaluation of social, environmental and economic impacts of transportation alternatives. 5-23. Transportation in Rural America: A Policy Backgrounder. Agricultural Marketing Service. (Washington, DC). Apr 1991. Transportation policy, whether at Federal, State or local levels, is critical to U.S. agriculture and the rural communities which agriculture supports. Rural roads for transport of passengers and commerce, and rail transportation are discussed as key transportation policy areas. Condition and service, issues of concern to transportation providers and users, and future policy options are outlined for each focus area. Common issues are identified which cut across the three areas.

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Project Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 (1 ) Major conclusions are summanzed. 5-24. Transportation Solutions for 'today, Tomorrow And Beyond". Minnesota Department of Transportation. (St Paul, MN). Proceedings of the 4th National Conference for Small and Medium-Sized Areas, May 25 1994, Duluth, Minnesota. The purpose of this conference was to bring together a broad representation from small and medium-sized communities to share their solutions to common transportation problems and to discuss the implementation of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) in their communities. The conference was divided into three tracks which ran concurrently through each of the four sessions. The tracks were as follows: TRACK-A - Policy, Administration and Financial; TRACK-B- Transportation Issues; and TRACK-C - Planning Issues. The majority of the papers presented at the conference are included in these Proceedings and are arranged by session number and track as follows: TRACK 1A - New Partnerships and Influences; TRACK 1 B - Environmental; TRACK 1 C - Travel Demand Management (TDM); TRACK 2A - Education; TRACK 2B - Land Use; TRACK 2C - System Planning; TRACK 3A - Project and Agency Administration; TRACK 3B - Intermodal; TRACK 3C - Environmental Process; TRACK 4A - Management Systems; TRACK 4B - Mobility; TRACK 4C - Modeling and Data Management; and General Sessions. Minnesota. 130