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Section 2- MPO Planning and Programming BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES FROM THE NCHRP 8-32 INTERACTIVE DATABASE CONCERNING REGIONAL PLANNING AND PROJECT PROGRAMMING 2-1. Access to Opportunity: Cooperative Planning to Improve Movility for Residents of Inner-C'ty Communities of the St. Louis Region. Progress in the First Year, FY 1995. East-West Gateway Coordinating Council. (St. Louis, MO). Jun 30 1995. Missouri. 2-2. Alameda Corridor Project in Los Angeles County, California. Hicks, Gil V. (Alameda Corridor Transportation Authority, Huntington Park, CA). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. The Alameda Corridor Project will dramatically improve railroad and highway service to the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach - the largest port complex in the United States. The project is designed to facilitate port access while mitigating potentially adverse impacts of port growth, such as traffic congestion, delays at rail/highway grade crossings, train noise in residential areas,airandpollution. Thecorridoris approximately 20 miles long running between downtown Los Angeles and the ports. The project has a highway and a railroad component. The rail element involves consolidating the port-related traffic of three railroads - the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, the Union Pacific Railroad Company, and the Southern Pacific Transportation Company - onto a fully grade-separated right-of-way. Currently the three railraods use four separate tracks which cross nearly 200 busy streets between downtown Los Angeles and the ports. This project will eliminate these highway-railroad conflicts. North of State Route 91, the railroad corridor will be depressed; i.e., in a trench about 33 feet deep and 47 feet wide. East-west streets will bridge straight across this trench. South of Route 91, the tracks will be at-grade and east-west streets wil be raised above the tracks and Alameda Street. The project will be designed to accommodate future electrification of the rail line. The highway component involves widening Alameda Street south of Route 91 from four to six lanes. New pavement, signals and left-turn pockets will be installed along the segment of Alameda Street between Route 91 and 1-10. Califomia. 2-3. Analysis and Use of 1990 Census Transportation Package in Delaware Valley Region. Zakaria, Thabet. (Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the 39 Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. Pennsylvania. 2-4. Analysis of Freight Movements in the Puget Sound Region. Transmode Consultants, Inc. Seattle, WA. Puget Sound Regional Council, Oct 1994. "The purpose of this report is to lay out in a simple and direct way the data needed for freight planning and to explain the findings to date of this effort for the Puget Sound Region.... The principal conclusions reached as the consequence of this study are: (1) Total truck per day within the region are about 300,000 movements per day. Many are by small trucks performing shorthaul local delivery functions. (2) The size of the manufacturing sector as a receiver of freight is quite significant. Manufacturing establishments are responsible for approximately two-thirds of the total tonnage in the region, but account for less than ten percent of the total trip ends. (3) A remarkably large proportion of the freight movements within the area are involved in wholesale distribution--somewhere between 70 and 85 percent of all movements. (4) This includes both local trips from distribution warehouses to retail and manufacturing establishments and shorthaul trips to outlying regions within a radius of about 250 miles. (5) Most urban areas in the U.S. receive a predominant amount of their longhaul inbound freight using longhaul truckload trucking. For the Puget Sound Region the proportion of longhaul truck in the mix was somewhat less than expected amounting to only 1380 TLEs out of 5,714 TLEs inbound and 891 TLEs outbound of 4,287 TLEs total. This may be because the region is relatively isolated from the remainder of the U.S., the distances are long and the intermodal rail service is good. (6) The role of rail intermodal in providing longhaul inbound and outbound movements to the economy of the region was unusually large in this region and this role is distinct from its role in moving international maritime containers, though it participates in handling roughly 1800 FEUs of through container movements per day. (7) The importance of maritime flows to the economy of the region is also very apparent in the figures. Both bulk and containerized flows are a significant factor in the continued growth of the region. The Pars of Seattle and Tacoma account for more than one million TEUs of container flows each. (8) Anally, through traffic movements by truck are not as large as one might think ranging between 2,000 and 10,000 through movements per day." Quoted from the Executive Summary. Washington.

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Project Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 (1 ~ 2-5. Annual Report 1994. PugQt Sound Regional Council. (Seattle, WA). Washington. 2-6. Application of Urban Transportation Modeling Techniques for barge Regions Total Travel & Freight Analysis. Prem, Clyde E. and Ping Yu. (Bucher, Willis & Ratliff, Kansas City, h1O). Presented to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. Urban travel demand modeling approaches have been in existence since the late 1 950s. The four step urban transportation process is well defined and in wide use in nearly all metropolitan areas today. While the process has remained relatively stable, over the years improvements have been made to the way urban transportation modeling is done and particularly in the technology used to prepare travel forecasts. Considerably less research has been completed in the area of either freight movement or in preparing forecasts for large regional areas. Here, large regional areas are defined to include multi-counties characterized by a number of cities or small communities located within rural areas. What is of interest here is not urban travel, but the travel demands on rural highways and other transportation systems. The requirement to consider the efficient movement of freight as stated in the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) places a new emphasis on this subject often left out of the traditional transportation study. Typically, transportation planners have assumed that if the transportation system functions correctly, it will work equally well for passenger and freight vehicles. The process also exclude the implicit analysis of rail and water freight modes. The Quad County Regional Transportation Planning Organization (RTPO) encompasses the counties of Kittitas, Grant, Lincoln, and Adams in Washington State. This four county areas has a population of about 1 15,000 people spread out over 9,200 square miles. Some of the finest agricultural products produced come from this area including asparagus, potatoes, wheat, barley and their best known export, apples. The primary transportation issue facing the RTPO was not urban traffic congestion, but rather was the need to identify key agricultural freight movement routes from both field to storage and from storage to processing. A travel demand model was built to model the regions highway, rail and barge transportation systems. Both passengerand freight movements were simulated. The model was calibrated and then used to forecast travel movements given changes in transportation modes (Q.g. rail versus truck), transportation costs and changes in crop production. The purpose of this presentation will be to define the methods used to apply the traditional urban transportation planning process to a large rural area multi-modal study with a large freight forecasting component. The final results of the study included a traditional recommended capital improvements program but also provided the RTPO with a transportation policy tool to analyze how changes in agricultural markets and changes in transportation costs affect transportation needs. Washington. 2-7. Applying Least Cost Planning to Puget Sound Regional Transportation. Phase I Report. Nelson, D. and D. Shakow. (Institute for Transportation ad the Environment, Seattle, WA). Feb 1994. This report presents the results of the first phase of a two-part least cost planning transportation study. The study was undertaken in response to a request by Washington Department of Transportation to suggest how least cost planning concepts might be applied to the work of the Regional Transit Authority (RTA). The first phase has produced the conceptual design and logic for a computer model which incorporates the principles of least cost planning and an extensive list of transportation options for the region. The second phase will allow the model to be calibrated and applied to alternative transportation portfolios. Least cost planning, which has been successfully used in electrical power planning in the Northwest, is a tool that can be employed to help solve the difficult and complex transportation problems facing the central Puget Sound region. Least cost planning aims to develop transportation plans which are socially optimal. It achieves this objective by searching every feasible alternative, those which limit demand as well as those which increase capacity. Current planning practices, by contrast, search within a narrow range of possibilities and achieve results which are not truly optimal. Washi ngton. 2-8. ATNIS Planning: Linking Up With the MPO and Section t34 Process. Lam, J. K. Proceedings of the IVHS America 1993 AnnualMeeting. Surface Transportation: Mobility, Technology, and Society, Apr 141993, Washington, DC. Pp 123-125. The Intermodal Surface Tranpsportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991 marks a major change in not only funding levels for transportation projects of all types but also in the way business is typically done by State and local governments. Additional provisions for metropolitan and Statewide planning must now involve both State and local governments in the development of long and short range improvement plans. There is also the requirement that State DOTs cooperate and consult with local government, including Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs), on project selection 40

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Section 2 - MPO Planning and Programming and implementation. There are a variety of issues and practices which must be addressed when discussing the link between the transportation planning process and IVHS in general and more specifically for this paper, Section 134 (metropolitan planning) and ATMS. 2-9. Building New Partnerships: The Freight Railroad Industry and Metropolitan Planning Organizations. National Association of Regional Coundis.Prepared for the Federal Railroad Administration. Oct 121994. In 1992, the Federal Railroad Administration awarded a contract to the National Association of Regional Councils (NARC) to investigate how to enhance the relationships between Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOS) and the freight railroad industry. Recent federal legislation including the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) and the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAM) have numerous provisions that are changing how transportation plans, programs, and policies are developed and implemented in urbanized areas. These statutes open up the planning process and planners are building new partnerships in addressing them. In developing this contract, NARC and FRA recognized that, historically, the freight railroads generally have had little involvement in public sector transportation planning. But, with the passage of ISTEA, the level of participation from the freight community is increasing. The purpose of this document is to examine how the railroad industry is becoming more active in metropolitan planning and to provide practical examples for MPOs to follow in developing or revising strategies to bring the railroads to the table in establishing freight planning processes to improve decision making. 2-10. The Changing Context for Programming. Neumann, L. A.; F. D. Harrison, and K. Sinha. Transportation Planning, Programming, and Finance: Proceedings of a Conference, Jul 19 1992, Seattle, Washington. Proceedings Published in Transportation Research Circular 406; Apr 1993: Pp 50-63. This conference resource paper reviews the objectives and methods of transportation programming, and identifies directions which programming practice needs to move towards in order to function effectively in the present environment. The section entitled "Legislation" summarizes some of the recent legislative initiatives which affect the context for programming. The primary legislation discussed are the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAM). This is followed by the following sections: Transportation Programming in the '90s: Key Challenges; Overview of Programming Process and Methods; Developing a More Effective Programming Process; and Conclusions. 2-11. Changing Transportation Policy in City of Portland. Loudon, William R. (JHK & Associates); Eisa Coleman; Steven Iwata (City of Portland), and Rick Gustafson (Shiels & Obletz). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. Oregon. 2-12. Chicago and the Tootsie Roll Factory: An Intermodal Success Story. Chen, Don and David Chandler. Surface Transportation Policy Project Progress. Apr 1995, Volume V, Plumber 3, Pp 6. "Chicago's economic heritage owes much to its role as a transportation hub. As historian William Cronon contends, during the latter half of the 19th century, '"Chicago) was where the West began.' It served as the interface where frontier resources could be drawn in, then channeled to the nation's great Eastern cities. Even today, where trains and barges compete ninth trucks and planes, Chicago's importance to the American freight industry is astounding. According to the General Accounting Office, '...nearly half of all Intermodal freight shipments (in the US) either onginate, terminate, or connect in Chicago."' Quoted from the first paragraph. 2-13. Combining CapHal Investments and Systems Management in San Juan's Multimodal Regional Transportation Plan. Joyner, H. R. Compendium of Technical Papers, Institute of Transportation Engineers 63rd Annual Meeting, Sep 19 1993, The Hague, Netherlands. Pp 430-433. The San Juan (Puerto Rico) Region is in the midst of a major expansion and upgrading of its transportation infrastructure. These transportation improvements are being driven by several key factors: (1 ) extreme need resulting from severe congestion, (2) increasing pressure from the public and the business community for action, and (3) the restructuring of the Puerto Rico Highway and Transportation Authority in 1991 to include all modes of public transportation. A three-year planning process completed earlier this year produced the first comprehensive update of the region's transportation plan since the late 1 960s. The objectives of this paper are to discuss some of the key needs and issues that have shaped the transportation plan and to describe its efforts to balance new capital investments and improved system management. 2-14. Comparative Analysis of Land Use and Transportation Scenarios: An Application to the Tel-Aviv Metropolitan Area. Bocher, Betzalel; Vovsha P., and Bekhor S. (Israel Institute of Transportation Planning & Research, Tel-Aviv, Israel). Presented to Transportation Planning 41

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Project Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 (1) Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. The Metropolis of Tel-Aviv is a contiguous urbanized region with a total area of 1,475 sq. km and a current population of 2.4 million inhabitants. The last 10 years of metropolitan development were marked by significant changes in spatial structure, amongst them: an extension of metropolitan borders, a gradual shift of the active part of population to the median ring, the emergence of new industrial centres in the periphery, and dispersion of trip destinations. The Master Plan of this area is currently undergoing a complete revision, part of which was the definition of four basic land use patterns in conjunction with nNo transportation development strategies, leading to eight possible scenarios for metropolitan deveopment. The paper deals with the comparative analysis of these scenarios, focusing on their transport impact. 2-15. Comparative Assessment of Travel Characteristics for NeotradRional Designs. McNally, M. G. and S. Ryan. Transportation Research Record 1400. 1993, Pp 67-77. The claim that transportation benefits can be derived from neotraditional neighborhood design is explored. Conventional transportation planning models are used as tools to evaluate the performance differences of two hypothetical street networks designed to replicate a neotraditional and a conventional suburban community. Relative transportation benefits are measured in terms of vehicle kilometers traveled, average trip lengths, and congestion on links and at intersections. This comparison provides an assessment of how well the too networks in question deal with trips generated by the activities that they serve. All aspects of the modeled communities are held constant except for the actual configuration of the networks. The results of this evaluation indicate that equivalent levels of activity (defined by the land uses within the community) can produce greater congestion with conventional network structures and that corresponding average trip lengths are generally longer. The ultimate goal is to determine if one network type, because of the nature of its design, can result in a more efficient transportation system. The results indicate that neotraditional designs can improve system performance. 2-16. Comparing Multimodal Alternatives in Major Travel Corridors. DeCorla-Souza, Patrick and Ronald Jensen-fisher. Transportation Research Record 1429: Multimodal Pnonty Setting and Application of Geographic Information Systems. 1994, Pp 15-23. In the past, metropolitan planning organizations usually compared transportation projects using measures of effectiveness that are uniquely applicable to a specific mode. But if highway and transit projects are to be compared, as will be necessary under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991, common measures of effectiveness applicable across modes must be used. Another problem that will arise in such a comparison involves accounting for costs. For valid comparisons across modes, the full costs Of each alternative must be taken into account. Public costs incurred by nontransportation public agencies, fixed private costs, and external social and environmental costs cannot be ignored. A new approach for cost-effectiveness evaluation of multimodal transportation alternatives in urban areas is presented. The approach is applicable at the level of system planning as well as corridor or subarea planning. The advantages of the new approach are that it allows (a) cross- modal comparison, (b) comparison of investment as well as policy alternatives, and (c) comparison of alternative scenarios or policies that could affect rates of future aggregate regional growth, with respect to their cost impacts. The approach is demonstrated through application of a simplified analysis technique using a microcomputer spreadsheet and travel demand model output data from a multimodal transportation corridor study. It is suggested that the approach can be a useful tool for comparing multimodal investment and policy alternatives. 2-17. Conflict Between Regional Planning and Local Decision Making. Kiehl, Steven B. (TRA*BV Airport Consulting). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. 2-18. Constructing a Regional Database to Study Land Use - Transportation Interaction. Frank, Lawrence D. (Washington State Department of Transportation). Presented to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. This paper presents the methods used in a recent study to develop a database designed to test the relationships between land use and travel patterns. Data requirements for this research were satisfied using existing data. Endings from this research have been directly applicable to growth management planning and project review under the State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA). The intent here is to present the methods used to construct, analyze, and apply findings resulting from this study. Database Construction -- The database used in this study were designed to do three things: (1) to to test hypotheses explaining the relationship between urban form and travel behavior while controlling for intervening variables that also affect travel behavior; (2) to test urban form relationships with travel behavior at both trip ends collectively as opposed to one trip end independently; and (3) to test urban 42

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Section 2 - MPO Planning and Programming form and travel behavior relationships for work trips and shopping trips independently. The Puget Sound Transportation Panel (PSTP) provided data on travel behavior and control variables. Findings from this research have been directly applicable to the assessment of major project impacts as part of the SEPA review process and in the review of growth management plans. As indicated by the findings from this and other similar studies: land use affects travel behavior. Given the relationships identified in this study it has been possible to critique land use proposals in terms of thte projected impacts that would be born on the regional transportation system. This is the critical linkage that needs to be made under growth management; how local land use decisions impact both local and regional travel demand. Based on this research it has been possible to substantiate debates that certain levels of densities are required to foster transit and pedestrian travel. The findings have been used in the SEPA process to critique the affects of jobs-housing balance as part of a major redevelopment proposal in Seattle. This, n part, resulted in the additional analysis of an alternative which could generate less regional travel. Washington. 2-19. Delaware Valley Goods Movement Task Force (Partnership Case Study). Kane, Paige. (Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Harrisburg, PA). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. The process of fostering private freight industry involvement in MPO planning is designed to provide a voice for private freight interests in the public planning process. The DVGMTF was established in December 1993 with the mission to identify impediments to the movement of goods by all modes in the Delaware Valley. The membership Is approximately 75 strong representing rail, trucking, port, air, government, commerce and shippers interests. Pennsylvania. 2-20. Developing a Method of Multimodal Priority Setting for Transportation Projects in the San Francisco Bay Area in Response to Opportunities in ESTER Younger, Kristina E. and David G. Murray. Transportation Research Record 1429: Multimodal tenons Setting and Application of Geographic Information Systems. May 1994, Pp 1-6. After background as to the context provided by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA), the San Francisco Bay Area's leadership role, and the existing institutional structure for transportation decision making in the Bay Area is given, the process led by the Metropolitan Transportation Commission to change this institutional structure is documented. A multimodal method of project selection for the Surface Transportation Program and Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program was established in spring 1992 that brought all of the relevant players to the table, strengthened existing plans and programs, and established a new way of doing business on the basis of partnerships and cooperation. The program of projects that resulted from the application of the developed criteria is balanced and multimodal, and it enjoys widespread support in the region. Future programming cycles will improve on the established process and criteria. Many key aspects of the Bay Area experience are of direct relevance to other metropolitan areas that are struggling to respond to the opportunity of flexibility offered by ISTEA. Californa. 2-21. The Development of a Simplified Interactive Modeling Process for Subarea Land Rise Allocation. Callison, Mac and Huiliang Liu. (City of Aurora, Aurora, CO). Presented to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 171995, Seattle, Washington. Small area transportation improvements are determined by the timing, phasing and intensity of the adjacent land use developments. Future land use development is also highly dependent on the area's accessibility offered by the transportation system. The issue of how to reflect the dynamic linkage between land use development and transportation improvement has raised a substantial amount of interest among transportation professionals. In addition, local government policy of "Development pays it's own way" as well as the new requirements of ISTEA and the Clean Air Act have also reenforced the necessity of establishing the dynamic linkage between land use and transportation in the long range transportation planning process. Currently, the City of Aurora, is conducting a system-wide transportation study for its southeast area, an area encompassing approximately 50 square miles. Allocating the projected population and employment growth into transportation analysis zones within the study area and identifying the future transportation needs and improvements are the critical components of this endeavor. This paper will present a simplified interactive modelling procedure to incorporate transportation accessibility into the sub-area land use allocation process. Specifically, the future year population and employment growth will be allocated to each TAZ within the study area based on a weighted transportation accessibility index, which reflects the congested travel conditions as well as the type, intensity and direction of the future year trip interchanges between the study area and the rest of the metropolitan 43

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Project Bibliography- NCHRP 8-32 area. In addition, the following factors will also be included in the land use allocation model: (1) Availability of other infrastructures, i.e. sewer, water, etc. (2) Maximum land capacity defined by natural environmental constraints and city land use polices and regulations. (3) Site amenities, i.e. view corridor, proximity to recreation facilities, trails and open space, ...etc. (4) ARC/lnfo GIS and MIUTP travel demand software package will be employed to perform various data manipulation, analysis and display functions. Colorado. 2-22. Development of a Truck Trip Table for Westchester County. Papayannoulis, V.; A. Huddy (Urbitran Associates), and G. List (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute). Presented to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. The Westchester Department of Transportation (WC DOT) sponsored a study of truck traffic in the County to begin the process of building a database of goods movement information that could be used by County officials to identify the patterns of travel and access that have evolved in the County, and use this information to plan future developments in an informed manner. The movement of goodsthrough WestchesterCounty hassignificantly increased over the last twentyyears. Movement of goods in, out and through the New York Metropolitan area currently approximates 726 million tons of freight. The primary method of shipment, about ninety percent, is by truck. Westchester County forecasts continued growth in the volume of goods moving within and through the County. An increase in trucking activity could be encouraged by the completion of the Interstate-287 link in New Jersey and the planned reconstruction of other major truck routes in the region. Truck traffic resulting from these projects may direct and increase traffic flow across the Tappan Zee Bridge and the Cross Westchester Expressway Corridor. Facility and service expansion at Stewart Airport, located to the north of the County, and the availability of intermodal facilities will Continue to attract commerce throughout the County. During the course of the project it was decided that a demonstration of the feasibility of generating a trip matrix and estimating flow diagrams with the available sources of data would be most useful in understanding the flows of commercial vehicles in the county. To accomplish this, Urbitran Associates has assembled available data on truck flows in this area, created model constraints from the data, and then estimated truck origin destination (OD) matrices, by vehicle class. By focusing on critical areas that appear to be generating inconsistencies in the model, the data are improved by an iterative process. The resulting trip matrices are the basis for inferences regarding the nature of truck flows in the area, and identificaion of gaps in the available data - additional pieces of information which would be most helpful in building more precise estimates of truck flows. They also provide an important set of inputs for analyses of how such flows might change under specific changes in the network (such as the opening of 1-287), although that sort of diversion study is not included here. This paper provides a description of the process of synthezing the trip table based on a methodology developed by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and Cornell University. New York. 2-23. Diffusion of Transportation Planning Applications In MPO's: Results of a National Survey. Lane, J. S. and D. T. Hartgen. Proceedings of the Third National Conference, Transportation Planning Methods Applications, Apr 22 1991, Dallas, Texas. The goal of this research was to learn more about the nature of computer technology, its use, and its growth inside metropolitan planning organizations (MPO) in the United States. The device used to implement this study was a survey that was sent to all 3321 U.S. MPOs concerning transportation planning and computer technology. The mail-out survey was three pages bng, and questioned the respondent on such topics as: characteristics of the MPO (size, service area); functions of the MPO; characteristics of computer systems and their users; plans for future systems; characteristics of the manager of the MPO (years with the agency and computer expertice). This paper documents the results of an analysis of data gleaned from the survey. No statistical methods more complex than standard deviations are used, but the results do show some interesting contrasts between MPOs, their staff, and their current (and future) state of computer involvement. 2-24. Diverting Automobile Users to Transit: Early Lessons from CTA's Orange Line. Labelle, Sarah and Darwin Stuart. (Chicago Transit Authority). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. Illinois. 2-25. East Metro Waterfront Corridor Transportation Study. Gordon, A. R. (Metropolitan Planning Department, Toronto, Ontario, Canada). Presented to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 171995, Seattle, Washington. As part of the final stages of preparing of a new Official Plan for Metropolitan Toronto, the East Metro Waterfront Corndor Transportation Study was initiated in January 1993. The study was undertaken to examine short, medium and long-term travel demands and opportunities and to develop a comprehensive 44

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Section 2 - MPO Planning and Programming long-range transportation plan. In addition to inter-regional and local travel demands the study also addressed the need for improved access to waterfront parks and open spaces. The study approach represented a departure from that used in traditional corridor transportation studies. The approach differed in two significant ways. Firstly, not only did the study address all relevant modes of transportation including circling and walking, but it also considered various policy initiatives to modify travel demand and behavior. Accommodating travel projections for each mode by providing additional transportation capacity was not considered essential to successfully complete the study. Secondly, a truly multi-disciplinary approach was employed. The interdependency of land use and development with transportation was recognized arm the outset and fully addressed. Furthermore, the terms of reference stipulated that the extent and nature of future growth would be considered and that one of the study products would be a set of urban design guidelines to provide the framework for new and redevelopment of the corridor. Planning, urban design and landscape architecture were thus key disciplines which were integrated with transportation planning and engineering. The urban design guidelines were documented in one of the study's three technical background reports. The new approach led to three major study products: (1 ) a long term land use/transportation vision for the corridor, consistent with the objectives and policies of the Metropolitan and local municipal Official Plans; (2) a realistic implementation strategy and an action plan for the immediate future which recognizes current financial constraints at all levels f government; and (3) urban design guidelines to provide the framework for new and re-development in the corridor. In summary, this study has integrated extensive technical analysis with evolving land use and transportation policy direction (at both the Metropolitan and local levels) and public input to form the basis for a long term 'vision" for the corridor and a short term action plan for implementation. This new approach will be used as a model for future corridor transportation studies in Metropolitan Toronto. 2-26. Evaluating and Ranking Transportation Projects for Flexible Funding: The Transit Perspective. Bnzell, Trip. (Dallas Area Rapid Transit Authority). Integrating Transportation Management Systems into Transportation Planning and Operations National Conference Proceedings, Nov 7 1993, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) made significant changes to the roles and responsibilities of the Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO). Immediately after passage, the North Central Texas Council of Governments (NCTCOG), the MPO for the Dallas/Ft. Worth area, began working with the transportation community and elected officials to implement the provisions of IST EA. One of the first activities was to formulate a methodology for prioritizing projects to be included in the Regional Transportation Improvement Program. NCTCOG took the 15 ISTEA factors that must be taken into consideration when planning and programing transportation improvements and added six regionally important factors. The technical and policy committees were then polled to determine the most important factors. After several iterations, four factors emerged that would be utilized to "scorer each highway, transit, HOV, bicycle or TOM project submitted for inclusion in the TIP. The Dallas Area Rapid Transit Authority (DART) worked closely with the NCTCOC; and the technical committees to insure that transit projects were equally treated during this development and implementation process. The experiences of an impacted transit authority competing for these 'flexible funds" will be highlighted ninth some "lessons learned" presented. Texas. 2-27. Evaluation of Land UselTransportation Scenarios for Aurora City Center, Aurora, Colorado. Catlison, Mac and Huiliang Liu. (City of Aurora, Aurora, CO). Submitted to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 199S, Seattle, Washington. Colorado. 2-28. Fighting Traffic Congestion, a Panel Discussion, Marsha Dale Anderson, Street Smarts, Presiding. Edner, Sheldon (Federal Highway Administration); John P. Poorman (Capital District Transportation Committee); Jim Teague (United Parcel Service), and Rebecca ~ Meyer (ATA Foundation, Inc.). Second Annual National Freight Planning Conference Report, Matthew Coogan, Editor; Dec 8 1993, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Published February 1994. 2-29. Four Years of Implementing VISION 2020: Transportation & Growth Strategies Plan for the Puget Sound Region. Byrne, Grace E. (Berryman & Henigar, Seattle, WA). Presented to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. In November, 1990, the Puget Sound Council of Governments (now the Puget Sound Regional Council) unanimously adopted VISION 2020: A Regional Transportation and Growth Strategy for the Puget Sound region. This major, four year effort was the first time since the 1970's that the region had linked land 45

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Project Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 (1 ) use policy with transportation policy at the regional level. The action preceded both ISTEA and the Washington State Growth Management Act. A key element in the implementation of VISION 2020 is the need for State Department of Transportation and regional/county transit agency plans to be developed to implement VISION 2020's transportation policies. A second key element in the implementation of VISION 2020 is the need for county and city comprehensive plans under the Washington Growth Management Act to be developed to implement VISION 2020's growth strategy polices. A third key element in the implementation of VISION 2020 is the need for the Puget Sound Regional Council's own plans and ISTEA funding priorities to be developed to implement VISION 2020. All of these actions have occurred! This presentation will explore the actions that have been taken. Key actions include the revision of the Regional Transit Authorities plan for rail transit to incorporate the regional growth strategies vision; adoption of countywide policies under the growth management act that further defined the linkage between transportation investments and land use densities; city comprehensive plans that include locations for multimodal terminals and design standards for new development to encourage transit ridership on major transit lines; and total revisions to funding priorities at both the state and regional level related to both ISTEA funds and state funds to reflect VISION 2020 priorities. Washington. 2-30. Freight and Goods Mobility in/through the Central Puget Sound Region. Beaulieu, Peter D. (Puget Sound Regional Council, Seattle, WA) and Dan O'Neal (Greenbner Development Corp., Seattle, WA). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. The project will develop a freight and goods data base, identify options for action, and select for inclusion in the Metropolitan Transportation Plan Update (MTP), a Freight and Goods Mobility action plan. The MTP is a multimodal plan, conducted in coooperation with the state Department of Transportation (and in consultation with local transit agencies), consistent with the new requirements of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA). Washington. 2-31. Freight Planning for Jobs and Economic Growth. Habig, William C. (Mid~hio Regional Planning Commission, Columbus, OH). Second Annual ATA/NARC/AASHTO Freight Planning Conference, Dec 8 1993, Fort Lauderdale, FL. Ohio. 2-32. Freight Planning for Jobs and Economic Growth, a Panel Discussion, John R. Platt, Ohio Department of Transportation, Presiding. Habig, Wlliam C. (Mid~hio Regional Planning Commission); Thomas N. Harvey (Harvey Consultants, Inc.), and Lance Grenzeback (Cambridge Systematics, Inc.~. Second Annual National Freight Planning Conference Report, Matthew Coogan, Editor; Dec 8 1993, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Published February 1994. 2-33. Freight Transportation Planning. Harvey, Thomas N. Second Annual ATA/NARC/AASHTO Freight Planning Conference, Dec 8 1993, Fort Lauderdale, FL. 2-34. Freight Trends In the Central Puget Sound Region. A Multimodal Freight Overview Presented to the Regional Freight Mobility Roundtable. Beaulieu, Peter D. (Puget Sound Regional Council, Seattle, WA). May 12 1995. "International trade is one of four strategic growth sectors identified for the Puget Sound region in studies recently prepared by a public/private partnership thinking about our future. As a key element of international trade, regional freight mobility entails commodity movements both within and through the central Puget Sound region. These movements support the regional and national economies,including the three other identified strategic regional growth sectors: aerospace, manufacturing, and high-technology. In addition, multimodal and interinodal transportation offers broader benefits in terms of the envirom-nental, improved safety, quality of life and economic solidarity with other regions within the nation and overseas. Serving current and future commodities flows, the multimodal and intermodal freight mobility system includes elements: (1) marine, (2) rail, (3) roadway, and (4) aviation. Trend highlights for these modes are each briefly summarized in the following sections of this paper. Customer-based freight mobility performance measures and indicators are identified in the attachment. (Refinement and rigorous use of these measures is essential if we are to correctly identify specific actions to improve freight mobility for shippers and carriers located in the region, and in this way to effectively support the overall economy.)" Quoted from the Introduction. Washington. 2-35. From Builders to Managers. Dahms, Lawrence D. (Metropolitan Transportation Commission, Oakland, CA). Integrating Transportation Management Systems into Transportation Planning and Operations National Conference Proceedings, Nov 71993, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. 2-36. Geographic Information Systems 46

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Section 2- MPO Planning and Programming Applications to Transportation Corridor Planning. Hartgen, David T. and Yuanjun Li. Transportation Research Record 1429: Muldmodal Prior Seffing and Application of Geographic Information Systems. May 1994, Pp 57-66. Geographic information system (GIS) applications to large transportation corridor planning are reviewed in two cases: a large multicity urban region considering a major regional ring road, and a 120-mi, 10 OCR for page 39
Project Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 (1 ) been made in projects from previous plans, how contested these projects are among policy makrs, and the degree to which objectives other than traffic congestion are being addressed (such as safety or economic development). Iowa. 2-43. The Inland Port Infrastructure Improvement Study. Ismail, Mohamed. The study Oil evaluate the availability of existing and proposed freight transportation infrastructure in central Ohio to support the Inland Port Program, and vail recommend improvements and polices to promote efficiency in the movement of goods through the facilities participating in the Inland Port Program. Ohio. 2-44. Integrating Airport Ground Access into Metropolitan Transportation Planning. Flick, Ken. (Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. 2-45. Integrating Transportation and Development in the National Capital Region. The Washi ngton Regional Network for Livable Communities. May 1993. 2-46. The Interaction of Land Use Planning & Transportation Management: Lessons from the US Experience. Freilich, R. (Missouri University). Devising a Transport Strategy: The South East Region in a National Context, Mar 7 1994, United Kingdom. Surrey County Council, U. K. This paper discusses various aspects of the USA's experience of traffic congestion planning, transport management, and land use planning. America's conurbations have grown too rapidly to allow federal, state and local government to apply traditional techniques of taxation, eminent domain and regulation to provide adequate public transport facilities. In many rapidly growing areas, people perceive traffic congestion as the greatest problem. There are several well-known connections between congestion and economic grows. The US Federal Government has addressed transport issues through the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act and the 1992 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act. In the USA, it is no longer viable to solve traffic congestion problems by constructing new roads. Many alternative measures are being used to alter travel behaviour and traffic patterns, to change the ways in which roads are used. Capacity can be added to roads through construction, engineering and traffic flow measures, but various financial and regulatory controls are also needed. The paper describes emerging approaches to comprehensive planning for traffic congestion in the US states of California, Florida, Maine, New Jersey, Oregon, Vermont and Washington. 2-47. Intermodal FreIght Concerns Into the Metropolitan Planning Process at a Medium-Sized MPO. Poorman, John P and Kristina Younger. (Capital District Transportation Committee. Albany, NY). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. CDTC, as the metropolitan planning organization for the Albany, NY area, has adodpted a very pragmatic approach to incorporating goods movement issues into the metropolitan planning process. This is necessitated by our size (staff is 12 people, metropolitan area is 775,000) and our agenda of ISTEA-related activities. Goods movement is one area where it's very easy to go overboard on data colleciton, and without focus, it can be data collection of questionable value. One overwhelming characteristic of freight movement for planners is its rapidly and constantly changing nature, and that the private sector leads. Therefore, the CDTC approach has been to asssemble a representative group from the freight community, get them to talk to each other, provide them with enough background material on ISTEA and the metropolitan planning process to get discussions going and keep it focused, and let them prioritize the issues and areas of data collection. This has been very productive and has meant that the CDTC has not encountered problems of "proprietary" information that others have. It has turned out that there are a handful of areas where there are current and projected limitations to goods movement caused by the transportation infrastructure in the Capital District, which is after all, what WE as an MPO can influence. Addressing deficiencies at railroad grade crossings, structural clearances, and bridge load limits will be our major, although not exclusive, focus in this arena. Goods movement is treated as an integrated and integral part of the overall planning process, not as an isolated area of concern. New York. 2-48. Intermodal Planning Utilizing Travel Demand Forecasting Methods: New Jersey Hudson River Waterfront Study. Siaurusaitis, V. J. 4th National Conference on Transportation Planning Methods Applications, A Compendium of Papers, Volumes I and 11, Paris, Jerry M., Editor; May 3 1993, Daytona Beach, Flonda. The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) has introduced new legislation that focuses on increasing the efficiency of the existing transportation infrastructure and facilities. No longer can the increase in efficiency depend solely upon the expansion of the 48

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Section 2 - MPO Plann . and Programm system but a shift towards understanding intermodal activity is necessary to improve the system. There is a great deal of discussion on the definitions of intermodal and multimodal modeling. Intermodal has been defined as the Transfer points of goods or people from one point to the next. Multimodal is defined as the options in modes that are available to the user to move goods or people from one point to the next. It is obvious that both definitions, while describing a different portion of the overall tnp, are very much related in the completion of a goods or person trip. This paper focuses on the movement of person trips as they relate to the development of travel demand models. Travel demand models have been used for many years to synthesize and predict person trips and their movements. The four step planning process of trip generation, trip distribution, modal split, and assignment has allowed transportation planners to make estimates as to the volume and distribution of person trips as they move across simulated highway and transit networks. The intermodal aspects of transportation modeling allow for the development of the networks to allow for considerable detail in the review and analysis of the transfer characteristics between modes. A project is currently underway for the Hudson County Waterfront, Hudson County, New Jersey by New Jersey Transit (NJT). This Alternatives Analysis/Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Hudson County contains a variety of transit options for person movements in the Northern New Jersey-New York metropolitan area, and is an excellent example for the understanding of intermodal activity. The size and intermodal complexity of the study provided for the development of a detailed intermodal reprting system which could later be used to better address the needs of the intermodal passenger. The study was conducted using the COMSIS MINUTP travel demand forecasting software which permitted the detailed development and coding of transit and highway options for the study. This paper explains in detail the steps required to develop the network and modeling detail to better understand intermodal activity. New Jersey. 2-49. Intermodal Transportation Planning for Central Ohio: A Case Study. Constantine, Elena. (Mid-Ohio Regional Planning Commission). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. Ohio. 2-50. JFK International Airport Air/Truck Goods Movement Facilitation. Muscatello, Daniel B. (Port Authority of New York & New Jersey, New York, Not. Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. New York. 2-51. Land Use, Air Quality, and Transportation Integrated Modeling Environment (LATIME). Hanley, Charles J. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, IBM); Norman Marshall (Resource Systems Group, Inc., White River Junction, Vr), and Martin Lewis (Barton-Aschman Associates, Inc. Albuquerque, NM). Presented to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Ba rton -Asch m an Assad ates, I no.; Resou roe Syste ms Group, Inc.; and the Middle Rio Grande Council of Governments, has developed an integrated approach to computer modeling and simulation of land use allocation, travel demand, and mobile source emissions for the Albuquerque, New Mexico, area. The product, LATIME, uses menus in the ARC/INFO geographic information system to run a land use allocation model, the EMME/2 travel demand modeling package, and the hlobile5a mobile emissions model. The interchanges between these environments and the integration of results produced by this process is seamless to the user. Data produced by each of these steps is stored in ARC/INFO and can be reviewed in a system-wide, regional, or disaggregate context. Scenarios are launched from ARC/INFO utilizing base-year socioeconomic data, road networks, and vehicle fleet information. At each iteration, trip generation, distribution, and assignment are automatically performed at the Traffic Analysis Zone level. Socioeconomic projections are updated at the regional level by the land use allocation model, which utilizes generalized land use information, population and employment control totals, density profiles, and aggregated inter-zonal travel times. All data transfer, aggregation, disaggregation, and simulation control is conducted automatically within ARCIINFO. When a simulation is completed, the user can then review the data associated with the base year and all future year alternatives. A menu-driven query system in ARC/INFO allows the user to review all linkbased attributes including volumes, speeds, and generated emissions. In addition, the user can review regional and area-wide attributes, such as vehicle miles traveled, emissions, socioeconomic characteristics and anal trip interchange summaries. Regional attributes can also be compared across time or between alternative land use scenarios. This environment provides predictive capability and geographical (and graphical) vsualization of the causal relationships between policy choices and real-world variables related to land use, transportation, and air quality parameters. The user can establish policy based on predicted and analyzed trends, rather than on one-step future projections. Seamless data transfer between components reduces the potential for data entry and other types of error. The modular architecture allows adaptability and expansion to a 49

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Project Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 (1 ) incorporating multimodal considerations into planning and programming (institutional structure, goals and objectives decision malting process, public versus private funding); 2) the analytical procedures that have been used in these processes (idetification of the problem, consideration of alternatives, methodology, transferability, foreign experience); 3) the criteria that have formed the basis for evaluation and programming (companson of modes, benefit-cost analysis, cost-~ffectweness, least cost, incremental cost, level of servico); and 4) the inclusion of other facts which will affect transportation demand and modal requirements such asurban form, population densities and employment densities. 2-77. Multimodal Financial Planning From A Regional Perspective: A Guide For Decision Making. Scott, C. H. Transportation Research Record 1305. 1991, Pp 4249. The San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG) is a regional planning agency responsible for preparing the long-range Regional Transportation Plan (RTP) and related financial plans for the San Diago region. As in many other rapidly growing areas, transportation revenues from traditional sources have not matched the growing need for new and expanded transportation fatalities and services to keep pace with growing travel demands. SAN DAG has used the long-range planning process to develop the RTP as the mechanism for identifying funding shortfalls and recommending actions to obtain the revenues needed to implement the projects and programs recommended in the plan. An outgrowth of this process was SANDAG's successful establishment of a 1/2% transportation sales tax program. SAN DAG is continuing to address remaining funding shortfalls by analyzing the potential implementation of a regional development impact fee program to fund major regional transportation capital projects. California. 2-78. Multimodal Project Evaluation: A Common Framework, Different Methods. Younger, Kristina E. Transportation Research Record 1429: Multimodal Pnonly Setting and Application of Geographic Information Systems. May 1994, Pp 24-29. The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1 991 (ISTEA) provides unprecedented flexibility to metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) in programming federal transportation funds for multimodal projects. With this flexibility comes the responsibility to analyze and select projects fairly within a practical process. The way in which the Capital District Transportation Committee (CDTC) in Albany, New York, approaches the programming process is examined and compared With the methodology used by the Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) in the San Francisco Bay Area. The two approaches outline both screened projects for minimum requirements and then evaluate project merits. CDTC's methodology puts heavy emphasis of benefR/cost analysis but weighs qualitative factors before programming. MTC's approach negotiates merit criteria and relative weights of those cntena before evaluating individual projects. The strengths, weaknesses, similarities, and differences in project selection methodology are discussed. A common framework for multimodal project selection is offered as a starting point for other MPOs struggling to respond to the opportunities presented by ISTEA. New York California. 2-79. New Long-Range Plan Underway. Kirby, R. F. RQ9IOn. DeC 1993, 34~2), Pp 3-7. In 1994, the Transportation Planning Board (TPB) will undertake the first comprehensive update of the region's long-range transportation plan (LRP) in many years. Guided by new regulations set by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), this update will link the region's transportation plan to local land-use and development plans, to regional air quality plans, and to policies for financing transportation system improvements. New procedures for public participation in the planning process will also provide greatly expanded opportunities for interested citizens and organizations to contribute to the plan's formation. 2-80. Partners Join Forces to "JUMP Start" San Francisco Bay Area Traffic. Dahms, Lawrence D. ITE Journal. Dec 1992, Pp 22. California. 2-81. A Plan for the Region's Future Transportation Redefined. East-West Gateway Coordinating Council. (St. Louis, MO). May 1995, Report No. EWG-TLR-1995-05. This is the long-range transportation plan for the St. Louis (Missouri-lilinois) region. The plan establishes the framework for transportation dedsion-making in the region. It describes seven emphasis areas for regional improvement, and identifies performance measures for each of these areas. It spells out the process through which transportation projects will be selected for inclusion on the short-range transportation improvement program (TIP) in the future. The plan also lists the transportation projects to be implemented and major transportation investment corridors to be evaluated in the time period 1994-2015, including, by reference, the 1995 Transportation Improvement Program. This document also includes the air quality conformity finding for the plan and an analysis of 56

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Section 2 - MPO Plann . _ and Programming financial capacity. Missouri Illinois. 2-82. Planning for Freight Movements in the Puget Sound Region. Transmode Consultants, Inc. Seattle, WA. Puget Sound Regional Council, Jan 1995. Planning for freight movements within urban regions has been largely neglected in the past, or given short shrift in the planning process where it has been included. With the passage of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) in 1991 this has begun to change, albeit somewhat more slowly than one would have liked. The factors that have brought this about are many, but several deserve mention. They are: (1) ISTEA mandates that intermodal transportation be included in the planning process. The degree to which freight had previously been recognized as an appropriate topic for planning had been highly variable from region to region and from planner to planner, but a strong case for its intermodal nature can be made and consequently, it is now legitimately included in the transportation planning purview. (2) Virtually all of the shipments that arrive by air are delivered by trucl<. The same can be said for maritime movements and many, if not most, rail shipments. Even movements which move entirely by truck are frequently consolidated or Reconsolidated before and or after one leg of the movement. By this definition virtually all of the freight movements within an urban area are intermodal movements and fall under the ISTEA requirements. (3) A robust economy here in this country requires the efficient movement of goods. U.S. manufacturers are purchasing more and more of their inputs overseas to gain the advantages of low cost labor and are selling more of their goods in foreign export. The movement of these imports and exports to and from the ports of entry is facilitated by better freight transportation. (4) The importance of an efficiently functioning freight sector to economic development has begun to be widely recognized by the electorate and by the politicians and planners who serve them. Clearly, the timely and low cost movement of goods between industries in the U.S. lowers the overall cost of production and promotes domestic over foreign purchase. (5) Ultimately, whether the goods ar purchased domestically or overseas, they must be delivered to retail stores for sale to the ultimate users. This delivery process takes place almost entirely from distribution centers located within major metropolitan areas. Efficiency in the process is a crying need in most large cities where trucks share the road with commuters and congestion during rush hours is fierce. Washington. 2-83. Predicting Pedestrian Volumes Based Upon Land Use: A Methodology. Otis, Stephanie C.; Randy B. Machemehl, and Hani S. Mahmassani. (University of Texas, Austin, TX). Presented to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. A methodology for estimating pedestrian volume based upon land use was developed. Models composing the method were derived using a significant quantity of field data collected through video and observer techniques. These models and data adress seldom-studied low to moderate pedestrian volumes. The larger study in which this work was done focused upon suburban signalized intersections; therefore the methodology deals specifically with such locations. A conceptual framework for data collection and model development was designed. This included defining pedestrian volume units, hourly variations, and land use predictor variables. Pedestrian trips were assumed to be produced and attracted by surrounding land uses which were classified and labeled using conventional terminology. An easily implemented scheme for classifying surrounding land use was derived. Twenty land-use combinations composed of five quarter-mile and four one-mile land-use designations were defined. This procedure was applied to 200 signalized intersections in Austin, TX from which 20 were selected as data collection sites. Data collection included video and observer activities. Observers collected information on intersection as well as mid-block pedestrian crossings and video included details of most intersection crossings. Data were collected between 8 am and 1 pm or 12 pm and 6 pm. More than 100 hours of data with over 2000 pedestrian crossings were obtained. Accuracy was enhanced by cross-examining the simultaneously collected video and observer information. Furthermore, an inter-scorer data reliability procedure was used to ensure correct variable definition interpretation. Several statistical techniques were used to examine pedestrian volume distributions. hrst, descriptive statistical analyses were performed to determine basic characteristics. Second, correlation analyses were performed on pedestrian volumes versus land-use classification. Preliminary results indicated high correlation between pedestrian rates and land-use vriables. Third, regression analyses indicated that the land-use variables are strong pedestrian volume predictors. The predictive models were significantly improved through minor land use variable modifications. This analysis produced peak, non-peak, and near zero pedestrian rates and associated durations. With this information, 24-hour pedestrian volume distributions for the different land uses were determined. Texas. 2-84. Preliminary Workshop Results. Texas A&M University. Conference on Institutional 57

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Project Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 (1 ) Aspects of Metropolitan Transportation Planning. (Where are we? Where do we want to be? How do we get there?), May 21 1995, Williamsburg, Virginia. 2-85. Procedures MPOs Use to Consider the 15 Factors in Developing Plans and Programs under ISTEA Humphrey, Thomas F. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). Conference on Institutional Aspects of Metropolitan Transportation, May 21 1995, Wlliamsburg, Virginia. In the fall of 1993, the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) established a panel to formulate and direct the preparation of a Synthesis of the current state~f-the-art on the topic: "Procedures MPOs Use to Consider the 15 Factors in Developing Plans and Programs under ISTEA." The author was asked to serve as a consultant to that panel. The purpose of this paper is to summarize what was learned as a result of that project, which was finished in early 1995. The final publication of the Synthesis will be available soon; it will be titled: "Consideration of the 15 lSTEA Factors in the Metropolitan Planning Process." In preparing the Synthesis, our objective was to provide a "snapshot-in-time" of the activities underway in the summer and early fall of 1994 in a small, unscientifically selected number of metropolitan areas in the nation. At that time MPOs were still in the process of meeeting the early and basic requirements of ISTEA; related to that work was the need to also meet the requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. It was essential that the MPOs meet those requirements in order to avoid the financial penalties that could be imposed if they failed to do so. Consequently, for the most part, they were focusing all their energies on making the best use of previous studies and analytical tools as well as existing institutional and organizational arrangements. Another objective of the project was to distribute the material to MPOs throughout the nation to provide as much "technology transfer" as possible to others who might be struggling with the new federal requirements, even though we recognized that the results represent a work-in-progress. 2-86. Project Prioritization Guidelines for MPOs: Guidance for Metropolitan Planning Organizations in Prioritizing Candidate Transportation Projects. Wisconsin Department of Transportation. (Madison, Wl). May 1994. Wisconsin. 2-87. Prospective Estimates for Road Impacts in Eastern Washington From a Drawdown of the Lower Snake River. Lenzi, J. C. and Ken Casavant. (Washington State University, Pullman, WA). Mar 1995. Washington. 2-88. Prospectus for Transportation Improvements, Metropolitan Planning Organization for the Miami Urbanized Area. Metro-Dade, Metropolitan Planning Organization, (Miami, FL).Third Edition, Revised; Jan 1989. This third edition of the Prospectus describes the established framework for the execution of the duties of the Metropolitan Planning Organization in the development of programs for multimodal transportation improvements in the Miami Urbanized Area. This edition has been revised to reflect all regulatory and administrative changes that have occurred since the last edition was published in 1983. The Prospectus is divided into four parts. Part 1.0 contains introductory information on how the MPO relates to the metropolitan government and briefly relates historical references concerning the establishment of the MPO. Part 2.0 describes the MPO structure including its legal basis, the management services contract with the County, and the components of its organizational structure. Part 3.0 provides a detailed description of the elements of the transportation planning program and process including the Transportation Plan, the Transportation Improvement Program, and the Unified Planning Work Program. Part 4.0 is a description of the program management, monitoring, review and reporting procedures established to ensure continuing effectiveness of the overall urban transportation planning program. Finally, several appendices provide information on agreements and other procedural documentation relevant to the MPO process in the Miami Urbanized Area. Florida. 2-89. A Quantitative Estimate of Eastern Washington Annual Haul Road Needs for Wheat and Barley Movements. Jessup, Eric L. and Kenneth L. Casavant. (Washington State University, Pullman, WA). Mar 1995, EWITS Research Report Number 6. Washington. 2-90. A Region on the Move: A Transportation Investment Strategy for Growth and Renewal In Southwestern Pennsylvania. 2015 Long Range Transportation Plan. Southwestern Pennsylvania Regional Planning Commission. (Pittsburgh, PA). Nov 1994. Pennsylvania. 2-91. Regional Context of Intermodal Decisions. Dahms, L. D. ISTEA and Intermodal Planning: Concept, Practice, Vision, Dec 2 1992, Irvine, California. Conference Proceedings Published in Transportation Research Board Special Report 240, 58

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Section 2 - MPO Planning and Programming Washington, DC, 1993, Pp 130-137. A metropolitan transportation planning process created by the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1965, and amended several times since by transportation and environmental laws, has created a regional framework for making transportation decisions in the context of other community values. In examining this regional context within which intermodal decisions are to be made, this conference resource paper addresses the following. 2-92. Regional Freight Mobility. 1995 Update of the Metropolrtan Transportation Plan for the Central Puget Sound Region. Harvey Consultants; Transmode Consultants, and Ellen Kret Porter. Seattle, WA. Pugst Sound Regional Council, Sep 1994, Technical Paper MTP-15. Washi ngton. 2-93. Regional Freight Mobility Action Packages. Harvey Consultants; Transmode Consultants, and Ellen Kret Porter. Seattle, WA. Puget Sound Regional Council, Sp 6 1994. "The economic well-being of our region, communities and families (and of other linked regions) depends in part upon the reliable and efficient movement of freight and goods between producers and markets. To address this aspect of regional transportation planning, steps are needed to form a working partnership between public agencies and private stakeholders involved in freight mobility. Leading this effort, in January 1994, business interests in the region (the Economic Development Council of Seattle and King County (EDC), cooperating with similar associations in Pierce, Snohomish, and Kitsap Counties), convened a wide range of freight mobility stakeholders in the region. The stakeholders include shippers, carriers and third party interests involved in highway, rail, ocean and air shipment of cargo within and through the central Puget Sound region.... The mission of the Roundtable is twofold: to identify freight mobility issues, and to advance solutions. This work to date is summarized in the following Recommended Regional Freight Mobility Action Package. Elements of the Action Package are separately recommended to appropriate public agencies. The underlying identification of mobility issues is also included. The recommendations are concisely displayed in matrix form and more fully presented in the text which consists of organized commentary on each of the entries found on the matnx. The recommendations begin to address institutional, operational, infrastructure (and financing) options. The Roundtable presented this Action Package as part of the Regional Freight Mobility Conference held in Bellevue, Washington, on September 13, 1994. Conference sponsors were the Freight Mobility Roundtable, the Puget Sound Regional Council, the Washington Department of Transportation, and the U.S. Department of Transportation (Federal Highway Administration and the Nlantime Administration). The Action Package now is included in the draft Metropolitan Transportation Plan (MTP) prepared by the Regional Council. The mutimodal and long-term MTP was released for broad public review on December 1, 1994. It is scheduled for Regional Council action in April 1995." Quoted from the Introduction. Washington. 2-94. Regional Freight Mobility Conference. Puget Sound Regional Council and Freight Mobility Roundtable. Sep 131994, Seattle, WA. On September 13, 1994, The Puget Sound Regional Council and a public/private Regional Freight Mobility Roundtable sponsored a conference addressing regional freight mobility in the central Puget Sound regional gateway. The Regional Council is the Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) for the four-county central Puget Sound region, including four counties and over fifty Sties and town, the gateway port Sties of Seattle and Tacoma among them. Also included on the MPO Executive Board are the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT), and the Washington Transportation Commission (among the Conference panelists). Conference cosponsors were the WSDOT, the Federal Highway Administration (FIdWA), and the Federal Maritime Administration. Washington. 2-95. Regional Transportation Improvement Program. Buckhurst Fish & Jacqueman, Inc. and Addison County Regional Planning Commission. Dec 1994. Vermont. 2-96. Regional Transportation Plan for the Central Vermont Region. T. Y. Lin International (Falmouth, ME) for Central Vermont Regional Planning Commission. Apr 25 1995. Vermont. 2-97. Regions Respond to Change. New Policies Emphasize Long Term Vision, Diverse Options. Southwestern Pennsylvania Regional Planning Commission. (Pittsburgh, PA). Regional planning for transportation has been a function of Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) for hero decades. However, the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act requires MPOs to broaden their planning processes significantly and gives them new responsibilities in selecting projects that fulfill the goals of their plans. ISTEA's requirements mean that MPOs will have to look for new partners to assist them in evaluating transportation decisions in 59

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Pro tech Bibliography- NCHRP 8-32 (1) light of their impacts on land use, energy efficiency and economic vitality. Community members, business leaders and a range of public agencies must be brought into the transportation planning process. At the same time, projects must be selected annually in a manner that assures their direct link to long range plans. Regions face many challenges in making good on ISTEA's promise of an interconnecting transportation system that serves the social, environmental and economic goals of communities. This report examines two efforts that are currently underway, one in long range planning, one in project selection and short term transportation improvement program. While the results of these processes are still being evaluated, both represent a new approach to the transportation planning process. Pennsylvania. 2-98. Renovated Nodes Make Better Use for Modes. Surface Transportation Policy Project Progress. Apr 1995, Volume V, Number 3, Pp 4. "As those of you all too familiar with our mission statement know, STPP emphasizes 'the needs of people, rather than vehicles, in assuring access to jobs, services, and recreational opportunities.' Station renovation projects like the two featured here illustrate the new intermodal concept of revitalization nodes within modes, which results in increased use of alternatwe transportation, which means facilitating access for people. From the North at NJ Transit's Woodbridge Station to the South at the Visitor Reception and Intermodal Transportation Center in Natchez, MS, ISTEA enhancements moneys are helping to improve intermodal transportation to better move people." Quoted from Editor's Note. 2-99. Review and Assessment of the East-West Gateway Coordinating Council's Proposed Approach to the Long Range Transportation Plan for the St. Louis Region. Peer Review Panel Report. Aldaron, Inc. Culver City, CA: Apr 13 1993. Missoun. 2-100. Review of the Transportation Planning Process in the Houston Metropolitan Area. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Federal Transit Administration, Federal Highway Administration. Jul 1993. This formal, comprehensive review of the planning process in the Houston metropolitan area, conducted by Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and Federal Transit Administration (FTA) headquarters and regional staff, with input from state, regional and local transportation entities, takes the place of the review of the Houston metropolitan planning organization (MPO) which otherwise would have been conducted by FHWA field and FTA regional staff. The purpose of this review is to allow FHWA and FTA to determine how successfully the urban transportation planning process (UTPP) addresses regional transportation needs, and whether the planning process meets the requirements of the joint planning regulations. Another purpose of the review is to assess the ability of the existing planning process to address broader responsibilities described under the guidelines implementing the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), and the re-authorization of the surface transportation legislation, the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). It is expected that this review will assist the Houston metropolitan area prepare for future formal certification. Texas. 2-101. Review of the Transportation Planning Process in the Kansas C ty Metropolitan Area. Lyons, W.; B. Deysher, and M. Jacobs. Washington, DC. Federal Transit Administration, Mar 30 1993. This report is the first in a series produced for the FTA and the FHWA by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (VNTSC). The report is a comprehensive review of the Kansas City urbanized area, conducted by the FHWA and FTA headquarters and regional staffs with input from state and regional transportation entities, that takes place of the 1991 compliance review of Mid-America Regional Council (MARC). The purpose of this review is to allow the FHWA and FTA to determine how successfully the Urban Tansportation Planning Process (UTPP) addresses regional transportation needs, and whether the planning process meets the requirements of the joint planning process. Kansas. 2-102. Review of the Transportation Planning Process in the Minneapolis-St.Paul Metropolitan Area. Lyons, W.; R. Brodeski; C. Goodman, and F. Salvucci. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Federal Highway Administration, Federal Transit Administration, Nov 1 993. This report is the sixth in a series produced for the FTA and the FHWA by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (VNTSC), Research and Special Programs Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. It presents a formal, comprehensive review of the planning process in the Minneapolis-St. Paul Twin Cities metropolitan area that was conducted by the FHWA and FTA Headquarters and regional staffs (Appendix 1), with input from state, regional, and local transportation entities. The purpose of the review is to allow the FHWA and FTA to determine how successfully the Urban Transportation Planning 60

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Section 2 - MPO Planning and Programming Process (UTPP) addresses broadly defined regional transportation needs, and whether the planning process meets the criteria established by the Federal planning requirements. Another purpose of the review is to assess the ability of the existing planning process to address the broader responsibilities described under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and the reauthorization of the surface transportation legislation, the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). Minnesota. 2-103. Review of the Transportation Planning Process in the P ttsburgh Metropolitan Area. Final Report. Lyons, W.; R. Jensen-hsher, and F. Ducca. Washington, DC. Federal Highway Administration and Federal Transit Administration, Mar 30 1993. This report is a comprehensive review of the planning process in the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, conducted by the FHWA and FTA headquarters and regional staffs with input from state, regional and local transportation agencies. The purpose of this review was to determine how successfully the urban transportation planning process (UTPP) addresses the regional transportation needs, and whether the planning process meets the requirements of the joint planning regulations. The review focused on the transportation and air quality planning activities for the Pittsburgh region. The federal team reviewed supporting documentation that included the State Implementation Plan for air quality planning; the UPWP; the 1984 long range regional transportation plan; the Transportation Improvement Program;and other technical materials related to the UTPP. Pennsylvania. 2-104. Review of the Transportation Planning Process in the Southern California Metropolitan Area. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Federal Transit Administration, Federal Highway Administration. Aug 1 993. This formal, comprehensive review of the planning process in the Southern California metropolitan area, conducted by Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and Federal Transit Administration (FTA) headquarters and field staff, with input from state, regional and local transportation entities, takes place of the 1992 planning review of the Southern California Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) which otherwise would be conducted by FHWA field and FfA regional staff. The planning activities conducted by the Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) were carried out in accordance with FLEA and FTA regulations, policies, and procedures in effect at the time of the revi ew. Howeve r, t h e I nte rmod al Su rf ace Transportation EfficiencyActof1991 (1STEA),which became law after the site review was conducted, necessitates major changes in the planning process and will require formal federal certification of the planning process. This report provides suggestions to strengthen the process in developing the next long-range transportation plan, Transportation Improvement Program (TIP), and State Implementation Plan (SIP). This review will also assist the Southern California metropolitan area to meet the evohting requirements of ISTEA, and in particular, to prepare for future formal certification. 2-105. Role of MPOs in Pavement Management. Orloski, F. P. Conference Proceedings, Third International Conference on Managing Pavements, May 22 1994, San Antonio, Texas. Pp 91-96. Metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) have a role in pavement management that supports local, regional, and state agency needs. The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 requires each MPO to address six management systems, one of which is pavement management, in the transportation planning process for the urbanized area. A research study was funded by FHWA to address this role and identify a framework for MPO involvement. This framework identified eight major elements for the MPO. Each element has a variety of activities that can be easily implemented by MPO staff. The level of involvement in each activity ranges from low to high depending on the use of the activity in the planning process. The major conclusions from the study are discussed, and a summary of MPOs involved in pavement management around the country is presented. The role of the MPO in overcoming the barriers to using pavement management by explaining the benefits of a system to support increased highway budgets is discussed. There are several methods of improving communications with local agencies and citizens. Effective public relations techniques to communicate future needs are necessary. The participation of MPOs in local pavement management will result in efficient use of limited local resources for the improvement in regional road networks. The overall goal of better managed and maintained highway facilities in urbanized areas can be achieved with coordinated efforts of state, MPO, and local agencies. 2-106. Savannah/Chatham County Intermodal Freight Study. Cousins, Luke and Richard J. Drake. (Georgia Department of Transportation). Submitted to Intermodal Planning Conference, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. The Savannah/Chatham County area of Georgia is a major coastal transportation Hub in the Southeastern USA, composed of Rail, Highway, Seaport, Airport and 61

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Project Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 (1 ) Pipeline Transportation systems. The study shall first determine and analyze the current movement of goods and materials between the various freight transportation systems. Then, in concert with the modal owners/operators, identify and quantify potential areas for improved economic and operational efficiencies. Georgia. 2-107. Sixth National Conference on High-Occupancy Vehicle Systems: Moving into the 21 st Century. Williams, J. and K. F. Turnbull., Editor Oct 25 1992, Ottawa, Ontario. Published in Transportation Research Circular409, Washington, DC, June 1993, Pp 13-15. This conference presentation discusses the impact of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) on the metropolitan planning process and the implications for HOV facility development. A brief overview of metropolitan and regional planning in the United States precedes the discussion. 2-108. South King County HOV System Plan - Planning in an Uncertain Environment. Bevan, Tim (CH2M HILL, Bellevue, WA) and Carol Hunter (Washington State Department of Transportation, Bellevue, WA). Submitted to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 199S, Seattle, Washington. Washington. 2-109. Subarea Transportation System Study Application - An Integrated Local Planning Approach. Callison, Mac and Huiliong Liu. (City of Aurora, Aurora, CO). Presented to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 171995, Seattle, Washington. Given the emphasis placed on developing pragmatic and timely transportation system plans, this paper is intended to highlight an approach used by a growing suburban Sty in Metro Denver in identifying the location and timing of needed transportation improvements. A variety of mobility, accessibility, and congestion indices will be identified and appliedthroughout the conduct of this study. Indicators used include land use attnbutes, travel characteristics, and facility supply characteristics. This study links the general corridor alignments identified in the Comprehensive Plan to actual roadway segment alignments necessary to serve anticipated future development. Changing land use and the realignrlient of a future controlled access toll road are among the circumstances that precipitated this system planning endeavor. The Southeast Area Transportation Study will define a coordinated and detailed transportation plan that can be used to guide both public and private investments. To this end, it is critical to identify when and what devefopment types, location, and intensity levels trigger the need for major roadway projects. The study effort ~11 identify which major roadways will be needed in the future and their optimal location given a variety of travel, environmental, and cost parameters. The study structure consists of estimating future development levels, estimating future travel demand, and depicting appropriate roadway alignments and capacity needs. Additionally, short and long range transportation improvement programs which call out specific projects needed to provide mobility and access throughout the study area on a prioritized schedule ~11 be stated. System needs and performance Oil be depicted via the use of an amalgam of indicators applied at the system and ''locale level. ARC/lnfo GIS and MINUTP software packages are used throughout this study. Colorado. 2-1 1 0. Survey Results of Metropolitan Planning Organizations and Freight issues. American Trucking Associations, Inc. Dec 1994. 2-111. Tampa Bay Regional Planning Model. Sung, Myung-Hak (Gannett Fleming, Inc.) and Daniel R. Lamb (Florida Department of Transportation). Presented to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. The Tampa Bay Region consist of four rapidly growing and highly interdependent counties. Changes in the transportation systems, travel conditions or patterns of growth and development in one county have an immediate and direct impact on travel conditions in each of the other counties. Because of this high interdependence, the Florida Department of Transportation and the area's four MPOs have been seeking ways for greater coordination and cooperation in planning for the area's regional transportation needs. To help facilitate this effort, the Florida Department of Transportation initiated a project to develop a Tampa Bay Regional Planning model to be used both for regional planning and for the development of the MPOs' individual local area transportation plans. The development of the model also afforded an opportunity to restructure travel demand forecasting methodologies used in the Tampa Bay Region in order to better address the requirements of ISTEA. This presentation highlights the concepts used in the Tampa Bay Regional Planning Model to meet both the regional and local area needs and to address the ISTEA's major planning issues. To more accurately forecast the travel patterns of a varied and changing population, a new trip generation model was developed based on lifestyles - Retirees, Working Adults with Children, Working Adults with No Children - ninth special treatments for seasonal residents and hotellmotel guests. Routine daily trips from surrounding areas, 62

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Section 2 - MPO Planning and Programming Categorized by purpose, are separated from longer distance external trips and incorporated with internal trip productions and attractions. This enables a more accurate modeling of their true distribution patterns and their likelihood of rideshanng or using intensity transit. A speaal-use lane assignment technique is incorporated in the highway assignment step to provide the ability to examine HOV lanes, truck lanes, and other special use facilities. To better assess the needs of goods movement in the region, light trucks and heavy trucks ar given special treatment in the trip generation, trip distribution, and assignment steps. A land USE allocation model was also developed as part of the model chain to simulate the interrelationships between transportation and land use. The model is capable of demonstrating both the impacts on travel patterns resulting from changes in land use polices and the impacts on the future distribution of growth resulting from changes in the transportation system and travel conditions. The model chain also includes a variety of evaluation methodologies to examine the impacts of alternatives on accessibility, air quality, fuel consumption, development patterns, travel costs, and operating conditions. Florida. 2-1 12. Testing the Impact of Alternative Land Use Scenarios Using a Travel Demand Forecasting Model. Steiss, Todd A. (Baltimore Metropolitan Council, Baltimore, MD). Presented to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. What would happen to the transportation network if a significant share of the projected suburban growth in population and employment relocated into the urban areas of a metropolitan region or along the major transit lines? Would the amount of congestion increase, decline, orjustshift to other areas? Would there be a significant increase in the use of public transit? What would happen to the total number of vehicle trips (VF), vehicle miles traveled (VISIT) and the air pollution which is produced based on these factors? The Intermodel Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) and the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) require metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) of severe non attainment areas to review their current comprehensive long-range plans to determine whether possible variations in existing land-use plans could alter the growth in VMT, VT and the resulting air pollution. Many MPOs have turned to sophisticated land-use models for their analysis of land-use alternatives. These models are certainly the wave of the future. In the meantime, it may be necessary to use more familiar tools to accomplish the goals and objectives of ISTEA and COMA. The Baltimore Metropolitan Council is currently using their travel demand forecasting model (MINUTP) to analyze three land-use alternatives. The first alternative allocates future growth inside the Baltimore Beltway, the second alternative focuses future growth along the Baltimore Region's major transit corridors, and the third alternative concentrates future growth within areas identified as growth centers. Each alternative will be compared using the performance evaluation conducted for the highway/transit network assumed for the Baltimore Region 2020 Long-Range Transportation Plan. This paper will briefly describe the step-by-step process used to develop each alternative land use scenario. Key assumptions will be presented and a list of additional data requirements which are not normally considered in travel demand forecasting models. A series of maps ill display the change in location of socioeconomic growth, the land use alternative impact on congestion, and the changes in level of service. Other technical evaluations will include the air pollutant emissions and the impact on land consumption density requirements created by each alternative scenario. Maryland. 2-113. Tiger File Updating in the Puget Sound Region. Murakami, E. and K. (3reenleaf. Proceedings of the 1992 Geographic Information Systems for Transportation (GIS-T) Symposium, Mar 2 1992, Portand, Oregon. Pp 10. The Puget Sound Regional Council, formerly the Puget Sound Council of Governments, sponsored contracts for updating TIGER files in three of the four counties in the central Puget Sound region. The project goal was to update TIGER files for use in such tasks as transit planning and ride-match services, regional transportation planning, growth management planning, and emergency dispatch. TIGER files, as delivered by the Census Bureau, lack sufficient information for use in many planning tasks. To improve the value of the TIGER files, missing street segments, address ranges, street names, ZIP codes, and lace code information need to be added to many segments. This paper discusses the following major issues: (1 ) Attribute and positional accuracy; (2) Pooled financial resources: blessing or headache; (3) Ownership of the file; (4) Long term file maintenance; (5) Building a state-wide file; and (6) Usefulness to the U.S. Census Bureau. Washington. 2-114. Toward Improved Regional Transportation Modeling Practice. Harvey, Greig and Elizabeth Deakin. (DHS Inc. Berkeley, CA). Dec 1991. Recent environmental concerns and changes in the context of transportation planning have resulted in closer scrutiny and some criticism of regional transportation analysis methods. The Clean Air Act 63

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Proiect Bibliooraphy - NCHRP B-32 (1 ~ Amendments of 1990 (CM), for example, set forth a detailed list of requirements for monitoring vehicle miles of travel, accounting for growth, and assuring consistency between transportation plans and programs and the State Implementation Plans (SIPS) for attaining air quality standards. The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) reinforces the air quality conformity requirements and assigns more responsibility to regional agencies, at the same time shifting the planning focus to congestion management and increased multi-modalism. Together with heightened public awareness and concern over the cost-effectiveness of transportation investments, their performance, and their impacts on growth, these changes pose major challenges for regional planning and analysis. 2-115. Training Program for Major Investment Studies. Course Manual. National Transit Institute and Inc. Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas. Washington, DC. U. S. Department of Transportation, 1995. 2-1 1 6. Transportation Development Guide Chapter/Policy Plan. Metropolitan Council of the Twin Cities Area. (St. Paul, MN). May 25 1995, Publication No. 35-95-034. Minnesota. 2-117. Transportation Development Guide/Policy Plan. Metropolitan Council of the Twin Cities Area. (St. Paul, MN). Feb 1989, Publication No. 550-89-034. Minnesota. 2-118. Transportation Future: 2010. Makiing Connections. Thurston Regional Transportation Plan. Thurston Regional Planning Council. Dec 1994. Washi ngton. 2-119. Transportation Innovations for the Twin Cities Region. Metropolitan Council of the Twin Cities Area. (St. Paul, MN). Apr 1995, Profiles of 20 Initiatives Funded by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act. Minnesota. 2-120. Transportation Sketch Planning with Land Use Inputs. Lu pa, Mary R. (Chicago Area Transportation Study); David E. Boyce (University of Illinois, Chicago); Dean B. Englund (Chicago Area Transportation Study), and Maya R. Tatineni (University of Illinois, Chicago). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. Illinois. 2-121. Travinfo The Bay Area Intermodal Traveler Information System. Markowitz, J. and L. E. Sweeney. Proceedings of the IVHS America 1993 Annual Meeting, Surface Transportation: Mobility, Technology, and Society, Apr 14 1993, Washington, DC. Travinfo, the San Frandsco Bay Area Intermodal Traveler Information System, is being designed to provide comprehensive, multimodal information to improve mobility for all travelers. The Bay Area is the Nation's fourth largest metropolitan area, with serious levels of traffic congestion and air pollution. Because the unique topography constrains the transportation system, travelers have few route alternatives and need better information on mode choice. The Bay Area is particularly appropriate for this project because it has a remarkably diverse multi-modal transportation system, its populace considers transportation to be one of the top regional concerns, and it is a region rich in both high-technology firms and a technically-oriented general public known to be "early adopters.". California. 2-122. Trip Generation and Land Use Development Patterns. Callison, Mac. (City of Aurora, Aurora, CO). Presented to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 199S, Seattle, Washington. It has been ~dely recognized that land use decisions are the fundamental factors in determining an area's travel charactenstics as well as air quality and mobility. Much interest has also been raised in terms of understanding the relationship between trip generation and land use patterns, such as density, degree of mix-use, and transit service availability .. etc. Since land use developments are primarily determined through the long range comprehensive planning and daily development review processes, it is crucial for local planning agencies to understand the potential implications of various land use patterns on trip making and mode split as well as their impacts on air quality and mobility. In addition, a better comprehension of the linkage between trip generation and land use patterns will also greatly facilKate the traffic impact ana~sis reviewing process and enhance the travel demand model's capability in predicating future travel demand for various land use development patterns. Currently, the City of Aurora is conducting a city-wide trip generation study. Attention has specifically focused on the potential implications of land use patterns on trip making and mode split in several residential and mix-use developments. In particular, the following factors will be utilized to analyze the vehicle and personal trip generation rates as weII as mode split information: Density; Degree of mix-use; Proximity to transit line; Availability of bike and pedestrian trail Distance to work and shopping; Other social and 64

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Section 2 - MPO Planning and Programming economic factors, including, household income, household size, housing value, etc. This paper will present the methodologies as well as the results of the study. In addition, it will discuss how to employ Geographic Information System technology to perform site selection, as well as data collection, analysis and display functions utilizing traffic count data and 1990 Census Transportation Planning Package information throughout the study. Colorado. 2-123. Understanding the Link Between Urban Form and Travel Behavior. Handy, Susan. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX). Presented to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 171995, Seattle, Washington. That our current patterns of development are automobile dependent is self-evident. As the resulting congestion and air quality problems worsen, planners increasingly turn to land use policies as a potential solution. Many call for higher densities, some call for mixed-use development, others are pushing the concept of neotraditional development which includes higher densities, mixed-use development, and a whole set of design changes. The idea in all cases is to create communities where transit and walking are viable options and where even if residents continue to drive at least the distances are shorter. This idea has obvious appeal. Yet surprising little evidence exists to support the belief that such policies can be effective in reducing automobile dependence. Most studies have focused on the relationship between density and transit use, average vehicle-miles-traveled, or other measures of travel. More recently, in response to the growing popularity of the concept of neotraditional development, researchers have compared travel patterns in older, higher density communities to those in newer, lower density communities. For the most part, this research seems to support the growing belief that land use policies can be effective in reducing automobile dependence and in relieving congestion and air quality problems. On closer examination it becomes clear that this research leaves many questions unanswered. The problem is that most research on the link between urban form and travel behavior has made USE of existing data on average travel patterns, and has found no more than aggregate-level correlations between urban form and travel behavior. The research summarized in this paper begins to remedy these deficiencies by developing an alternative approach to exploring the relationship betweenurban form and travel patterns, taking as a starting point travel behavior theory and broadening the definition and measurement of land use. Rather than relying on existing data, this approach involves extensive data collation and is applied in selected case study communities. These case studies reveal connections between specific aspects of urban form and travel behavior and suggest specific hinds of land use polices which might be most effective in reducing automobile dependence. They also suggest, however, that there may be strict limits to the ultimate effectiveness of these policies. 2-124. The Use of the Geographic Information System (GIS) and Transportation Modeling Tools in the Long Range Planning Process. (grant, Terrence. (Metropolitan Transit Authority, Houston, TX). Submitted to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1 99S, Seattle, Washington. Texas. 2-125. VISION 2020: OCR for page 39
Pro ject Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 (1 ) accessibilityincreases. The propensity for people to -interact with others at a distance increases as the cost of access decreases. Urban theory tells us that people locate their houses and their workplaces by trading off housing and commute costs. Commuters choose residential locations that satisfy both housing needs and workplace access, and employers choose work sites that are accessible to employees at tolerable time and dollar costs. 2-130. Where Do We Go From Here? A Seamless Transportation System, a Panel Discussion, Leslie Wheeler Hortum, American Trucking Associations, Presiding. Kochanowski, Robert (Southwestern Pennsylvania Regional Planning Commission); Lance Grenzeback (Cambridge Systematics, Inch; Marta Rosen (Georgia Department of Transportation); G. Robert Luce (Transportation User Legislative Alliance), and Matthew Coogan (Transportation Consultant). Second Annual National Freight Planning Conference Report, Matthew Coogan, Editor; Dec 8 1993, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Published February 1994. 2-131. Working Together on Transportation Planning: An Approach to Collaborative Decision Making. The National Association of Regional Councils for the Federal Transit Administration. May 1995, Report Plumber: FTA-DC-26-6013-95-1. This report provides information to Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOS) in developing a consensus-based planning approach in which MPOs work in partnership with transportation stakeholders including community groups, special interest groups, minorities, public agencies, private sector interests, and elected officials to develop transportation plans and programs with maximum community involvement. It also provides detailed examples that demonstrate how MPOs can design collaborative processes that meet the intent of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) and strengthen the plans produced by the MPOS. Chapter one describes the project and the research methodology. Chapter two summarizes the impact of ISTEA on MPOs during the revision of their transportation decision making process Chapter three presents a four-stage consensus building model which can direct MPOs in implementing a collaborative planning process. The final chapter describes how to measure the success of the collaborative process once implemented. Case studies of the public involvement processes used by six MPOs are included in the appendix. 2-132. Zionsville Pedestrian/Bicycle Path System: A Prototype Transportation Enhancement Project. Myers, John W. (HNTB Corporation, Indianapolis, IN). Presented to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 171995, Seattle, Washington. Congress intended that the benefits of ISTEA extend beyond the highway system to encompass improved quality of life. To this end, ISTEA initiated the Transportation Enhancement Activities (TEA) Program. The first project category eligible for TEA funding, bicycle and pedestrian facilities, is consistent with a plan developed for Zionsville, Indiana in 1985. That plan identified a need for new and safer options for non-motorized travel between community activity Centers and residential areas of the town. Using TEA funding, the Zionsville pedestrian and bicycle plan will soon be implemented. The project is of interest not only for its value to Zionsville, but as an example and prototype for areas throughout the United States, particularly those which experienced rapid suburban growth following World War 11. Zionsville's population has increased fourfold since 1950. A neo-traditional central core of older, well-kept homes is surrounded by "islands" of newer homes within modern subdivisions. The town is connected by former county roads which are 20-22 feet wide within 35~0 feet of right of way. Existing roadways are suitable for vehicle traffic, but they are not designed for other uses. Many consider driving as the only safe option although distanm to mapr activity centers are short. Increased fuel consumption and pollution result, and opportunities for the health benefits of non-motorized travel are reduced. Fitting additional facilities within existing corridor-s will be challenging. Due to the "age" of the corridors, designs must address steep embankments, poor alignment, large trees, and limited setbacks. Nevertheless, the result HI be a functional pedestrian and bicycle system serving all mapr activity centers. The project is currently in the preliminary design phase. The conditions which warrant a major investment in non-motorized travel in Zionsville exist throughout the United States. Communities with development patterns oriented solely to the automobile should take note. The TEA progrm may offer a unique opportunity to create an areawide pedestrian/bikeway system. Such a system might efficiently meet community transportation and recreation needs, while reducing systemwide vehicle miles of travel. Indiana. 66