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Section 7- Intermodal Issues BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES FROM THE NCHRP 8-32 INTERACTIVE DATABASE CONCERNING GENERAL ISSUES IN INTERMODAL AND MULTIMODAL TRANSPORTATION PLANNTNG 7-1. Access to the Region's Core. Botzow, Hermann. (Port Authority of New York & New Jersey, New York, NY). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, NOW Orleans, . . . Loulslana. New York. 7-2. Accessibility Levels and Regional Equity In Spain Related to the New Multimodal Transport Plan 1993 - 2007. Monzon, A.; J. M. Pinero (Madrid Polytech University, Spain), and J. Gutierrez (Complutense University, Spain). Developments in European Land Use and Transport, 21st Summer Annual Meeting of PTRC European Transport, Highways and Planning, Sep 13 1993: Conference Proceedings Published in UMIST, London, 1993, Vol. P367, Pp 163-172. The Spanish Government has just designed a new Multimodal Transport Plan for the next 15 years. The evaluation of the new regional equilibrium after the construction of a number of new infrastructure has been carried out through a comprehensive accessibility study. A new accessibility indicator has been developed with multimodal characteristics. There are five elements corresponding to highways, roads, rail, airports and ports. The accessibility of each means of transport has different weight in the aggregate indicator depending on its contribution to the GPD. Accessibility levels in each mode have been determined also by a composed index. The first part is the accessibility to the 35 main economic activity centres. The second part of the indicator is related to regional equity. The basic variable is travel time calculated from distance and average speed of each link. This travel time is modified by some factors related to characteristics of the infrastructure, volume and type of traffic and also if the road is passing through urban areas. All the calculations have been drawn using a GIS computer system. The programme operates over a graph with 450 nodes which represents the transport network. The results have presented both by using statistics and by using charts. The accessibility levels for both 1993 and 2007 scenarios are provided. These data provide a useful tool to the planner in the dec sion making process. 7-3. Air Passenger and Employee Vehicle Trip Reduction Strategies, Boston Logan International Airport. Addante, Evelyn and Diane Ricard. (Massachusetts Port Authority). Submitted to Intermodal Planning 139 Conference, Dee 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. Massachusetts. 7-4. Airport Access: Case Study In Intermodallam. Coog an, Matthew A. ISTEA and Intermodal Planning: Concept, Practice, Vision, Dec 2 1992, Irvine, California Conference Proceedings Published in Transportation Research Board Special Report 240, Washington, DC, 1993, Pp 90-98. This conference resource paper discusses airport access as a case study, a microcosm of intermodal planning issues. The structure of the discussion is first concept, then practice, and finally vision. 7-5. Airport Access: Case Study of a Remote Terminal Operation. Kaplan, Marjone. (Southern California Association of Governments, Los Angeles, CA). Califomia. 7-6. Airport Access Program. Fosbrook, Geoffrey. (Port Authority of New Yorl< & New Jersey, New York, NY). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. New York. 7-7. Airport Connectivity in the USA and EC. De Wit, J. G. and J. Veldhuis. (Rijksluchtvaartdionst). Colloquium Vervoersplanologisch Speurwerk 1991. De Prijs Van Mobiliteit en Van MobiliteitsbeperMng, Nov 28 1991, Rotterdam, Netherlands. Pp 1321~0. After deregulation US domestic airlines have rapidly transformed their linear networks into hub and spoke systems. The main economic forces behind this process are indicated in this paper. Due to aeropolitical restrictions European airlines already developed radial networks since a long time, on a first sight very similar to the American hub & spoke systems. For the quality of these networks however hub connectivity is a crucial factor. Therefore airport connectivity ratios are presented revealing fundamental differences between European and American airports. Also an intermodal concept of airport connectivity in the EC is explored. 7-8. Airport Ground Access lee Rail Transit Alternativese Mandalapu, Srinivasa R. and William J. Sproule. (University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995.

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Project Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 With the increase in congestion on the ground access at many airports, rail transit alternatives are getting increased attention. During the conceptual planning phase, it is useful to know the relative attractiveness of such alternatives over other modes. In this research, three concepts are examined; (1) an exclusive rail link from the city center, (2) an extension of an existing rail line to the airport, and (3) automated people mover or shuttle bus connection linking the terminal area to a station on a nearby rail line. The concepts were evaluated using multicnteria analysis. Quantifiable criteria such as travel time and cost, and non~uantifiable criteria such as accessibility, reliability, baggage convenience, and parMng convenience were considered in the evaluation. Computer models were developed to determine quantifiable criteria values, and fuzzy ratings were used for non~uantifiable criteria. Passenger demands at which airport rail alternatives become attractive were identified for three usage levels of business passengers and vacationers. The effect of baggage handling facilities at rail stations on service attractiveness is also presented. 7-9. Airport Ground-Side Access Study: A Brief Overview of Seven Cities with Rail Access from Downtown to the Airport. Larrabee, Jennifer and Scheps Randall. (Urban Mass Transportation Administration). Apr 1991. 7-10. Alameda Corridor Project in Los Angeles County, California. Hicks, Gil V. (Alameda Corridor Transportation Authonty, Huntington Park, CA). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1 994, NOW Orleans, Louisiana. The Alameda Corridor Project will dramatically improve railroad and highway service to the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach - the largest port complex in the United States. The project is designed to facilitate port access while mitigating potentially adverse impacts of port growth, such as traffic congestion, delays at rail/highway grade crossings, train noise in residential areas,airandpollution. The corridoris approximately 20 miles long running between downtown Los Angeles and the ports. The project has a highway and a railroad component. The rail element involves consolidating the port-related traffic of three railroads - the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, the Union Pacific Railroad Company, and the Southern Pacific Transportation Company - onto a fully grade-separated right-of-way. Currently the three railraods use four separate tracks which cross nearly 200 busy streets between downtown Los Angeles and the ports. This project will eliminate these highway-railroad conflicts. North of State Route 91, the railroad corridor will be depressed; i.e., in a trench about 33 feet deep and 47 feet wide. East-west streets will bridge straight across this trench. South of Route 91, the tracks will be atgrade and east-west streets will be raised above the tracks and Alameda Street. The project will be designed to accommodate future electrification of the rail line. The highway component involves widening Alameda Street south of Route 91 from four to six lanes. New pavement, signals and left-turn pockets will be installed along the segment of Alameda Street between Route 91 and 1-10. California. 7-11 . Balancing Aviation, Highway, and Development Needs: Multimodal Planning at Indianapolis International Airport. Myers, John W. (HNTB Corporation, Indianapolis, IN). Submitted to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 171995, Seattle, Washington. Indiana. 7-12. Battle Creek Transportation Center. Walker, James D. (Battle Creek Transit, Battle Creek, Ml). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. Michigan. 7-3. Border Crossings and NAFTA - Are We Ready For The Future? Kingham, R. Ian. (GMK Transportation Planning and Engineering Ltd., Victona, B.C., Canada and Port Angeles, WA ). Presented to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. NAFTA is expected to significantly increase the movement of people and goods between the three participating countries; U.SA, Canada and Mexico. Studies by USDOT/FHWA, CALTRANS and Transport Canada suggest aggravation of already serious facility problems. Historically the majority of trade has moved east/west in both the U.S. and Canada. NAFRA ~11 redirect trade patterns in a north/south direction. Furthermore, the Treaty will likely induce more regional trade between border cities establishing new cross border regional economies. This paper explores what is ahead for transportation planners. Issues covered are those of importance raised by the participating governments and others yet to be raised. These include: (1 ) No account of trade impacts have been considered for CanadianlMexican trade passing through the U.S. In as much as 80 to 86% of cargo travels by truck and rail (based on value), the impact at U.S. border crossings could be substantial. (2) Physical facilities at border crossings are believed to be adequate over a ten year period, but only if peak use of the facilities can be spread out and further implementation occurs of "PACE" facilities for persons who make frequent border crossings. (3) Approaches 140

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Section 7- Intermodal Issues to border crossings have been judged to be inadequate under any future scenario. (4) Government coordination needs much improvement. For example, inspection agencies on both sides of the border work different hours. (5) Regional cross border economies suggest public transport systems that cross national borders. The extent of cross border employment, shopping and personal business, the methods of financing, and the amount of federal and local cooperation for immigration and customs functions will greatly influence the development of such new systems. 7-14. Brooklyn Intermodal Goods Movement Barge. Beard, Robert. (Port Authority of New York & New Jersey, New York, NY). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, . . . Loulslana. New York. 7-15. Budding an Intermodal Transportation Hub In Arlington and Alexandria, Virginia. Kent, Denton U. (RF&P Corporation, Alexandria, VA). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. Virginia. 7-16. Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Ground Transportation Center. Hoekstra, William. (Five Seasons Transportation, Cedar Rapids, IA). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. Iowa. 7-17. Charting a Course for Intermodal Policy and Research. Turnquist, M. A. and G. F. List. Transportation Quarterly 1993, 47~2), Pp 257-280. The objective of this study is to provide a framework for Intermodal policy and research at the Federal level, with a concentration on goods movement. This research identifies policies and actions -- Including investments, regulatory changes, organizational changes and research activities, which are both important and highly leveragable. These activities offer the opportunity of moving the country in the direction of a unified, polymodal, freight transportation system. 7-18. City of Pittsburgh's Downtown Intermodal Transportation Centers. Kochanowski, Robert. (Pittsburgh, PA). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. Pennsylvania. 7-19. Colman Dock Pedestrian Mobility Vision. Sawyer, Carla. (Washington State Department of Transportation, Olympia, WA). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. Washington. 7-20. Conceptual Planning for Intermodal Transfer Facilities Along the Hudson RIver Waterfront. Aldrich, S. E.; D. Wdawsky, and D. C. Miles. 1992 Compendium of Technical Papers. Institute of Transportation Engineers Annual Meeting, Aug 91912, Washington, DC. New Jersey Transit, the state's bus and rail transit operator, has been a major participant in the promotion and redevelopment of New Jersey's Hudson River Waterfront Region. This area has incredible potential but development is dependent upon overcoming serious transportation infrastructure deficiencies. Currently, an Alternatives Analysis/Draft Environmental Impact Statement (M/DEIS) is being prepared, ninth emphasis on a new north-south transit system, improved bus service, and new highway connections. This paper describes work conducted for Nd Transit for the conceptual development and design of short range transit and roadway improvements, which facilitate existing travel patterns as well as complement a long-term system. New Jersey. 7-21. CONEG High Speed Rail Reglonal Benefits Study: A Report on the Benefits to the Region of Improved Passenger Rail Service Between Boston and New Yore Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc.; Inc. Cambridge Systematics, and Regional Science Research Institute. Prepared for the Coalition of Northeastern Governors High Speed Rail Task Force. Oct 1 990. 7-22. Conference Findings. Meyer, M. D. ISTEA and Intermodal Planning: Concept, Practice, Vision, DQC 2 1992, Irvine, California. Conference Proceedings Published in Transportation Research Board Special Report 240, Washington, DC, 1993, Pp 4-15. On December 2~, 1992, 150 individuals interested in Intermodal transportation attended the National Conference on ISTEA and Intermodal Planning Issues in Irvine, California, to discuss the concept of intermodalism, identify examples of good practice, and provide recommendations for research and technical guidance. At this conference, workshops were organized to enable participants to engage in group discussions on key Intermodal issues. The workshops focused on Intermodal partnerships, multimodal planning, cross-modal comparisons, Intermodal management systems, and vision and potential for 141

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Project Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 (1 ) intermodalism. Questions were prepared for each group to guide discussion. Following the workshops, conference participants met in plenary sessions to hear the conclusions of the workshops and discuss their importance for Intermodal planning. Resource papers prepared for the conference by professionals in the field were also presented in plenary sessions, and speakers with expertise in intermodal transportation addressed the conference. Because the steering committee expected that bridging the gaps between the many players involved in Intermodal planning would be a key issue discussed at the conference, a panel discussion was organized to present reactions to the conference from the perspectives of a state department of transportation, a metropolitan planning organization, and the private sector. These important remarks are found at the end of the proceedings. Several themes and concepts arose repeatedly during conference discussions; they merit special attention and are summarized here in the Conference Findings under the following headings:"lntermodal" Defined; Partnerships; Transition; Intermodal Planning as a Process; Freight Movement in Planning; Emphasis on Performance; Intermodal Management Systems; Barriers to Effective Intermodal Planning; Research and Guidance; and Conclusion. 7-23. Conference Summary: Fourth National Conference on Transportation Planning Methods Applications. Weiner, E. 4th National Conference on Transportation Planning Methods Applications, A Compendium of Papers, Volumes I and 11, Paris, Jerry M., Editor; May 3 1993, Daytona Beach, Florida. The Conference was attended by over 340 practicing transportation planners mostly from state and local agencies and consultants. This Fourth Conference reflected the changes being brought about by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAM). There was demonstrated concern for meeting the planning and management system requirement in ISTEA and the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NMQ) under the deadlines in CAM. There was considerable interest along the entire range of alternatives from shorter-term transportation system management (TSM) options to longer-term land use arrangements. States and metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) are using the analytical tools that they have available and adapting them to address the new requirements of these two acts. However, concern was expressed about the tight deadlines and lack of technical assistance in meeting these requirements. Moreover, there was a clear expression of the need to improve analytical procedures and develop new ones. Conference participants expressed interest in improved communication and interchange between planners in State and local agendas. Many agencies are facing similar problems, and approaches to address these problems are likely to prove useful to others. The remainder of this Conference Summary summarizes the conference presentations in the following areas: Transportation, Land Use, and Air Quality Planning; Land Use Models; Travel Model Development and Calibration; Travel Model Applications - Part 1 and Part 2; Air Quality Applications; Statewide Planning - Multimodal and Intermodal; Statewide Planning - Highway Systems; ISTEA Management Systems; Alternatives Analysis; Transportation Data Collection; Roadway Planning; Transit Planning; and Partnerships in Transportation. 7-24. Critical Factors in Planning Multimodal Passenger Terminals. Bell, David W. R. (Department of Transportation, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) and John P. Braaksma (Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada). Transportation Research Record 1221. 1 989, Pp 38-41. The critical factors for a multimodal passenger terminal policy for Canada were determined. The research methodology consisted of a literature review, data collection, and analysis. The data-collection phase used two questionnaires. The results of the first questionnnaire, which was an open-ended questionnaire administered in Europe, Japan, and the United States, were used as input for a closed-ended questionnaire administered to all multimodal passenger projects in Canada. The results were analyzed by using paired comparisons of factor scores and an importance index. The results indicated that the critical factors, in order of priority, are integration of various modes of transportation, promotion of public transportation, cost of terminal, government cooperation, operating factors (safety, security, etc.), historical building preservation, environmental concerns (noise, air pollution), urban development, and reduction of local traffic congestion. 7-25. Determining the Prospect for a Shift In Modal Split in Freight Transport. Cheung, Y. H. F. (Ministry of Transport and Public Works) and P. M. Blok (Netherlands Economic Institute). Freight Transport and the Environment. 1991, Pp 223-233. A research project was commissioned by the Dutch government to identify the factors which determine modal choice in freight transport and to -mess the potentials for a shift from road to rail and water transport. The research findings can be used to assist the formulation of strategies to influence modal split. 7-26. Developing Partnerships. 142

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Section 7- Intermodal Issues Helton, J. D. ISTEA and Intermodal Planning: Concept, Practice, Vision, Dec 2 1992, Irvine, California. Conference Proceedings Published in Transportation Research Board Special Report 240, Washington, DC, 1 993, Pp 149-1 51. The conference presentation by J.D. Helton on Intermodal partnerships (pages 138-148 of this Special Report) prompted a number of conference participants to ask how the guidelines he presented should be followed and how the private partnerships he discussed were developed. These questions are answered in this paper, which was not presented at the conference. The examples provided are from the experience of Sea-Land Service, Inc., Arlington, Virginia, which has been successful in cultivating Intermodal partnerships for several years. These partnerships have made a marked contribution to corporate market position, productivity, efficiency, and earnings. Developing these partnerships has involved the following: culture (predisposition), vision, strategy, and commitment. Virginia. 7-27. Development of an Inland Waterway Information System. Lipinski, Martin E. (Memphis State University, Memphis, TN). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. 7-28. The Economic Importance of the National Highway System with Case Study Examples. Apogee Research, Inc. (Bethesda, MD).Prepared for Trucking Research Institute, Alexandria, VA. 7-29. Edmonds Multimodal Terminal. Mar, Paul (Edmonds Community Services) and Jerry Weed (CH2M HILL). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. 7-30. Effects of Added Transportation Capacity on Development. Dyett, Michael V. (Blayney, Dyett, Greenburg). The Effects of Added Transportation Capacity. Conference Proceedings, Dec 16 ~ 991, Bethesda, Maryland. 7-31. The Effects of Added Transportation Capacity on Travel: A Review of Theoretical and Empirical Results. Kitamura, Ryuichi. (University of Califomia, Davis). The Effects of Added Transportation Capacity. Conference Proceedings, Dec 16 1991, Bethesda, Maryland. The addition of transportation capacity affects potentially all attributes of trips made by urban residents; i.e., time of day, destination, mode, route, and linking of trips. The impact could be more pronounced if unsatisfied or latent demand exists due to congestion. In the long-run, added capacity may influence a household's automobile ownership decision, residence, and job location choice. Firms' location decisions will also be affected. Sooner or later, waves of development start filling the fringe area. It appears most certain that as long as the urban area continues to grow, fringe land with good transportation access will be converted to residential and commercial use. The-addition of transportation capacity is one of the key contributors to urban growth. 7-32. Emeryville: Right on Track for the Future (Emeryville Amtrak Station). Bon ner, Kofi (Em eryvi l le Redevelop ment Agency, Emeryville, CA) and Jeffrey Heller (Heller 8 Leake Architects). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. Califomia. 7-33. Environmental Defense Fund's Assessment. Roberts, William. (Environmental Defense Fund). A Paper Within the Session, Public Interest Group Assessments of Impacts of ISTEA on Environmental Quality and Comments from Other Perspectives: Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. 7-34. Environmental Defense Fund's Wish List. Roberts, William. (Environmental Defense Fund). A Paper Within the Session, Public Interest Group Wish List for ISTEA Reauthorization and Comments from Other Perspectives: Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. 7-35. Environmental Effects of Added Transportation Capacity. Suhrbier, John H. (Cambridge Systems, Inc.~. The Effects of Added Transportation Capacity. Conference Proceedings, Dec 16 1991, Bethesda, Maryland. The importance of environmental consideration in developing added transportation capacity continues to increase. The preparation of environmental impact statements may have become more routine over the last 20 years as experience with impact analysis methodologies has become more sophisticated. The influence of a wide range of environmental and community concerns on the outcome of actual decisions, though, has both increased and become more complex. This is seen in both the Idnds of transportation alternatives that are now being examined and in the additional requirements that are being placed on travel demand forecasting methodologies. In particular, significant attention is being given to travel demand management strategies and to the development of Intermodal facilities for the movement of freight and people. 7-36. Eurotrip: Towards a Multimodal Service to Asist Travelers In Planning a Trip. 143

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Project Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 (1 ) Caubet, Claude. Transport, Environnement, Circulation. 1992. 7-37. Events in the City of Indianapolis. Bisbecos, Peter. (City of Indianapolis, IN). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. Indiana. 7-38. "ExpressRail" Permanent On-Dock Intermodal Transfer Facility. Lotz, Donald H. (Port Authority of New York & New Jersey, New York, NY). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. New York. 7-39. FHWA International Technology Scanning Program Study Tour Summary Report on European Intermodal Programs: Planning, Policy, and Technology. Schooner, G.; G. Muller; O. Sonefeld, and R. Roberts. (Federal Highway Administration, Loyola College). Sep 1 994. In September 1993, a team of four government and state transportation association representatives made a two-week scanning trip to Belgium, the Netherlands, and Germany to discuss and report on European experiences with Intermodal freight transportation polices and systems. The objective was to observe and document information on European Community (EC) - sometimes referred to as European Union (KU) methods and experiences in the planning and administration, system development, environmental compliance, financing, marketing, and operation of increasingly complex and capital-intensive Intermodal freight systems and facilities. To the extent that such information was pertinent to the public and private sector transportation community in the United States, it would be documented in the form of a summary report. A vast amount of material and information was gathered on this scanning trip. It is reported in this summary report which is organized as follows: Executive Summary - Introduction, Background, Goals and Objectives, Other Objectives, Overall Observations, and Recommendations; Chapter 1 - Summary Report on the European Community - Background, Common Transport Policy, Trans-European Networks, EC Funding, Incentives for Combined Transportation, and Conclusions; Chapter 2 - Summary Report on the Netherlands - Background, Accessibility and Congestion, The Environment, Developments In Europe, Modal Projections, Combined Transport, Spending Needs, Comprehensive Funding System, Transport Regions, and Conclusions and Observations; Chapter 3 - Summary Report on Germany - Background, Federal Traffic Infrastructure Plan of 1992, Freight Distribution Centers/Manne Transportation, Short Sea Shipping, Industry Apprenticeship Programs, and Other Observations; Chapter 4 - Technologies - Rotterdam's Delta Terminal, ISETEC (German Port Industry Terminal of The Future), Bremen Guten~erkehrszentren (GVZs), Cologne Container Transfer Facility, and SIMET (Smart InterModal European Transfer); Appendix 1: Persons Met WithDuring Intermodal Scanning Tnp; Appendix 11: Facilities Visited; Appendix 111: European Intermodal Policy Review: Questionnaire; Acknowledgments; and Bibliography. 7-40. Flexible, Intelligent, Multi-Modal Transportation. Suter, M. M. Proceedings of the IVHS America 1992 Annual Meeting, Volume 11. Surface Transportation and the Information Age, May 17 1992, Newport Beach, California. The necessary right-of-way (ROW) and environmental impacts required to meet urban peak period travel demand is becoming increasingly cost prohibitive. This paper proposes the use of smaller, electric, flexible and intelligent vehicles (FlVs) with minimal ROW expansion to significantly increase urban transportation capacity. A sampling of other work related to this concept is presented and the feasibility of the concept within the framework of Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS) is discussed. 7-41. Freight Transport Planning, Part 2: Private-Sector Assessments of Public-Sector Freight Transportation Planning, A Panel Discusslon, Anne Strauss-WTeder, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, Presiding. Williams, G. M., Jr. (Consolidated Rail Corporation); John Buck (Johnson and Johnson Hospital Services); James Cunningham (PTL Transportation Services), and Edward Emmett (National Industrial Transportation Lr3aaueN. Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. 7-42. Full Freight Access Program: Oak Point Link and the Harlem River Yard. Black e, Bruce A. (New York State Department of Transportation, Albany, NY). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, NOW Orleans, Louisiana. New York. 7-43. Gateway Intermodal Transit Center at Unlon Station (National ReGISter of Historic Places). Newjahr, Dennis (Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Los Angeles, CA) and Norman Emerson (Emerson & Associates, Glendale, CA). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. 144

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Section 7- Intermodal Issues Catifomia. 7-44. Ground Access to Airports: Chicago Survey Experience. LaBelle, Sarah J. (Chicago Transit Authority, Chicago, IL). Submitted to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. Illinois. 7-45. Ground Access to Airports: Prospects for Intermodalism. Lacombe, A. Transportadon Quarterly. Fall 1994, 48~4), Pp 381-392. This paper examines the question of airport ground access in light of the requirements and goals of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAM) and the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). It explores the regulatory, funding and institutional constraints that hinder Intermodal approaches to the ground access problem. Finally, this paper looks at some of the new opportunities for cooperation between airports and transportation planners on ground access solutions. 7-46. Guidelines for Identifying National Highway System Connections to Major Intermodal Terminals. Federal Highway Administration. Apr 14 1995, Memorandum HEP-12. "The purpose of this memorandum is to provide guidance for use by the States and Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPO) in identifying National Highway System (NHS) connections to major Intermodal terminals." Quoted from the first paragraph. 7-47. The Helena-West Helena Port, Chillips County, Arkansas, The Birth of an Inland Intermodal, River Port. LipinsM, Martin E. (Memphis State University, Memphis, TN). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. Arkansas. 7-48. How Do We Sell Pricing? Legislative Issues and Building Business Community Support. Dittmar, Hank. (Surface Transportation Policy Project). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. 7-49. The 1-95 Corridor Coalition: Advancing Intermodal IVHS in a Complex Institutional Context. Kassoff, H. and S. R. Kuciemba. Moving Toward Deployment: Proceedings of the IVHS America 1994 Annual Meeting, Apr 17 1994, Atlanta, Georgia. Pp 145 630-634. To initiate the coordination of transportation service across jurisdictional lines, the major transportation agencies in the Northeast have banded together to form the 1-95 Corridor Coalition. Included in the Coalition are each of the 12 Departments of Transportation in the Corridor stretching from Maine to Virginia, 12 toll authorities that operate major facilities within the corridor, the transportation departments of Washington, D.C. and NOW York City as well as the US DOT. The vision of the Coalition is for the providers of transportation services along the 1-95 Corridors from Richmond, Virginia to Portland, Maine ~ to establish the necessary real-time communication links so that collectively -- as individual entities and as a coordinated team -- they might operate their part of the system on a real-time basis using IVHS technology for the benefit of their travel customers in the corridor. 7-50. Identification of Transportation Planning Data Requirements In Federal Legislation. Final Report. Karash, K. H. and C. Schweiger. (KG and G Dynatrend, Burlington, MA and Office of the Secretary of Transportation, Washington, DC). "iul 1994. This report identifies the new planning and associated data collection requirements set forh in the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAM) of 1990 and the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991. Even though these requirements differ in terms of their speafidty, they promote the integration of transportation and air quality planning processes. This report identifies the shortcomings of the existing Set of transportation planning models in terms of their ability to fulfill the new requirements which emphasize strategies which promote more efficient use of the existing transportation faalities. These strategies include intermodalism; congestion management; and various transportation control measures (TCMs) such as improved public transit, trip reduction ordinances, traffic flow improvements, encouragement of non-motorized uses, employer-based programs, etc. Conformity determinations include requirements that plans or projects provide for timely implementation of TCMs, reduce localized carbon monoxide (CO) violations, and not contribute to new violations. 7-51. The Impact of the Growth of Intermodal Transportation on Highway Accidents. Chatterjee, Arun. (Univers ty of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. 7-52. Impacts of ISTEA on Environmental Quality, Part 1: Public Interest Group Assessments of Impacts of ISTEA on Environmental Quality and Comments from Other Perspectives.

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Project Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 (1 ~ Cutshall, Carol D. (Wisconsin Department of Transportation). Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. Wisconsin. 7-53. Impacts of ISTEA on Environmental Quality, Part 2: Public Interest Group Wish List for ISTEA Reauthorization and Comments from Other Perspectives. Kober, Wayne W. (Pennsylvania Department of Transportation). Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. Pennsylvania. 7-54. Information Requirements for an Integrated Transit/Traffic Management and Traveler Information System. Neenan, B. and B. P. Y. Huang. IVHS Journat. C>ct 1993,1~2),Pp167-180. This paper documents the assessment of the information requirements for the development of an Integrated Transit/Traffic Management and Traveler Information System. The identification of information requirements represents one of several phases of the information gathering process which was necessary to evaluate the suitability of available technologies, IVHS elements, and architectures for the design of an operational test of the integration of transit and traffic management and traveler information system. The integration design includes the automated transfer of operations and management information between agencies and to the public in order to realize efficiencies in the transportation network. The paper details the information requirements of three public agencies involved in transportation management together with transportation information requirements of the traveling public. Availability of the required data is assessed and existing and potential data sources are identified. 7-55. Institutional Design and Technology Integration: Intergovernmental Challenges in Multimodal Planning and IVHS Development. Coogan, Matthew A.; Katherine F Turnbull; Thomas A. Horan; Jonathan Lewis Clifford, and John O'Donnell. 72nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1993, Washington, DC. Tape of Session 98A which contained presentations on institutional issues associated with the development of intelligent vehicle highway systems. 7-56. Institutional, Financial, and Social Impacts of Induced Transportation: Speculations on the Need for Research. Edner, Sheldon M. (Federal Highway Administration). The Effects of Added Transportation Capacity. Conference Proceedings, Dec 1 61991 , Bethesda, Maryland. Additional capacity in a corridor primarily affects the distribution of presumed subsidiary benefits of transportation improvements. While the primary beneficiary may be the transport user, improvements are often justified in terms of their contribution to development (economic and otherwise) or mitigation of transportation related problems (e.g., congestion, air pollution, mobility disadvantage, etc.~. These issues are not spatially limited to the corridor, but extend out reciprocally into the broader community in terms of impacts and the acquisition of resources to construct the added capacity. Hence, corridor improvements, both generically and specifically (in terms of adding carrying capacity), tend to shift existing balances in terms of institutional and community goals. Further, they are susceptible to significant environmental (economic, social, technological, etc.) influences because their consequences and benefits are not limited to or based solely on the user. 7-57. Integrating an Intermodal Transfer TermInal into a Major Activity Center with an Automated People Mover Circulator System: Concepts, Methods and Issues. Schneider, J. B. (University of Washington, Seattle, WA). Sep 1992, Discussion Paper 92-4. 7-58. Interface of Intermodal and Urban Freight Transportation Systems: A Case Study. Heidi, Randy. (Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Company). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. 7-59. Intermodal Aspects of a Niche-Port. Taormina, Anthony J. (Port of Hueneme, CA). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. Califomia. 7-60. Intermodal Freight: An Industry Overview. Norris, Bahar. (Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA). Washington, DC. Federal Highway Administration, Mar 1994, PM~2-BBNI. 7-61. Intermodal Freight Strategies Study. JBM Engineers & Planners. (Kansas City, MO). Missouri. 7-62. Intermodal Freight Transportation: Federal Aid Eligibility. Federal Highway Administration. 7-63. Intermodal Freight Transportation. Second Edition. Muller, G. (Eno Foundation for Transportation, Inc., Westport, CT). 1989. 146

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Section 7- Intermodal Issues This report examines the state-of-the-art for intermodalism. It updates and extends earlier research performed by the late John H. Mahoney and published by the Eno Foundation in 1985. The purpose of this work is to provide a comprehensive reference source and overview, useful to both practitioners and students. The material is presented in the following twelve chapters: (1) Introduction; (2) How Intermodality Developed in the United States; (3) The Container Revolution; (4) Government Regulation and Deregulation; (5) Types of Intermodal Movements; (6) Intermodal Through Carnage Documents, Liability Rules, and Facilitation; (7) Middlemen; (8) Terminals and Cargo-Handling Equipment; (9) Intermodal Containers: Stowage, Standardization and Securing; (10) Marketing and Using Intermodal Containers; (11) Competition; and (12) Future Course of Intermodality. There are five Appendices: (A) The Shipping Act of 1984; (B) Landbndge and MinibndgQ Carders and Landbndge Coordinators; (C) Shippers' Councils and Freight Allocation Bureaus; (D) Import and ExportGuides and Documents; and (E) ABC of EDI. A Glossary, Bibliography, and Index complete the text. 7-64. Intermodal Innovation, Service Quality, and Modal Choice. Morash, E. A. and R. J. Calantone. Proceedings of the Thirty-Third Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Forum, Oct 2 1931, New Orleans, Louisiana. Pp 471-480. A majority of prior empirical research on the determinants of modal and carrier selection have emphasized motor carrier services and a tacit assumption has frequently been made that the findings are applicable to railroads. Similarly, the importance of various selection criteria has usually been evaluated in the context of presently existing services rather than in terms of new technology and carrier service innovations. Lastly, deregulation itself may have also changed the relative importance of various selection factors. This study attempts to overcome previous limitations by focusing on the importance of selection criteria for railroad services in general. It evaluates the importance of venous selection factors or a "new' rail technology and service innovation--such as the RoadRailer. The RoadRailer is a dual-mode vehicle that can travel on either highways or rails. garners to adoption of RoadRailer technology are also investigated. 7-65. An Intermodal, Intercity Rail Station at Jack London Square - C. L Dellums Amtrak Station. Hanson, Steve (The Port of Oakland) and Susan Stewart (California Department of Transportation). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. Califomia. 147 7-66. Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act. Flexible Funding Opportunities for Transportation Investments FY'95. Federal Transit Administration and Federal Highway Admministration. 7-67. IntermodalTechnicalAssistanceActivitles for Transportation Planners. Department of Transportation. (Washington, DC). Aug 1993. This document identifies Intermodal technical assistance activities originating within the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) which should be of USE to metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) and State and local planners in fulfilling their responsibilities under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). The contents are organized as follows: Overview; Background; What is technical assistance?; Uses for the information; Areas of Intermodal technical assistance activity; Index (Alphabetical listing, Course listing, and Listing by DOT lead administration); and Glossary of Acronyms. The areas of Intermodal technical assistance activity are: air quality analysis; atizen/industry participation; congestion management, economic analysis; environmental and social impact analysis; geographic information systems; Intermodal faalities planning; Intermodal freight centers; transportation statistics; travel demand forecasting; and travel demand management. 7-68. Intermodal Transportation Planning for 21 st Century: A New Paradigm. Bragdon, Clifford R. (Dowling College). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. 7-69. Intermodalism: An Eno Forum. Transportation Quarterly. Fall 1994, 48~4), Pp 343-354. One section of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) is "Title V - Intermodal Transportation". Two of its key provisions create an Office of Intermodalism within the U.S. Department of Transportation, and establish a National Commission on Intermodal Transportation. That commission is charged with coming up with a report to Congress on ways to promote intermodalism by recommending the features of a national Intermodal transportation plan and policy. In a separate and independent undertaking by the Eno Transportation Foundation's Transport Public Policy Forum, 31 public and private sector experts participated in a July 28 session that focused solely on intermodalism. Tom Deen, retired executive director of the Transportation Research Board, served as chairman.

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Project Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 (1 ) 7-70. Intermodalism and Bicycles. Turow, Gordon E. (HNTB Corporation, Boston, IVIA). Submitted to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. 7-71. Intermodalism and ISTEA: The Challenges and the Changes. Delayer, L. Public Roads. Autumn 1994, 58~2), Pp 1-4. The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) is revolutionary legislation that challenges States to effectively connect and coordinate their transportation systems in an effort to bolster Intermodalism Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) administrator Rodney Slater traveled 5,600 km (3,500 mi) on a 1 4-day, 1 4-state road trip to assess surface transportation infrastructure needs and to evaluate the implementation of IST EA. This article describes Slater's United States tour and FHWA's approach to Intermodalism the proposed National Highway System, and ISTEA requirements to develop and implement management systems. States must develop management plans that address pavements, bridges, safety, congestion, public transportation, and Intermodalism An intermodal, national transportation system is the goal of IST EA. 7-72. Intermodalism - Not Just a Lot of Hype. Dittmar, Hank. Surface Transportation Policy Project Progress. Apr 1995, Volume V, Number 3, Pp 1. "Intermodalism has been much in the news since the passage of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act. Put most simply, Intermodalism is planning for the whole trip, rather than the modal links in a trip. It also means improving the connections or transfers between modes (truck-rail, bus-rail transit) to allow a nearly seamless Gurney." Quoted from the first paragraph. 7-73. Intermodality on the Emergence of Mega-Urban Regions: Principles and Equations. Rodrigue, J. P. (Centre for Research on Transportation and Department de Geographie, University of Montreal). Centre De Recherche Sur Les Transports. Oct 1992, 860. This paper aims to give a new perspective on urbanization by integrating the concept of intermodality to the development of large economic areas defined as mega-urban regions, and to contribute to the understanding of the relationships between transportation and land use. The following text shows the main tendencies of modern transportation to verify the relationships between the modes and to present a definition of intermodality in emerging East Asian mega-urban regions. The objective is to demonstrate the hypothesis according to which the modal and intermodal capacities of the multimodal transportation system have a predominant role in the structuring of mega-urban regions. first, the context and definition of mega- urban regions in East Asia is presented. Second, an assessment of intermodality is undertaken. A particular attention is made on the geometry of intermodality to understand the network factors that are affixing the spatial elements of multimodal transportation system. An equation to measure the efficiency of the multimodal transportation system is proposed. Finally, the role of intermodality in the emergence of mega-urban regions in China is introduced. 7-74. The Iron Highway and its Effects on Intermodsl Terminal Design and Operations. McKenzie, David R. (Parsons Brinckerhoff) and Thomas H. Engle (Integrated Rail-Modal Systems). Presented to the Third National Conference on the Intermodal Freight Terminal of the Future, Dec 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. The purpose of this paper is to describe the unique intermodal terminals that will support the Iron Highway, a new, radically different intermodal technology designed to make rail-intermoJal price and service competitive in markets it presently cannot reach. The Iron Highway combines an innovative railroad technology with a traditional intermodal operation - arcus loading. The basic unit of the Iron Highway is a 1,200 ft. (366 m) long, self-propelled, bidirectional "element" consisting of a self-propelled, continuous flat deck, with a split-ramp loader at its center and control cabs at either end. Trains of up to five elements may be made. Standard highway trailers ranging in length from 28 feet (8.5 m) to 57 feet (1 7.4 m) can be quickly loaded onto the deck by a single operator using a hostler tractor. Typically an element would carry twenty trailers. Terminal requirements for the Iron Highway are minimal. Terminals can be built anywhere along a rail line that has sufficient room for a siding and convenient highway access. No mechanized lift equipment is needed. Terminals can be established where they most conveniently serve the customer, thus minimizing truck haul and lowering drayage costs. The simplicity, flexibility and lower cost of Iron Highway terminals will create new opportunities for railroads in the intensity freight market. Several types of terminal and the markets served are examined, including: 1. A major metropolitan area; 2. A seasonal agricultural area; and 3. A dedicated industrial site. 7-75. ISTEA and Intermodal Planning: Concept, Practice, VIsion. Proceedings of a Conference. Dec 2 192, Irvine, California. Published in Transportation Research Board Special Report 240, Washington, DC, 1993. The Transportation Research Board, at the request of the U.S. Department of Transportation, acting through 148

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Section 7 - Intermodal Issues the modal administrations, developed and conducted a conference on the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) and Intermodal planning issues. The conference objectives were to: (1) Review the evolution of the planning and funding of the U.S. transportation system; (2) Identify the new planning mechanisms developed in ISTEA that mandate transportation improvement programs and Intermodal transportation management systems; (3) Identify issues that need to be addressed in order to achieve more economically and environmentally efficient transportation systems through the optimum combined use of various modes; and (4) Assess how these issues need to be integrated into the planning process. The conference was structured around several commissioned papers and presentations in order to frame the diverse agenda inherent in Intermodal planning. This Special Report contains the conference proceedings. The contents are organized as follows: Chairman's Summary, C.M. Walton; Conference Findings, M.D. Meyer; Workshop Reports (Intermodal Partnerships; Multimodal Planning; Cross-Modal Comparisons; Intermodal Management Systems; and Vision and Potential for Intermodalism); Resource Papers (see individual entries in TRIS data base); Perspectives on the Conference; Steering Committee Biographical Information; and Participants. 7-76. ISTEA and Intermodal Planning: TRB Releases Fourth Report on ISTEA Planning Issues. Casgar, C. S. and J. A. Scott. TR NEWS. Jan 1994, 170, Pp 19-21. In December 1992 the Transportation Research Board (TRB) conducted a National Conference on the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) and Intermodal Planning Issues to identify those issues involved in carrying out the new planning requirements of ISTEA. The conference was chaired by C. Michael Walton of the University of Texas. The report findings are contained in TRB Special Report 240--"lSTEA and Intermodal Planning: Concept, Practice, and Vision". This article provides highlights from the conference regarding the following: Intermodal cooperation on conference planning; changing institutional concerns and structures; partnerships; freight interests; Intermodal planning - an evolving system that requires training and research; and research reommendations. 7-77. ISTEA and Regional Roundtable Report and Action Plan. A Progress Report From Our Customers. Office of the Secretary of Transportation and Federal Transit Administration. (Washington, DC). Mar 1994. This report summarizes the findings of a series of regional roundtable meetings held by the DOT leadership team in the ten federal regions in November and December 1993. The Secretary of Transportation arranged these outreach meetings to assess the progress to date in the implementation of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) and to listen to customers. The discussions were designed to give DOT customers, namely, state and local officials from each of the regions the direct opportunity to advise management teams at the highest level in the DOT just how well the ISTEA process was working. The report begins with a message from the Secretary of Transportation and forewords by Senator Baucus and Congressman Mineta. Listening to the Customers section presents the 10 general areas of nationwide concern and recommendations that emerged from the roundtable meetings followed by the DOT team's observations and conclusions. The DOT response to the recommendations is presented in the form of ~ detailed Action Plan approved by the Secretary. It outlines the actions DOT intends to take, designates the agenaes responsible for achieving each improvement, and Sets a timetable for completion. The overall message heard at the regional meetings was that "ISTEA is working-, and that there is strong support for the program across the country. Full funding of ISTEA was consistently the highest priority issue for state and bcal officials. Other common themes that emerged were pleas for education and training, simplifying the ISTEA project approval process/regulations, cutting red tape, closer cooperation with EPA, careful monitoring of the ISTEA by DOT, improving access to health care in rural areas, encouraging supportive land use policy, raising priority for freight, etc. 7-78. The ISTEA and the NHS: One Step Forward, Two Steps Back? Camph, D. H. (Aldaron, Inc., Culver City, CA). Apr 1994. The purpose of the Surface Transportation Policy Project (STPP) is to ensure that transportation policy and investments help conserve energy, protect environmental and aesthetic quality, strengthen the economy, promote social equity, and make communities more livable. This paper discusses policy issues associated with the National Highway System (NHS) established by Paragraph 1006 of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). This discussion emphasizes the needs of people, rather than vehicles, in assuring access to jobs, services and recreational opportunities. The work of the sTrP has been supported by grants from the Nathan Cummings Foundation, the Energy Foundation, the Joyce Foundation, the James C. Penney Foundation, and the Surdana Foundation, Inc. Development, environmental protection, social equity, and community cohesion should all be important to determining policy choices. 149

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Section 7- Intermodal Issues i improving highway or railroad access--are reviewed in Chapter 7. Chapter 8 is an overview of the relationship of ports with the private users of their terminals and their labor unions in which suggestions are offered for improving internal operations in ways that might reduce the peak demands of port terminals o surface transportation systems. The American Association of Port Authorities (PAPA) survey questionnaire is provided in Appendix A, the description of selected results from the survey of inland river terminals is provided in Appendix B. and a glossary is provided in Appendix C. 7-85. Larkspur Ferry Terminal. Rexrode, Gene P. (Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District, San Francisco, CA). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. Califomia. 7-86. Learning From Freight. Coogan, Matthew A. (Transportation Consultant). Second Annual National Freight Planning Conference Report, Matthew Coogan, Editor; Dec 8 1993, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Published February 1994. 7-87. Legal Impediments to Intermodalism. Leibson, Russell. (Carroll, Burdick & McDonough). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. 7-88. Los Angeles Union Station. Emerson, Norman H. (Emerson & Associates). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. Califomia. 7-89. Louis and Helen Padnos Transportation Center, Holland, Michigan. wow, Soren. (City of Holland, Ml). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. Michigan. 7-90. Major Investment Studies: Issues in a Multimodal Process, A Panel Discussion, Donald J. Emerson, Federal Transit Administration, and Sheldon M. Edner, Federal Highway Administration, PresidIng. Ryan, Jim (Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade and Douglas, Inc.~; Jim Smedley (Pennsylvania Department of Transportation); Les Sterman (East/West Gateway Council); Karen Heisler (Denver, Colorado), and NQLl J. Pedersen (Maryland Department of Transportation). Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1 995. 151 7-91. The Maritime System of the Americas (East Coast of Mexico, North Cone of South America, Gulf of Mexico, MlssIselppi River, Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Waterway). Hochstein, Anatoly. (LSU National Ports and Waterways Institute, Rosslyn, VA). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. 7-92. Measuring the Performance of Intermodal Freight Terminals. Ferreira, L. (Queensland Technol. University, Australia) and J. Sigut (Australian National Railway). Transportation Planning and Technology. 1993, 17~3), Pp 269-80. As the interface point between road and rail, Intermodal freight terminals (IFTs) are critical elements in the total freight distribution chain. This paper addresses the twin objectives of reducing freight transport costs and improving customer service by putting forward a number of indicators designed to measure the performance of IFTs. Each of the three major performance areas, namely customer service, operational efficiency and terminal productivity are discussed in detail. A methodology is put forward which enables operating strategies to be evaluated. Computer simulation is used in order to arrive at strategies which reduce operating and capital costs and satisfy customer service requirements. The simulation model outputs include performance measures related to customer service such as mean waiting times required for loading and unloading of containers, as well as productivity measures of terminal operations such as lifting equipment utilisation. 7-93. Measuring the Relationship Between Freight Transportation Services and Industry Productivity. Compendium of Research Reports. Hickiing Corporation. Jan 1992, NCHRP 2-17~4~. 7-94. MetroLink Light Rail Transit Station at Lambert-St. Louis International Airport Titus, Jan M. (Lambert-St. Louis International Airport, Bridgeton, MO). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. Missouri. 7-95. Metropolitan Goods Movement: Needed Changes to Foster Economic Growth. Pisarsky, Alan.Prepared for the Goods Movement Task Force of the Business Transportation Council. 7-96. Metropolitan Planning Organization Comments. Scheuernsthul, George. (Denver Regional Council of Governments). A Paper Within the SQSSIOn, Public

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Project Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 (1 ) Interest Group Assessments of Impacts of ISTEA on Environmental Quality and Comments from Other Perspectives: Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. Colorado. 7-97. Miami Intermodal Center. Parker, Allen. (ICE Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Miami, FL). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. Flonda. 7-98. MlcrocomputersIn Transportation. A GlS-Based Program Management System: An Approach to Integrate Transportation Management Systems. Meyer, M. D. and W. A. Sarasua. Fourth International Conference on Microcomputers in Transportation, Chow, J.; D. M. Lilvin, and K. S. OPIQIa, Editors; Jul 22 1992, Baltimore, Maryland. Pp 16-25. A description is given of a microcomputer geographic information system (GIS)-based transportation program management system developed for a county department of transprtation, that serves as a prototype for an integrated transportation management system. This system, which uses TransCad as GIS platform, consists of several modules each focusing on one particular component of the DOT's functional responsiblities: pavement management; traffic engineering; accident analysis; and transportation/transit planning. The paper describes each module as well as GIS implementation. 7-99. Mobility an a Right. Hamburg, John R.; Larry Blair, and David P. Albright. Transportation Research Board 74th Annual Meeting, Jan 22 199S, Washington, DC. Should the transportation system in a democracy be designed so that all individuals have access to mobility? The answer will influence principles guiding design and development of the transportation system. The answer ~11 influence what technologies are advanced and to whom they are accessible. This is a period of change in transportation. The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act refocused mobility as a system ISSUE involving all modes of transportation. During a period of system change, if mobility is a right, then access to mobility should be a defining element of the transportation system architecture. This paper states the importance of articulating principles on which the transportation system is founded. Philosophical and political arguments are presented for and against mobility as a right. The question of whether or not mobility is a right is then addressed from the perspective of 1600 persons randomly surveyed in New Mexico. In addition, a separate, smaller sample was taken of persons not commonly involved in transportation system decision-making: the physically and mentally challenged, the elderly, the unemployed, and persons for whom English is not their primary language. The majority of persons surveyed affirm mobility as a right. Both the random and spec al surveys identified a relationship between household income, gender and attitude toward mobility as a right. Mobility is more likely to be considered a right by persons who are lower income and female. To the extent that involvement in transportation system architecture is inclusive, it would be expected to reflect the principle of mobility as a right. New Mexico. 7-100. Modal Integration in Passenger Transportation. A DiscussIon of Key tissues. Jones, J.; H. Fu, and C. J. Boon. (Canadian Institute of Guided Ground Transport, Queen's University, Canada). Feb 1992. The objective of this study was to assess the concept of Intermodal passenger transportation, also termed "modal integration". The focus of this study is intercity transportation, thus the following forms of modal integration were considered: transit/surface intercity; air/transit; air/surface intercity; and intercity bus/trail. The report focusses on policy issues associated with modal integration. The aim was to identify the advantages and disadvantages of integration, to identify the prerequisites for integration, and to assess the opportunities for modal integration in Canada. Cases of modal integration in Canada, the United States and Europe have been examined, and data has been presented on the degree of nodal integration which currently exists at the major Canadian passenger terminals. 7-101. Model Predicting Impacts on Texas Highway System Following Closure of GIWW. Roop, Stephen S. and Richard W. Dickinson. (Texas A&M University System). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. Texas. 7-102. Modeling Intermodal AutoRail Commuter Networks. Boile, Mana P.; Lazar N. Spasovic, and Athanassios K. Bladikas. (New Jersey Insitute of Technology). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. 7-103. Modeling Traffic Flow for Ground Transportation Planning at a Major International Airport. Manning, Sean M.; Uday Virkud, and James T. Jarvis. (Vanasse Hangen Brustlin, Inc., Watertown, MA). Submitted to Transportation Planning Methods 152

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Section 7 - Intermodal Issues . Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. 7-104. Moving Urban America. May 6 1992, Charlotte, North Carolina. Conference Proceedings Published in Transportation Research Board Special Report 237; 1993: Pp 176. The conference objective was to advise the United States Department of Transportation, the community at large, and state and local elected officials on the appropriate planning and dedsion-making process needed to select and develop projects that will improve urban mobility, with emphasis on efficiency, concern for the environment, and shared responsibilities among agencies and affected groups, all within the context of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (COCA). This Special Report contains the conference proceedings, including the following: Preface, J. Kinstlinger; Introductory Remarks, T.J. Harrelson; Conference Summary, D. Brand; Conference Findings; Workshop Reports; Resource Papers (6~; Steering Committee Biographical Information; and Conference Participants. The Resource Papers are entered individually in the TRIS data base. 7-105. A MultI-Modal IVHS Strategic Plan. Leonard, B.; G. N. Havinoviski, and D. Delgado. Moving Toward Deployment: Proceedings of the IVHS America 1994 Annual Meeting, Apr 17 1994, Atlanta, Georgia. PP 79-88. The Orange County, California Intelligent Vehicle/Highway Systems (IVHS) Study has developed a framework under which advanced technologies will be deployed to improve the operation of the County's highway and public transportation system. The study consisted of a review of existing programs, interjurisdictional relationships, an IVHS technology review, an assessment of needs, definition of recommended programs, and an implementation plan which included funding analyses. The scope of the recommended improvements and programs was inclusive of freeways, major and minor arsenals, local collector streets, and public transportation facilities. This paper looks at the multi-modal aspect of the strategic plan by focusing on public transportation. Califomia. 7-106. A Multi-Mode Appraoch to ATIS Featuring the Destination Travel Card. Danns, A. Proceedings of the IVHS America 1992 Annual Meeting, Volume 11. Surface Transportation and the Information A9Q, May 17 1992, Newport Beach, California. This paper describes the "Destination Travel Card tm" (DTC tm) that stores the Regional Road Network with Turn Restrictions and the Mass Transit Network (for bus, train, HOVs). The intelligent software for manipulating this data to provide Trip Planning, Route Guidance, Alternate Route Generation and Yellow pages is also resident on the DTC tm. The traveler is in control, using a world standard memory card which allows him to access all private and mass transit needs from a desktop, laptop, or palmtop computer; from a public kiosk; from a TV-top unit in a hotel room or living room; and from an in-vehicle dashboard unit, not unlike a tape unit, into which the DTC is inserted. 7-107. Multimodal Ground Access and IVHS at Dulles International AIrport (Bellomo-McGee, Inc., Henna, VA). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. 7-108. National Highway Institute (NHl) TrainIng Course, "Landside Access for Intermodal Facilities," Participants Notebook. Prepared by Vickerman Zachary Miller, Matthew Coogan and Michael Meyer. 1995. 7-109. The NationalHighwaySystem: The Backbone of America's Intermodal Transportation Network Federal Highway Administration. 7-110. A New Era In Transportation Planning and Decision Making. Larson, T. D. Transportation Planning, Programming, and Finance, Jul 19 1992, Seattle, Washington. Conference Proceedings Published in Transportation Research Circular 406, Washington, DC, April 1993, Pp 13-18. This conference keynote address discusses the innovation in transportation that is evident in the State of Washington under the leadership of Duane Berentson, then focuses on the following three topics: (1 ) the challenge presnted by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA); (2) the progress in ISTEA legislation and, in particular, with regard to the National Highway System; and (3) what needs to be done, or the immediate challenges to the transportation community. Washington. 7-111 . New Orlean~ Union Passenger Terminal (NOUPT). Dupre, Wayne A. (Regional Transit Authority, New Orleans, LA). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. Louisiana. 7-112. A New Transamerica Transportation 153

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Project Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 (1 ) Corridor. Options for The 21 st Century. Guyton, J. W. Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute of Transportation Engineers 63rd Annual Meeting, Sep 19 1993, The Hague, Netherlands. Pp 191 -1 95. The 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (lSTEA) passed by the U.S. Congress authorized funds for a transcontinental transportation corridor study. The states involved expanded the Scope to examine multi-modal options and inter-modal linkages. Initially called the "1-66 Corndor Study", this project is now known as the Transamerica Transportation Corndor (TTC) study. This paper summarizes the study approach established to address the following challenging questions on a national scale: What are the realistic possibilities for a meaningful application of emerging technological opportunities throughout the U.S.? Can they be applied in a coast-to~oast transportation corridor? Can such concepts enhance the nation's economy? What are the long-term implications of such concepts for transportation in the 21st century? The study is still underway and conclusions have not been reached by the various regional and national bodies involved. 7-113. Off Airport Passenger Terminalsa Gosling, Geoffrey; Adib Kanafani; Alan Bender, and Vassitis Evmolpidis. (University of Califomia).Prepared for U. S. Department of Transportation Office of University Research. Nov 1977. 7-114. Organizations in Change: Managing the Transition to an Intermodal Culture, A Panel Discussion, Frank R. Harder, Intermodal Management Inc., Presiding. Smith, Douglas P. (CN Rail); Carl J. Seiberlich (American President Companies Ltd.~; Daniel B. Prichard (Wisconsin Department of Transportation); George E. Schoener (U.S. Department of Transportation), and Anne StraussWieder (Port Authority of New York and New Jersey). Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1 995. 7-115. Overview of Amtrak's Role in Intermodal Transfer Facilities Projects. yarn, Douglas. National Railroad Passenger Corporation). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. 7-116. Overview of Impediments. Intermodal Freight Transportation. Draft Report. Federal Highway Administration. (Washington, DC). Feb 1 995. This report represents an overview of impediments to Intermodal freight transportation. It identifies types of Intermodal impediments based on studies, reports, and interviews with shippers, carders, public agencies and others involved in Intermodal transportation. One purpose of identifying Intermodal impediments is so that effective actions can be designed to reduce or eliminate them. The actions may be undertaken by metropolitan transportation planning organizations (MPSs) and state and federal governments working together and in partnership with private transportation companies. Intermodal transportation has become a national priority. The benefits of improved Intermodal freight transportation include: 1) lowering transportation costs by allowing each mode to be used for the part of the trip for which it is best suited; 2) increasing national economic productivity and efficiency; 3) more efficient use of existing transportation infrastructure; 4) increased benefit from public and private infrastructure investments; and 5) imiproved air quality and environmental conditions, such as by reducing energy consumption. 7-117. Partnership and Partnership Development: ISTEA and CAAA -- Breakthrough or Mire7 Kunde, J. E. and D. F. Bertsch. Transportation Research Board Special Report 237. 1993, Pp 114-127. This paper discusses the challenge of implementing the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAM). Implementation of these Acts offers both risk and opportunity in an America in which citizens have become frighteningly distanced from government. The notion of partnerships to accomplish this is discussed and the following basic guidelines are presented and examined: (1) Symptom-relieving programs will not work. An investment strategy focused on problem identification, explicit goals, and joint investment with clear, immediate success will. (2) Most problems do not correspond to government boundaries. The test solutions come from places where a community of interest forms across governmental boundaries and delivers solutions to governmental bodies for action. Communities of interest generally occur in real places that have names, as opposed to areas known as the 'dive counties of ," for exampis. The authors of ISTEA want to resurrect metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs). The degree to which MPOs represent real places and develop real identities is probably the degree to which they will succeed. (3) The actual decision-making process must be visible and understandable to the public. The nation ~11 not support another federal intervention failure. Experiments like the Kettering Foundation's Negotiated Investment Strategy (NIS) show how the federal system can work effectively. NIS employed (a) a neutral facilitator; (b) a condensed, efficient time frame; (c) a process adapted from the most successful negotiations experience (single-text 154

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Section 7- Intermodal Issues - negotiation); (d) face-to-face negotiations; and (e) signed public agreements (clear evidence of achievement). 7-118. Pennsylvania Station/Farley Post Office Project, New York. Nichols, Foster (Parsons, Bnnckerhoff, Quade and Douglas, Inc.~; Ken Reid (The Reid Group), and Kenneth L. Casavant (Washington State University). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. New York. 7-119. Perspective. on Long-Range Transportation Planning. Guyton, J. W. 1992 Compendium of Technical Papers. Institute of Transportation Engineers Annual Meeting, Aug 9 1912, Washington, DC. There are high hopes for the promises of the 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA). It has been said that ISTEA is great for planning because "people will be forced to plan". Many had high hopes and visions of the ideal when the 1962 Act created the formal "3C" process. That's the concept of a cooperative, continuing, and comprehensive planning process. The concept of the "701" Comprehensive Planning assistance offered great promise, also. And the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) set forth much needed legal backing for what should have been obvious to good planners. These acts provided much impetus to the planning process. This article considers what the planning process has accomplished, where it seems to be now, and where ISTEA can lead us. 7-120. Perspectives on the ISTEA Vision - Progress and l~suese Francois, F. B. Issue Papers for the Institute of Transportation Engineers 1 993 International Conference. Transportation in the ISTEA Era, Mar 14 1993, Orlando, Florida. The 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) made major changes in how surface transportation programs, including highways and mass transit, will be addressed in the United States. In addition, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CMA) created new controls on surface transportation programs, espec ally in metropolitan areas that are in a non-attainment status. Implementation of the 1990 and 1991 laws is now occumng, and over the next few years ~11 change transportation policy and planning at the national, state, regional and local govQrnn~ent levels. The nature and implications of those changes and progress toward implementation are examined, and projections of the imact on transportation in the U.S. are offered. 7-121. Perspectives on the New Intermodel Transportation Program. Cannon, B. E. Public Roads. 1993, 56~4), Pp 129-134. The Intermodal Transportation Program (ITP) is a major focus of the Federal Highway Administration as prescribed by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. The 10 guiding principles of ITP are identified and discussed: implement intermodalism; USE ITP flexibility; be more efficicent; apply engineering pnnciples; limit red tape; enhance the environment; promote safety; innovate; promote creative investments; and develop plans and programs. Critical ISSUQS in this spectrum of requirements are examined and include the following: intermodalism; flexibility; system efficiency; engineering efficiency; and program administration efficiency. 7-122. Pittsburgh's New Airport: An Intermodal Facility. Casey, R. P. MSHTO Quarterly Magazine. Winter 1993, 72~1), Pp 12-13. The new $800 million Pittsburgh International Airport is described. Designed as an Intermodal transportation hub, it is built at midfield between the runways, and has a new terminal complex of two million square feet. It was built with joint financial participation by the Commonwealth, Allegheny County, the airport's owner-operator, and the air carriers and the federal government. A new $210 million, 7.5-mile expressway vail directly link the new terminal to the existing highway system. The expressway was designed to accommodate future expansion including mass transit. The Pittsburgh International terminal and the connecting highway development is the biggest economic development project in Pennsylvania. It illustrates the Intermodal development that is needed under the federal Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. Pennsylvania. 7-123. Planning and Conceptual Design for a Multimodal Access Transportation Facility. Tokich, P. S. 1992 Compendium of Technical Papers. Institute of Transportation Engineers Annual Meeting, Aug 9 1912, Washington, OC. This study was conducted to identify the benefits of improved Intermodal connections and improved access to Miami International Airport (MIA) and other major employment centers. This study developed the concept of the Multimodal Access. Facility, analyzed and evaluated alternative site locations and formulated a feasible development. Flonda. 7-124. Possibilities for a Shift in Modal Split in Favour of Rail and Inland Shipping Traffic. 155

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Project Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 (1 ) Eisenkopf, A. (University of Giessen). Freight Transport and the Environment 1991, Pp 215-222. The discussion on the possibilities of influencing the modal split are in traffic science and traffic politics concentrated on shifts from carriage of goods by road towards railways and inland shipping. Such shifts can be stimulated by administrative and investment measures, or they can be left to the efforts of railways and inland shipping companies themselves to influence the market. The latter is of particular economic interest. Starting points of strategies employed by entrepreneurs shape themselves to the changing requirements of the shippers and the related new logistic efficiency standards. The railways endeavour to develop their strong points to match these requirements by stepping up the organization of direct traffic routes, by introducing high-speed traffic, by improving the efficiency of their customer-information systems and by intensifying their activities in combined traffic. Nonetheless considerable shortfalls will have to be overcome when it comes to the necessary cooperation in international traffic. In inland shipping with its traditional dependence on bulk transports, the carriage of dangerous substances and combined traffic offer a relative potential for an increase in its market share. 7-125. A Pro-Active Approach to Multimodal Operational Tests. Bellomo, S. J.; R. Fisher, and A. Barkaun. Proceedings of the IVHS America 1993 Annual Meeting, Surface Transportation: Mobility, Technology, and Society, Apr 14 1993, Washington, DC. This paper describes a pro-active approach to responsive multimodal transportation management IVHS operational tests being undertaken by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) as part of a project being performed by Bellomo-McGee, Inc. (BMI). The project objectives are to: (1) identify candidate multimodal real or semi-real time scenarios; (2) determine their usefulness and feasibility; (3) develop additional innovative multimodal concepts that can be linked to IVHS technologies; (4) identify the potential utility and cost of each scenario; and (5) provide recommendations for additional research, development, and operational test activities. 7-126. The Promise of ISTEA. Liburdi, L. ISTEA and Intermodal Planning: Concept, Practice, Vision, Dec 2 1992, Irvine, California. Conference Proceedings Published in Transportation Research Board Special Report 240, Washington, DC, 1 993, Pp 55-61 . This keynote address discusses what the promises of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) are for highway interests, for state and local governments, for transportation planners, for environmentalists, for metropolitan planning organizations, for truckers and other highway users, for airport and seaport operators, for transit operators, and for all Americans. The positives and negatives of ISTEA are examined, and, in conclusion, it is pointed out that FISTED is like a sketch for a large mural that Oil be painted by many different artists. If properly coordinated, with the right sense of purpose, the individual efforts ~11 blend together to make a richly diverse and beautiful work of art. However, there is a serious risk that the individual efforts will amount to an incoherent, clashing painting that diminishes its overall impact.- Conference participants are encouraged to make it work by developing a vision for the future. 7-127. Public Private Initiatives in Transportation-Opportunities for Intermodal Facility Development. Ellis, Jerry. (Washington State Department of Transportation). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. Washington. 7-128. Reconstruction of the Hyannis to Nantucket Ferry Route. Tuckwood, John D. (Woods Hole, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket Steamship Authority, Woods Hole, MA). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, DQC 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. Massachusetts. 7-129. Refreshing ESTER Pious, F. K., Jr. Planning. Feb 1993, (59(2)), Pp 9-12. It is noted that the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 requires that states and cities incorporate non-transportation considertaions into their transportation planning, and if possible, to eliminate the negative consequences of road building. It is pointed out how amendments in the Clean Air Act 1990, allows the U.S. Dpartment of Transportation to withhold federal matching funds from road and sewer projects in metropolitan areas that have not attained the air quality standards laid down by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. ISTEA- approved, 3-year transportation improvement plans must be produced that includes measures to reduce automobile emissions. The ISTEA mandate to preserve wetlands, parklands, scenic views, etc., is noted. Examples of transportation programs that take these aspects into consideration are described. While such news is good, it is pointed out that the mechanism of ISTEA to make transportation planning more comprehensive, is cumbersome, and could take considerable time to become effective. 7-130. Regional Intermodal Transportation Center, Syracuse, New York. 156

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Section 7- Intermodal Issues Poltenson, Charles A., Sr. (Syracuse Metropolitan Transportation Council). A Presentation for the Transportation Research Board Conference, Intermodalism: Making the Case, Making it Happen, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. New York. 7-131. Reinventing Metropolitan and State Institutions for Surface Transportation Planning. McDowell, B. D. ad S. M. Edner. Transportation Planning, Programming, and Finance: Proceedings of a Conference, Jul 19 1992, Seattle, Washington. Proceedings Published in Transportation Research Circular 406; Apr 1993: Pp 64-74. This conference resource paper first looks at issues concerning metropolitan institutions, and then State institutions. Next it Woks at the relationships between the metropolitan and State transportation planning processes, and then relationships between the Metropolitan Planning Organizations and States as institutions that reflect their diverse planning needs. The paper offers some brief conclusions about building planning capacities, developing productive partnerships, and avoiding the gridlock that could come about from the exercise of mutual vetoes. 7-132. Reinventing Surface Transportation: New Intergovernmental Challenges. McDowell, B. D. Intergovernmental Perspective. Winter 1992, Pp 6-8. On November 27, 1991, Congress passed a new Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (P.L. 102-240~. Signed into law on December 18, t991, this is the first post-interstate reauthorization of the federal highway and transit programs, and it makes significant changes in the programs and in the intergovernmental relationships surrounding them. This article highlights the key reforms that seem to be intended, and the importance of the regulations to be written in 1992, along with some other follow-up actions that will be necessary to turn these reforms into reality. 7-133. Report on Funding Levels and Allocations of Funds. Report of The Secretary of Transportation to the United States Congress Pursuant to Section 3(J) of the Federal Transit Act, as Amended. Office of the Secretary of Transportation and Federal Transit Administration. (Washington, DC). Apr 1994. This report provides the U.S. Department of Transportation's recommendations to Congress for allocation of funds to be made available for construction of new fixed guideway systems and extensions (Section 3 New Starts funding) for Fiscal Year 1995. The report is required by section 3a) Of the Federal Transit Act (FT Act). The President's budget for FY 1995 proposes that $400,00 million be made available for the Section 3 New Starts program. After setting aside three~uarters of one percent of these funds for Project Management Oversight as specified in ISTEA, $397,00 million is available for project grants. This report recommends five projects for funding in FY 1995, all of which have existing Full Funding Grant Agreements (FFGA). 7-134. Resolving Land Use and Port Access Conflicts at Inland Waterway Portia Lipinski, Martin E. (Memphis State University, Memphis, TN). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. 7-135. Review of Recent French Experience with Respect to the Design of TGV Stations. Schneider, Jerry. (University of Washington, Seattle, WA). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. 7-136. The Rickenbacker Inland Port Facility: An Innovative Public/Private Partnership Example. (Inland Port Commission, Columbus, OH). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. Ohio. 7-137. Rifle Shot or Shotgun Blast? - Uncertainty in Long Range Transportation Planning. Mierzejewski, Edward A. (University of South Florida, Tampa, FL). Submitted to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. 7-138. The Road tolntermodallem. Fuller, J. W. ISTEA and Intermodal Planning: Concent. Practice, Vision, Dec 2 1992, Irvine, California. Conference Proceedings Published in Transportation Research Board Special Report 240, Washington, DC, 1993, Pp 113-129. Since its heyday in the 1 960s to the early 1 970s, transportation planning in the United States has endured a long period of uncertainty, marked by professional questioning and political inattention. In this last decade of the century, however, new directives for planning and planners can be found in the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). Although it appears that transportation planners have major new tasks ahead along an uncertain new path, it should be remembered that not all that is being demanded of planners in the 1 990s would seem particularly unusual to planners of past decades. To see what change might be required, it is useful to view the major eras and events in transportation planning during the last 30 years. This conference resource paper looks at the following eras in transportation planning: The 1962 Highway Act; Planning for Transit 157

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and the Environment in the Early 1 970s; Early State Transportation Plans; Planning Shock: Energy and Financial Shortfalls; Shift of Responsibility to the States and Cities: The 1 980s; and Charactenstics of Today's U.S. Transportation System. The paper then discusses transportation planning in the 1 990s and looks at the Wisconsin DOT approach to planning under ISTEA. Concluding remarks deal with future transportation planning directions. 7-139. Role of Door-to-Door Vans in Airport Ground Transportation. Gosling, Geoffrey D. (University of California, Berkeley) and Eric Mohr (Golden Gate University). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. Califomia. 7-140. St. Louis Gateway Transportation Center - An Intermodal Passenger Facilitly. McCarthy, John H. (Sverdrup Civil, Inch. Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. Missouri. 7-141. State of the Art and Needs in Freight Transport. Cohen, Harry S. (Cambridge Systematics, Inc.~. Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. 7-142. Status Report of Active Projects. Advanced Technology Branch, Washington State Department of Transportation. (Seattle, WA). Jun 1 995. Washi ngton. 7-143. Strategic Direction for the NCHRP and Other AASHTO Research Activities. Mudge, Richard R. (Apogee Research, Inc., Bethesda, MD) and Richard Braun (Twin States Area Airports Commission, St. Paul, MN)., In Progress; NCHRP-20-37. At its September 1992 meeting, the Standing Committee on Research (SCOR) of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation C)ffioals (MSHTO) identified the need to examine MSHTO's research-related activities and, in particular, the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), administered by the Transportation Research Board. At that time, funds were approved to conduct a strategic analysis of SCOR and the NCHRP The NCHRP started in 1962 and, during its 30-year history, the program, although undergoing some evolution in technical content and procedures, has van ed little from the original design. Faced with a new environment in the future [Q.9., Intermodal Surface . Proiect Bibliography- NCHRP 8-32 Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) and other legislated requirements; major emphasis on the development and deployment of Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS); and the expiration of the Strategic Highway Research Program], SCOR deeded that it would be timely to assess its activities and to develop a strategy for the future. 7-144. Summary of Resource Papers and Discussion. Humphrey, T. F. Transportation Planning, Programming, and Finance: Proceedings of a Conference, Jul 19 1992, Seattle, Washington. Proceedings Published in Transportation Research Circular 406; Apr 1993: Pp 23-35. The Transportation Research Board, in conjunction ninth the Federal Highway Administration, the Federal Transit Administration, and the Washington State Department of Transportation, held a conference in Seattle whose primary purpose was to examine the major characteristics of multimodal planning and programming. This section of the proceedings summarizes each of the four resource papers prepared for the conference and the discussion and major conclusions of those papers. 7-145. Surface Transportation Planning at Airports. Myers, John W. (HNTB Corporation, Indianapolis, IN). Submitted to Transportation Planning Method Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. 7-146. Surface Transportation Policy ProJect's Assessment. Dittmar, Hank. (Surface Transportation Policy Project). A Paper Within the Session, Public Interest Group Assessments of Impacts of ISTEA on Environmental Quality and Comments from Other Perspectives: Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. 7-147. Surface Transportation Policy Project's Wish List. Dittmar, Hank. (Surface Transportation Policy Project). A Paper Within the Session, Public Interest Group Wish Ust for ISTEA Reauthorization and Comments from Other Perspectives: Presented to the Annual toasting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1 995. 7-148. Taking ISTEA Plunge: Implementation of Transportation Enhancement Program In Kansas. Comstock, G. David. (Kansas Department of Transportation). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. Kansas. 158

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Section 7- Intermodal Issues . 7-149. Tchoupitoulas Corridor. Brinson, J. Ron. (Port of NOW Orleans). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, DQC 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. . oulslana. 7-1 50. Telecommuting: What's the Payoff? Mokhtarian, Patricia L. Access. SPrin9 1993, NO. 2, PP 25. 7-151. Toward 8 National Intermodal Transportation System. Krebs, R. D. Transportation Quarterly. Fall 1994, 48~4), Pp 333-342. In this article, 12 recommendations to the Congress made in September t 994 by the National Commission on Intermodal Transportation, are presented. Among many other recommendations, the Commission urges the freight industry to become involved in the public process and urges MPOs to expand their understanding of the freight system. In the private sector, intermodalism has led to new and productive partnerships. ISTEA creates an important opportunity to develop similarly productive public sector and public-private partnerships that support the growth of intermodal freight and passenger services. 7-152. Transh Connections. Thelntermodal Transit Planner's Guide. Middleton, W. D. and G. M. Smerk. (Editors). Transit Connections. Sep 1993, Pp 96. The prime purpose of this new publication is to be solely devoted to promoting the "connectivity" concept of transit planning that is mandated by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991. Specifically, the publication is undertaking the task to explore, with no modal preferences or partisanship, how road, rail, and water transit, or combinations of them, can work together to meet the particular needs of communities. This introductory issue provides a general overview of the many modern transit alternatives available to transportation planners, their technical characteristics, the conditions under which each represents an effective transit choice, and their capital and operating cost considerations. It also reviews how transit development can play a major role in alleviating much of the environmental impact of road construction and the air quality problems created by automobile emissions, and it takes a look at what modern transit systems and their suppliers are doing to reduce the environmental impact of transit itself. 7-153. Transportation at a Crossroads. Meyer, M. D. MSHTO Quarterly Magaz~ne. Jul 1992, 71~3), Pp 6-7. The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) has greatly loosened the institutional, financial and thus political, framework within which decisions on transportation investment had been made in the past. The article considers what impact the ISTEA could have on transportation. Several areas where the ISTEA presents substantial opportunities are noted: institutionalizing flexibility; multimodal transportation planning; system management; advanced technologies; and finance. Each of these areas is discussed. 7-154. Transportation Community Moves Towards Definition of "Intermodalism". Transitions. May 1993, 1~2), Pp 7. The idea of "intermodalism" is embodied in the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). However a generally accepted definition of the word and what it means for the transportation system does not exist. Various ideas are being attached to the concept "intermodal transportation", such as modal cooperation, interconnectedness, system-wide accessibility, and modal redundancy to improve customer choice. The Federal Highway Adminstration's Office of Intermodalism, in conjunction with US-DOTs other modal administrations, is leading the federal government's effort to find acceptable applications of "intermodalism". FHWA is sponsoring a series of open workshops across the country to collect ideas about intermodalism and its application to the transit system. NTI joins the national conversation during the annual meeting of the American Planning Association in Chicago by co-sponsoring two panel sessions on ISTEA and its impact on transportation planning. 7-155. Transportation Infrastructure: Urban Transportation Planning Can Better Address Modal Trade-Offs. General Accounting Office. (Washington, DC). Apr t 992. The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) authorizes $155 billion in federal assistance for highway and mass transit programs over the 6-year period ending in fiscal year 1997. The General Accounting examined issues related to funding flexibility between the highway and mass transit programs. In particular, GAO evaluated (1 ) the extent to which highway and mass transit program funds have been used across modal lines and (2) the highway and mass transit planning processes to determine if improvements are needed to make more effective choices in addressing congestion and clean air problems. In reviewing the planning process, GAO focused on the federal regulations and criteria available for making cross-modal comparisons between highway and mass transit projects. Briefly, GAO found the following: The use of highway and mass transit program funds to finance projects across modal lines 159

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Project Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 (1 ) has been limited. Reasons for this are discussed. ISTEA addresses some of the disparities of previous law by providing for a uniform federal matching share for highway and mass transit projects and giving local officials greater authority over the selection of highway and mass transit projects within their areas. However, the Department of Transportation could better assist states and localities in using ISTEA's funding flexibility by developing cross-modal criteria--that is, criteria for comparing highway, mass transit, and nontraditional transportation projects, such as highway occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes. Such criteria would (1 ) provide a common basis for quantifying a projects's ability to meet mobility, environmental quality, safety, cost-effectiveness, and social and economic objectives and (2) help states and localities to identify the most efficient and effective mix of projects, regardless of mode, to address the nation's serious congestion and air quality problems. 7-156. Transportation Investment and Metropolitan Economic Development: A Reconnaissance of Research Availability and Requirements. Pisarski, Alan E. The Effects of Added Transportation Capacity. Conference Proceedings, Dec 1 6 1 991, Bethesda, Maryland. This reconnaissance examines the research literature available to support a study of the formative effects of transportation investments in shaping and stimulating urban growth. Its purpose is to establish whether that body of literature is sufficient in depth and scope to permit a research program to be undertaken that would be a definitive synthesis and extension of current understanding of the relationship between transportation faalities investments and metropolitan growth and form. The primary focus of the assessment is on relatively recent, large-scale transit investments and their formative effects. Other forms of investment, particularly those predominantly oriented to passenger travel (that is, highways and aviation), are also considered. The interest in transit has two elements: in many istances, a part of the rationale and justification for transit investment lies in its presumed power to form land uses more compactly; further, the allied case has been made for the need to form land uses more densely in order to create more successful markets for transit service. In either case, the linkages between transit investment and development need to be better understood. 7-157. Travel and Locational Impacts of Added Transportation Capacity: Experimental Designs. Stopher, Peter. (Louisiana State University). The Effects of Added Transportation Capacity. Conference Proceedings, Dec 16 1991, Bethesda, Maryland. The purpose of this paper is to explore experimental designs for measuring the travel effects of adding transportation capacity, particL larly to a congested transportation system. Theory had deduced that nine potential effects may arise when capacity is added to a congested travel corridor. 7-158. The Travel Effects of Added Transportation Capacity. Shunk, Gordon. (Texas Transportation Institute, Arlington, TX). The Effects of Added Transportation Capacity. Conference Proceedings, Dec 16 1991, Bethesda, Maryland. For some time transportation professionals and the community at large have recognized that traffic fills new roadways as soon as they are built. The commonly held belief has been that additional traffic was merely diverted from other facilities. However, transportation professionals have understood that some of that traffic may be new, induced by the improved levels of service where capacity was added. This and other potential effects of added transportation capacity have been largely ignored in the past as insignificant, but are gaining new prominence because of their importance for air quality assessment, congestion management, and growth management. 7-159. U.S. Transportation Command and Intermodal Planning. Starling, J. D. ISTEA and Intermodal Planning: Concept, Practice, Vision, Dec 2 1992, Irvine, California. Conference Proceedings Published in Transportation Research Board Special Report 240, Washington, DC, 1993, Pp 62-66. The role of manager for defense transportation is filled by the U.S. Transportation Command (TRANSCOM). The command was created to be the Department of Defense's (DOD's) single manager for common user transportation and was organized to support commanders on the front lines. TRANSCOM is responsible for ensuring that the defense transportation system is prepared to meet the demands of the emerging national defense strategy. Creating TRANSCOM was the first and most crucial step in striving to achieve true intermodalism within DOD. This resource paper focuses on the implications of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) for intermodal initiatives at TRANSCOM. 7-160. Use of Travel Forecasting Models to Evaluate the Travel and Environmental Effects of Added Transportation Capacity. Brand, Daniel. (Charles River Associates). The Effects of Added Transportation Capacity. Conference Proceedings, Dec 16 1991, Bethesda, Maryland. The pupose of this presentation is to discuss and recommend improvements to travel forecasting procedures which are required 'ho accurately assess 160

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Section 7- Intermodat Issues the air quality effects of added transportation capacity.". 7-161. Using the 1990 Census Transportation Planning Package {CTPP). Goodman, C. R. 1992 Compendium of Technical Papers. Institute of Transportation Engineers Annual Meeting, Aug 91912, Washington, DC. This paper describes and explains applications of the Census Transportation Planning Package (CTPP), which is a collection of special tabulations from responses to the 1990 Census survey questionnaire. On average, about one household in six responded to the census long form. Information on area commuting patterns mill be provided on a small area basis in both elements of the CTPP by worker place of residence, place of work, and origin/destination ~flows" for the commuter trip to work. The types of information contained in the Statewide and the Urban Elements will be comparable, with differences generally only in the geographic scale of the reported data. 7-162. Wanted: Pliable Paradigms for Transportation Investment. Larson, T. D. Transportation Research Board Speaa/ Report237. 1993, Pp 134-146. This is a time of new directions and opportunities in surface transportation in the United States. Explored in this paper is how full advantage can be taken of those new directions and opportunities. If transportation professionals develop new perspectives and learn about the specific needs of customers, products can be appropriately tailored to foster an effective and efficient transportationinfrastructure. Applying the new directions embodied in the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) demands a sea change in the way we think about transportation investments and the role they vail play in society. That change in thinking and how it affects organizations charged with implementing this law are explored. Special note is taken of the planning process so crucial to its success. In the language of the day, provisions of ISTEA will prompt pliable paradigms to guide future investment decisions and assessment of their worth. 7-163. Workshop Summaries. Humphrey, T. F. Transpo~tion Planning, Programming, and Finance. foul 191992, Seattle, Washington. Conference Proceedings Published in Transportation Research Circular 406, Washington, DC, April 1993, Pp 3-10. The Transportation Research Board, in conjunction with the Federal Highway Administration, the Federal Transit Administration, and the Washington State Department of Transportation, held a conference in Seattle whose primary purpose was to examine the major characteristics of multimodal planning and programming. There were four workshops structured around the following four major topics: multimodal planning, multimodal programming, finance, and institutional issues. In this section of the proceedings, each of the workshop discussions are summarized. Each summary includes the following: Introduction; Summary of Discussion and Major Conclusions; and Research Recommendations. 7-164. The Year 2020. Lockwood, Stephen C. Transportation Research Record 1243: Future of Statewide Transportation Planning. 1989, Pp 9-11. This look backwards from the year 2020 sees the eighties and nineties to have been a low point in productivity in the surface transportation sector. The provision of public infrastructure--transportation infrastructure and services, highway and transit--appeared to have been isolated from the economic expression of. consumer demand and from effective means of responding innovatively to its market. The key question facing transportation professionals at the close of the twentieth century was, what kind of a transportation system did a postindustrial service economy, geography, and society really need, and how was society going to shape it and pay for it. Highlights are included of the actual developments that have taken place by the year 2020, which have included such things as the automated vehicle operation that allows both 1 4-year~lds and 84-year- aids to operate vehicles, and the Stratoliner which will carry the author of this paper from his Boston conference in the morning to Paris for his afternoon meeting. 161