Click for next page ( 68


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 67
Section 3 - Mananement Systems _ BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES FROM THE NCHRP 8-32 INTERACTIVE DATABASE CONCERNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS, STRATEGIES AND MEASUREMENT 3-1. The 1994 Eastern Massachusetts Conformity Determination Experience. Leiner, Craig and Anne McGahan. (Central Transportation Planning Staff, Boston, MA). Submitted to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 199S, Seattle, Washington. Massachusetts. 3-2. Adopting Corridor-Specific Performance Measures for Bicycle and Pedestrian Level of Service. Dixon, Linda. Transportation Planning. Summer 1995, Vol.XXII, No.2, Pp5-7. Florida. 3-3. Air Quality Confirmrty Case Studies. Brodesky, Robert P. (EG&G Dynatrend). Cambridge, MA. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. This paper presents the findings of case studies that were conducted of the air quality conformity processes in the Denver, Raleigh-Durham, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C. non-attainment areas. This work was conducted on behalf of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. The case studies focused on travel demand and air quality modeling, and included information on regional demographic and economic forecasting, jurisdictional and institutional issues, and technical issues and concerns. This information was intended to help the FHWA carry out its responsibilities under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, and set priorities for federal activities in such areas as research and development, development of technical gut 'dance. and information dissemination. Another objective of the case studies was to provide information that could be used by other urbanized areas to improve their conformity procedures and to establish benchmarks for them to assess their results. 3-4. Air Quality Conformity Case Studies. Brodesky, Robert P. (EG&G Dynatrend). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. 3-5. Air Quality Planning: How are the MPOs Responding? Results of a National Survey. Hartgen, D. T.; W. E. Manin, and A. Reser. 4th National Conference on Transportation Planning Methods Applications, A Compendium of Papers, Volumes I and 11, Paris, Jerry M., Editor; May 3 1993, 67 Daytona Beach, Florida. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 radically changed the requirements for transportation planning on those Cities that are designated non- attainment for ozone or carbon monoxide. Depending on severity of non-attainment, cities must develop plans, implement pollution-reducing strategies, or otherwise respond, so that the future air pollution situation is better than at present. In some cities legal action has been initiated (or suggested) to ensure compliance with these and earlier requirements for conformity and for firm results. This paper reports on a national survey of all non-attainment areas, to determine what actions have been taken or are contemplated, their impacts or results, costs, and further anticipated efforts. The survey covers cities in venous ranges of non conformity, and assesses the best ways to ensure lawsuit-free transportation planning in the "air quality" era. Of 98 areas, 62 responded. Endings include: (1) About 17% of MPO resources (50% in severe non-attainment areas) are being targeted at air quality issues; (2) About 89% of MPOs have lead or support roles in air quality inputs to the SIP for their region; (3) About 35% are revising TlPs to account for air quality; (4) Projected reductions from TCMs will be small, generally less than 0.5/0; (5) Ridesharing, transit, and pedestrian actions are the most popular TCMs; (6) New partnerships are forming between air quality and transportation agencies; and (7) For many reasons, delays in achieving the 1996 targets are likely. North Carolina. 3-6. Air Quality Planning in Juarez, Mexico. Wlliams, Tom A. (Texas A&M University System, College Station, TX). Presented to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. Juarez, Mexico, with a population of greater than 1.2 million, lies across the Rio Grande river from El Paso, Texas, which is classified as a severe non-attainment area for both CO and ozone. While El Paso must comply with federal regulations based on exceedances which occur in the United States, officials are aware of the emissions which occur in Mexico. An emissions estimation procedure is currently undenuay for Juarez, Mexico. In 1993, ~ study was performed to collect travel data in support of a mobile source emissions estimate for Juarez. The study was divided into six tasks: travel time and facility speed estimation, vehicle miles of travel and vehicle mix estimation, operating mode estimation, calculation of vehicle fleet characteristics, international bridge delay study, and

OCR for page 67
Project Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 (1 ) summary emission rate calculation. An abbreviated travel survey was also performed. Many interesting -functional and cultural influences were examined during the study in relation to traffic control, travel behavior, and international bridge operations. This study outlines procedures used for travel data collection in the context of working in a foreign city. A discussion of international protocol, procedures and methods is included. This study points out that cooperative research efforts between scientists in Mexico and the United States can be performed and lead to useful results, even with the abbreviated methodology used in the Ciudad Juarez effort. This study should provide evidence to compel international cooperation between the U.S. and Mexico, at the research level and at the policy-making level. The realization that El Paso/Ciudad Juarez and other similar border cities constitute one urban area should lead to the realization that air quality is a unified concern. The methodology and results of this study indicate that cooperation between university, government, and citizen entities on the international level can provide for research to the benefit of regional international air quality planning for border urban areas Texas. 3-7. Air Quality Programs and Provisions of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. A Summary. Federal Highway Administration. (Washington, DC). 1 992. This brochure summarizes the provisions of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) that can best help State and local officials as they work toward the air quality goals of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). This summary is divided into six categories: (1) Funding Flexibility; (2) Increased Funding Levels; (3) Strengthened Planning Process; (4) Strengthened Role of Metropolitan Planning Organizations; (5) New Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program; and (6) Miscellaneous Provisions. 3-8. Analytical Procedures to Support a Congestion Management System. Cambridge Systematics; Inc. Barton-Aschman Associates; K.T. Analytics, and Michael D. Meyer.Preparedforthe Federal Highway Administration. Mar 14 1994. 3-9. Application of an Intervening Opportunity Trip Distribution Model in Air Quality Conformity Evaluation. Eash, Ronald. (Chicago Area Transportation Study, Chicago, IL). Submitted to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. Illinois. 3-10. The Application of Procedures/Techniques Developed for the FTA Rail Modernization Study to Guidelines for the Development of Public Transportation Facilities and Egulpment Management Systems. Hargrove, John Q. (Gannett Flemming, Inc.~. 3-11. An Appraisal of Institutional and Technical issues Related to Congestion Management Agencies in Callfornla. Colman, Steven B. and Donald N. Rothblatt. (San Jose State University, San Jose, CA). Transportation Research Board 74th Annual Meeting, Jan 22 1995, Washington, DC. One result of voter passage of Proposition 11 1 in 1990 was the creation of congestion management agencies (CMAS) in each of California's 31 urban counties. These new agenaes were charged with developing and administering a comprehensive congestion management program (CMP). Although the CMP requirements have been studied elsewhere in the literature, relatively lisle attention has been paid to CMA organizational issues and effectiveness. The purpose of this paper is to fill some of the gaps in knowledge, after four years of experience with the CMP. The approach taken was a review of all of the published CMP documents (plans), and then development of a telephone interview survey. Survey respondents were generally the CMA executive director, or his/her deputy. The questionnaire covered prior and existing CMA functions and structure, self-rating of CMA performance (on a semantic differential scale, from one to ten), a series of statements on CMA effectiveness in various program areas, also a semantic differential scale, with 'one' indicating strong disagreement, and 'ten' strong agreement, information on staffing and budget, cooperation with other agencies, and an appraisal of what the CMA does best and worst. This study reports on the results of these interviews, and of a comparison of the key technical features of the CMP documents. The results should be of interest to those contemplating or developing congestion management systems in other states, and those responding to the mandates in the ISTEA management systems. Cal~fomia. 3-12. Automatic Vehicle Location for Measurement of Corridor Level-of-Service: The Miami Method. Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida. (Tampa, FL). Sep 1994. Florida. 3-13. Automatic Vehicle Location for Measurement of Corridor Level-of-ServTce: 68

OCR for page 67
Section 3- Management Systems Statewide Feasibility Analysis. Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida. (Tampa, FL). Dec 1994. Florida. 3-14. California Intermodal Transportation Management System (ITMS): Background Information. Boyle, Ed. (California Department of Transportation, Sacramento, CA). National Conference on Intermodalism: Making the Case, Making it Happen, Dec 7 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana. This project will present the shape and purpose of the California Intermodal Transportation Management System (ITMS) including its development process, program and system components, performance measures, and application. California. 3-15. California Market-Based TOM Study: Purpose, Structure, and Overview. Deakin, Elizabeth. (Deakin, Harvey, Skabardonis, Inch. Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. Califomia. 3-16. CaltransintermodalTransportation Management System. Carter, Douglas W. (Booz, Allen & Hamilton, Inc., Los Angeles, CA). Integrating Transportation Management Systems into Transportation Planning and Operations National Conference Proceedi ngs, Nov 7 1993, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. The California Department of Transportation, with funding assistance from the United States Department of Transportation, is in the process of developing and implementing a statewide Intermodal Transportation Management System (ITMS). The decision support system is intended to help assess the effectiveness and efficiency of the overall multi-modal transportation system in the State of California, and to evaluate alternative investments in Intermodal facilities, access to these facilities and corridors of statewide significance. Caltrans assembled a study advisory committee of more than 70 representatives of California transportation interests, including public sector representatives from the federal government, Caltrans, metropolitan planning organizations, regional transportation planning agencies, transit operators, airports and deep water ports and military transportation. Private sector representatives include shippers, rail service providers, truckers, marine transport, air transport, telecommunications and package delivery services. The committee has proven extremely valuable in understanding the objectives and choices made by the private sector and government, identifying viable data sources, determining performance measures, and designing the functionality of the ITMS. The decision support system is being developed by a team led by Booz, Allen & Hamilton Inc.; design is nearly complete and development underway. The model includes a series of modules: a data import tool to access other electronic databases; a relational database management system; a forecast module for goods and people movements; a geographical information system; a performance measurement module; a reporting and data export module; and a graphical user interface system. The decision support system is being designed to allow maximum portability to different systems environments and can be used in part or whole by other agencies. The California ITMS will allow the user to identify deficiencies on major corridors, on access roads to ntermodal transfer facilities and restrictions at major Intermodal facilities. Alternative improvement projects vail be evaluated in terms of impact on mobility, financial efficiency, economic impact on the region, environmental impact and quality of life measures. Proposed improvements may span capital or operating investments in any mode of transport, changes in pricing for services, changes in geometric or weight restrictions, or changes attributable to demand. The project is scheduled for completion in summer of 1994. Califomia. 3-17. Cashing Out Employer-Paid Parking. Shoup, Donald C. Access. Spring 1993, No. 2, Pp 3. 3-18. Challenges and Opportunities for Transportation: Implementation of the Clean AIr Act Amendments of 1990 and the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. Shrouds, J. M. Issue Papers for the Institute of Transportation Engineers 1993 International Conference, Transportation in the ISTEA Era, Mar 14 1993, Orlando, Florida. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of: (1 ) the key transportation planning requirements in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (COCA) and Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) that vail confront transportation planners; and, (2) the relationship of the new ISTEA provisions to the CAAA. 3-19. The Challenges of Transportation and Clean Air Goals. Howitt, Arnold and Alan Altshuler. (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA). Oct 1992. 3-20. The Changing Context of Transportation Planning: The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, and their Implications for Transportation Planning and Programming. 69

OCR for page 67
Proiect Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 Deakin, Elizabeth. (University of California, Berkeley, CA). 1993. 3-21. Clean Air Through Transportation: Challenges in Meeting National Air Quality Standards. Department of Transportation and Environmental Protection Agency. (Washington, DC). Aug 1993. This report, required by Section 108~3) of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990, addresses the issues of motor vehicles and air quality. The report discusses the challenges faced in attempting to improve air quality through transportation programs. It also provides a status report on meeting the transportation provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and the air quality provisions of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. The contents are organized as follows: (1) Introduction: A) Purpose and Scope of Report - The Provisions of S - ion 108(f)~3), B) Summary, and C) Background - CM and ISTEA; (11) Challenges in Transportation and Air Quality Programs: A) MPOs Face Significant Challenges in Meeting New CM Requirements, B) Reducing Vehicle Emissions Through TCMs is Difficult, C) By Themselves, Ca~pital-lntensive Investments May Not Be the Best Way to Address Air Quality Concerns, D) Technological Improvements Have Reduced Vehicle Emissions Despite Increasing VMT, E) Better Data and Models Are Needed, and F) Beyond Transportation - Land Use, Public Acceptance, and Fiscal Constraints Figure Prominently; (111) Status of Programs: A) Full Funding of ISTEA Would Help Meet Mobility and Air Quality Goals, B) Limited CM Funds Exist for Air Quality Operations and Management, C) Regulations and Guidance Implementing CM and ISTEA Have Been Issued, C) SIP Development, Revisions, and EPA Approvals Are Proceedig, and E) Transportation Plans, TlPs, and Conformity Determinations Are Also Proceeding; and (IV) Conclusions. There are six appendices: (A) Clean Air Act Section 108(f)~3~; (B) Specific Transportation-Related Provisions of the Clean Air Act as Amended in t 990 for Ozone Nonattainment Area Classifications; (C) Transportation-Rslated Provisions of the Clean Air Act as Amended in 1990 for Carbon Monoxide (CO) Nonattainment Area Classifications; (D) Transportation-Related Provisions of the Clean Air Act as Amended in 1990 for PM-10 Nonattainmcnt Area Classification; (E) Transportaion Control Measures from Section 1 08(f)~1 ) of CM; and (F) Transportation and Emissions Modeling. 3-22. CMAQ Emission Reduction Methodologies Handbook for PennDOT. Winick, Robert M. (COMSIS Corporation). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. Pennsylvania. 3-23. C02 Emissions from Passenger Transport: Comparison of International Trends from 1g73 to 1990. Scholl, Lynn and Lee Schipper. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. 3-24. A Comparative Analysis of Regulatory and Market-Based Transportation Demand Management Strategies. Giuliano, Genevieve and Martin Wachs. Submitted to the Congestion Pricing Symposium, Jun 10 1992, Washington, DC. 3-25. Comparative Evaluation of Performance of International Light Rail Systems. Lyons, W. M.; E. Weiner, and P. Shadle. Transportation Research Record 1433. 1994, Pp 1 15-122. Endings are presented from an analysis of the performance of international light rail transit (LRT) systems, conducted by the Urban Transport Group of the European Conference of Ministers of Transport (ECMT). The analysis is based on case studies and national overviews provided by the six participating countries (France, (Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States), which are included in the detailed EC MT report. The project traced LRT development; reviewed policy, managerial, and technological trends; and analyzed comparative cost-effectiveness. Policy conclusions reflect the consensus of the six national delegations. Standardizedfinancialand operational data, as developed for the study and applied in a balanced set of performance measures, are difficult to define for international systems. Nevertheless, efforts such as this encourage an objective exchange on international experiences with different public policies and operational approaches. The standardized framework developed for the project allowed consistent comparisons of the international systems. The seven systems evaluated were publicly operated but several included private involvement, ranging from private equity shares in Nantes and Grenoble, France, to the turnkey approach in Manchester, England. The governments sponsoring LRT in the case study cities set broad goals, ranging from attracting automobile drivers and improving air quality to reducing congestion while recovering costs. Even though success was often not quantified, the governments were generally satisfied with results. All countries conducted some analysis of alternatives before selecting LRT, but analysis was less comprehensive and rigorous than might, for example, be expected of major investments under the requirements of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act. 70

OCR for page 67
Section 3 - Management Systems 3-26. Comparing Cost-Effectiveness Across Modes. DeCorla-Souza, P. 4th National Conference on Transportation Planning Methods Applications, A Compendium of Papers, Volumes I and 11, Paris, Jerry M., Editor; May 3 1993, Daytona Beach, Florida. The flexibility provisions of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) require Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) in cooperation with States and transit operators to make funding decisions among alternative transportation solutions invoking more than a single mode. With little past experience in cross-modal evaluation, MPOs will need to develop the ability to make cost-efficiency and cost- effectiveness comparisons across modes at the project and system level. New ISTEA requirements for Congestion Management Systems and for considering multiple factors in metropolitan planning and . . _ programming will further increase the importance of multi-modal evaluation capabilities. Cost-effectiveness is listed as an objective for use of Federal funds in several places in ISTEA. In the past, MPOs have seldom used cost-efficiency measures to compare projects or alternative systems. Also, they have usually compared solutions using measures of effectiveness which are uniquely applicable to a specific mode. For example, a measure of highway project effectiveness used often is improvement in highway level of service or highway speed. Transit project effectiveness, on the other hand, is often measured by increase in transit ridership. If highway and transit solutions are to be compared, common measures of effectiveness applicable across modes will have to be used. Also, if cost-efficiency measures are to be emphasized, costs and benefits (including social and environmental costs and benefits) will need to be converted to dollar terms to the extent feasible. These cross-modal comparisons require development of a new evaluation framework which allows full accounting of all costs (i.e., public, private and social) and which includes measures of effectiveness that can be applied across modes. MPOs will have to attempt quantification of the impacts and true costs of transportation alternatives to assist decision-makers in making the tradeoffs between alternatives. This paper provides a case stuy demonstrating how comparisons can be made among investments for three alternative modes -- single~ccupant vehicle (SOV), high- occupancy vehicle (HOV) and transit, based on cost-effectiveness measures such as (1) public costs per commute trip and (2) total costs (i.e., public, private and social costs) per commute tnp. Compansons are made for commute trips between nine pairs of work and home locations involving three urban location/design categories: Central Business District (CBD), urban core and fringe in a typical large urban area (population more than 1 million). The results of the analysis suggest that disparities in cost-effectiveness among modes vary significantly by empbymentiresidence location combination. The paper discusses the policy implications of the disparities among modes. 3-27. Comparing Performance and Benefits of Public TransIt In Comparison to HIghways in ISTEA Environment. Stauder, Susan. (Bi-State Development Agency). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. 3-28. Compliance with ISTEA, NEPA, and Clean Air Requirements for Projects not Receiving Federal Funds, A Panel Discussion, Edward V. Kussy, U.S. Department of Transportation, Presiding. Bosley, John (Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments); Howard Kennison (Kutack Rock), and Robert E. Thornton (Nossaman, Gunther, Knox & Elliott). Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. 3-29. Conference Summary: Best Practices for Transportation Modeling for Air Quality Planning (Draft). Hawthorn, G. and E. Deakin. (National Association of Regional Councils, Washington, DC). Nov 21 1991, Arlington, Virginia. The conference "Best Practices for Transportation Modeling for Air Quality Planning" was held November 21-22, 1991, in Arlington, Virginia. The conference considered issues raised by the analysis requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), as well as more general problems and opportunities in transportation modeling, and future research needs. The conference was organized as part of the technical support program of the National Association of Regional Councils' Clean Air Project. This draft Conference Summary summarizes the presentations and discussions of the conference. It is organized in three sections. The first section provides an introduction, describes the context in which the conference washeld, and provides an overview of the conference. Section B then offers some general observations emerging from the conference. Section C summarizes key points made and issues raised for each of five major topics identified by the conference organizers and participants: Assessment of current practices; CAM analysis requirements; EPA policy on analyses in response to CMA requirements; The Manual of Best Practices; and Research recommendations. A series of attachments provide additional detail. 3-30. Conformity and the New Transportation Covenant. 71

OCR for page 67
Project Bibliography- NCHRP 8-32 (1) "Shrouds, James M. (Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC). Danvers, MA. American Society of Chemical Engineers, May 1993. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 established a requirement that transportation plans, programs, and projects conform to the purpose of State Implementation Plans for the attainment of National Ambient AJr Quality Standards. This expanded requirement will result in substantial changes to the transportation planning and programming processes, including greater involvement by air quality officials. Similarly, transportation officials will need to play greater roles in the development of air quality plans. The result of these changes is a new covenant between the various members of the transportation and environmental communities, one which realigns traditional relationships and responsibilities. 3-31. Congestion Management Program for Los Angeles County, 1993. Los Angeles County Transportation Commission. (Los Angeles, CA). 1993. The Congestion Management Program (CMO) for Los Angeles County is intended to address regional congestion by linking transportation, land use, and air quality decisions. It includes monitoring results on the Levels of Service (LOS) of the regional highway/road system and the performance of the transit system. The Countywide Deficiency Plan component includes information on the congestion impacts of projected growth over 20 years by various land use types as well as the capacity-enhancing or demand-reducing benefits of numerous land use, capital, systems management, demand management, and transit mitigation strategies. It requires the Sties and County of Los Angeles to implement mitigation strategies commensurate with their annual level of new development. Cities and the County are also required to adopt and implement a transportation demand management ordinance and a program to analyze the impacts of land use decisions on the regional transportation system. California. 3-32. Congestion Management Program: It Actually Works - The Ventura County, California, Experience. Stephens, Christopher and Ginger Gherardi. (Ventura County Transportation Commission). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. California. 3-33. Congestion Management: Requirements and Comparisons. Mulhall, Shawna. (Berryman & Henigar, Seattle, WA). Presented to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. Congestion management is a requirement in both the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment (CAM) and the 1990 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA). Both of pieces of this legislation require reducing congestion to improve air quality, using existing transportation facilities more efficiently, and increasing mobility of people and goods. To meet the requirements of ISTEA, a congestion management system must be developed which monitors congestion over time and measures the effectiveness of strategies implemented to manage the congestion. After review and discussion of possible data types, travel time was identified as the most appropriate measure of congestion. Clearly, travel time can be measured for all modes, that is, travel time is multimodal. But in addition, changes in travel time between modes can indicated the effectiveness of implemented congestion management strategies. This analysis reviewed four monitoring programs to assess the use of travel time as a congestion management tool. The data used for each program varied, and the research indicated that travel time was not a widely used tool. This presentation discusses the four programs and the applications and advantages of travel time as a congestion management tool. 3-34. Congestion Management System: An Approach to Determine Congestion and Prioritize Congested Areas. Putta, Viplava K. (Indian Nations Council of Govemments, Tulsa, OK). Presented to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. Congestion in urban areas is a result of excessive traffic or due to an incident interrupting traffic flow. Both the factors contribute to excess delay, and frustration to drivers. The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act, 1991 addresses congestion in the form of a congestion management system (CMS). Identification of performance measures for congestion is an important step in the development of the CMS. Performance Measures- Performance measures should enable a Metropolitan Planning Organization to define and measure congestion both spatially and temporally. A variety of performance measures are suggested in the literature. In practice, many of the measures are link or site specific. The measures such as volume to capacity ratio (\I/C), level-of-service and intersection delay belong to such a class of measures. They offer little to compare among facilities and no clue on area wide congestion. Other problems do exist in the form of forecasting congestion using the above noted measures. The Congestion Management Program for the Tulsa, Oklahoma Transportation Management Area proposes a multi~riteria decision 72

OCR for page 67
Section 3 - Management Systems making approach to areawide congestion measurement. The Method - This paper outlines a methodology to address the problems identified untie site oriented measures and suggests a methodology to address congestion. The method involves identification of five locally accepted measures of areawide congestion. The measures are then transformed into a composite measure of congestion for a given area/corridor. The method also is useful in prioritizing congested corridors or sub-areas of a corridor. The following section describes the method briefly. Multiple Criteria Decision-Making - A paired comparison technique is suggested to involve decision makers to rank the identified congested measures in their order of importance. Various corridors or sub areas of a corridor are identified and the measures are computed. The corridors (or sub-areas) are compared for each Of the measures to obtain orridor performance matrices. As a separate step, the five measures are ranked by decision makers and technical experts taking two at a time to obtain importance coefficients for those measures. A dummy measure is included such that no other important measure is omitted out of the ranking. A final decision matrix combines the importance coefficients and corridor performance matnces. Oklahoma. 3-35. Congestion Management Systems. Solury, Tony. (Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC). Integrating Transportation Management Systems into Transportation Planning and Operations National Conference Proceedings, Nov 71993, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. 3-36. Congestion Management Systems- California's Local, Regional and State Initiatives. Smith, Brian J. (California Department of Transportation). Integrating Transportation Management Systems into Transportation Planning and Operations National Conference Proceedings, Nov 71993, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. California legislation predating ISTEA required counties with urbanized areas to establish congestion management programs. These programs strengthen the connection between land use dec signs, air quality and maintaining roadway and transit service levels. As a result local Congestion Management Agencies are already in the business of monitoring roadway and transit system performance and the effectiveness of measures such as TDMS. Now, MPOs responsible for developing regional transportation plan and programs, are initiating Congestion Management Systems in response to ISTEA. The State is developing management systems including an Intermodal Transportation Management System. State law also requires that the State Plan prepared pursuant to ISTEA contain system performance measures. The challenge confronting California is complying with federal management system requirements in a manner that satisfies state statutes; minimizes data requirements; reflects the perspectives, needs and responsibilities of local, regional and state agencies and system users; provides horizontally and vertically integrated decision support tools; and adds value to transportation service planning, programming and delivery at a time when all levels of government are experiencing an increasing gap between needs and revenues. Califomia. 3-37. Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program Review. Morris, Linda. (Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC). Submitted to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. 3-38. The Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program: A Summary of First Year Activities (FY 1992: December 1991-September 1992~. Federal Highway Administration and Federal Transit Administration. This report provides a national review of activities under the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement (CMAQ) Program. The CMAQ program was created by the 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) to assist States in attaining the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Congress authorized six billion dollars in CMAQ funding for fiscal years 1992-97. In accordance with the FHWA-FfA October 16, 1992 program guidance, States obligating CMAQ funds must prepare and submit annual reports detailing their use of CMAQ funds and documenting the air quality benefits. This national summary focuses on the first annual compilation and analysis of these state reports, and provides recommendations to facilitate and streamline report submission in subsequent years. Also included in this summary is a review of a roundtable discussion held on the CMAQ program on June 14, 1993. Although the discussion occurred in FY 1993, the timeliness of the discussion warrants inclusion. Participants of the discussion included EPA, DOT, State and Territorial Air Pollution Program Administrators and Association of Local Air Pollution Control Officials (STAPPAJALAPCO), state DOTs and metropolitan planning organizations from across the country. The information from this and next years national summaries will be a useful starting point for an evaluation of the CMAQ program that FHWA and FfA will undertake in 1994. Its purpose ~11 be to determine whether the program is meeting its mandated goals and to identify ways in which it can be improved. The review is tentatively scheduled for early 73

OCR for page 67
Project Bibliography- NCHRP 8-32 (1) 1994 and will be done by the Federal Transit and Federal Highway Administrations with input from EPA, STAPPA/ALAPCO, the American Public Transit Association, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, and the National Association of Regional Coundis. In 1992, about $340 million was obligated under the CMAQ program out of $809 million that was apportioned to the States. The obligation rateof 42% was low by FHWA standards but understandable for a new program. If the low obligation rate persists, however, Congress may reconsider the meets of funding the CMAQ program. Also, a consistently low obligation rate of under 50 percent of available funds will make it increasingly likely that CMAQ funds will lapse at some point in the future in some States and be lost to their use. 3-39. The Congestion Mitigation and AIr QualIty Improvement Program: A Summary of Second Year Activities (FY 1993: October 1992-September 1 993). Federal Highway Administration. "This report provides the second national review of activities funded under the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement (CMAQ) Program covering the 1993 Fiscal year.... In the 1991 Intemodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), Congress created the CMAQ Program and authorized six billion dollars in funding for Federal fiscal years (FY) 1992-97. The FHWA-FTA guidance issued on October 16, 1992 instructed the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico to submit annual reports detailing their use of CMAQ funds and documenting the anticipated air quality benefits. For activities funded in FY 1993, States were to submit these reports to the FHWA Division Offices by February 1, 1994. In general, States submitted these reports to the FHWA in a timely manner. In FY 1993, approximately $600 million was obligated under the CMAQ Program out of $967 million that was apportioned to the States. The obligation rate was 62 percent which constituted a 20 percentage point increase over the FY 1992 obligation rate of 42 percent. The FY 1994 obligation rate continued this upward trend, soaring to 85 percent. The FHWA-FTA report on the first year activities of CI~AQ funds showed four notable findings: (1) Approximately $340 million of the $809 million in CMAQ funds available to the States during FY 1992 was obligated. This resulted in a relatively low obligation rate of 42 percent. (2) The majority of projects funded with CMAQ monies in FY 1992 were either relatively large and expensive transit projects or smaller and lower cost highway projects. In fact, over 50 percent of program funds were expended on transit projects and another 36 percent were used for traffic flow improvements. (3) The FY 1992 CMAQ State reports lacked air quality analyses for a majority of the projects. States provided air quality analyses for only 45 of the 1 59 projects (28 percent) (4) The State reports lacked specific description of the projects funded by the CMAQ Program in FY 1992. The lack of detail on project decriptions makes it difficult for FHWA/FTA and State and local governments to understand and report how funds are being used. By contrast, the FY 1993 State reports showed significant improvements: (1) The obligation rate of CMAQ funds significantly increased in FY 1993 over FY 1992 levels. Approximately $600 million of the $967 million in CMAQ funds was obligated during FY 1993 which equals an obligation rate of 62 percent. (2) The States continued to make use of the program's flexibility in the programming of CMAQ funds. The States' obligation of transit funds amounted to 47 percent of the total obligated in 1993, and the total dollar amount of transit funds obligated in FY 1993 increased by over 68 percent ($ 120 million). (3) The States have made substantial progress in reporting projected air quality benefits and provided air quality analysis for 69 percent of the projects funded with CMAQ obligations in FY 1993. This number was up from the 28 percent of projects that States reported air quality analysis in FY 1992. (4) The States, however, did not make sufficient progress in providing adequate project descriptions in FY 1993. The MPOs and states need to provide more complete project descriptions so their citizens, public interest groups, Congress, and officials at the Federal, State, and local levels have a better understanding of what projects are being funded under the CMAQ Program." Quoted from thelntroduction. 3-40. Congestion Pricing: Issues and Opportunities. DeCorla-Souza, P. 4th National Conference on Transportation Planning Methods Applications, A Compendium of Papers, Volumes I and 11, Paris, Jerry M., Editor; May 3 1993, Daytona Beach, Florida. Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) considering the adoption of a congestion pricing policy need to clearly understand several aspects of congestion pricing: (1) What is the rationale for congestion pricing? How does it differ from the traditional fuel tax? (2) How effective is congestion pricing with respect to the MPOs' objectives? (3) What are the critical ISSUQS and concerns which must be addressed before implementation can proceed? (4) What types of congestion pricing applications re reasonable in the short term and in the long term? This paper addresses these questions and offers some thoughts on how MPOs can proceed towards implementing this strategy An MPO may seek to use congestion pricing as a means to achieve any or all of the following objectives: (1) manage congestion; (2) improve air quality; (3) secure adequate funding for transportation investments and services. The paper demonstrates a sketch planning procedure to analyze a 74

OCR for page 67
Section 3 - Management Systems congested urban area of about 1.5 million population in order to estimate effectiveness of congestion pricing with respect to the above objectives. The major ISSUQS with respect to implementation may be categonzed as either technical or political. The paper discusses the major technicalissues~technological compatibility among geographic areas and modes, enforcement, privacy, price determination, and estimation of the impacts of alternatives. Use of the conventional four-step travel demand forecasting models to estimate impacts is demonstrated with a dataset for a small hypothetical urban area. The paper also discusses the political issues, i.e., public acceptance and interjurisdictional cooperation, and a three pronged strategy to help develop public support based on use of revenues from tolls. Congestion pricing can be applied at three successively larger scales: on a faality, within an area or sub-area of the region, and regionwide. The paper discusses how urban areas could begin to test the impacts of differential pricing on existing and new faciities. Also discussed is area pricing, involving pricing within a small geographic area such as a Central Business Distnct or a major suburban activity center, which may be introduced through licensing schemes, cordon tolls or parking pncing. The prospects for regional scale application are projected. 3-41. Congestion Pricing: Policy Design and Land Use and Transportation Impacts. Prick, Karen. Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. 3-42. Coordination of ISTEA- 1991 Management Systems. Smith, H. A. Pacific Rim Transtech Conference Proceedings. Volume 11. American Society of Civil Engineers Third International Conference on Applications of Advanced Technologies in Transportation Engineering, Jul 25 1993, Seattle, Washington. Pp 209-215. The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) contains the provision that States must develop, establish, and implement the following management systems: highway pavement; bridge; highway safety; traffic congestion; public transportation facilities and equipment; and intermodal transportation facilities. This paper describes pavement management and ISTEA coordination, and reports on the status of current management system activates in New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department. Anions required to comply with ISTEA provisions are noted. Delaware ISTEA coordination is also discussed. ISTEA management and monitoring systems rulemal OCR for page 67
Pro ject Bibliography- NCHRP 8-32 (1) between the supply and demand impacts of IVHS. This separation between "efficiency and "output" measures means that we can distinguish between IVHS technology "efficiency" benefits and the individual and corporate demand responses to IVHS that actually increase output (benefits) over those produced bv the technology alone. The proposed criteria structure also incorporates the time scale of the impacts. This highlights certain fundamental correlations between the criteria that can lead to double counting of benefits and to highly correlated outcomes which are not helpful in choosing between alternatives. The criteria structure facilitates selection by decisionmakers of cyreatly reduced criteria sets to simplify IVHS evaluations. By recogniziniz the separate supply (efficiency) and demand (increased output) impacts of IVHS, we can also avoid dramatically underestimating the benefits of the new technology and avoid serious mistakes in assessing the safety, environmental and energy impacts of IVHS alternatives. The paper provides default values to evaluate IVHS improvements for inclusion in transportation system plans. The criteria and default values highlight where research and operational tests can provide improved values and information which will most quickly advance the state of the art of IVHS evaluation. 3-45. Data Collection and Analysis Methods to Support Congestion Management Systems. Schwartz, William L. (Cambridge Systematics, Cambridge, MA); John H Suhrbier (Cambridge Systematics, Cambridge, MAy, and Brian J. Gardner (Federal Highway Administration). Presented to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. As required by ISTEA, states and Metropolitan Planning Organizations are currently developing and implementing Congestion Management Systems (CMS). Because of the flexibility provided in determining measures of system performance, the transportation data and methods that are being incorporated into these systems are quite variable. In many instances, available transportation system data are limited to traffic and roadway system data compiled for the Traffic Monitoring System for Highways (TMS/H), the Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS), nd transit system data for Section 15 reporting. These traditionaldata sources provide important information but may not support performance measures that describe the movement of people and goods or relate to appropriate measures of congestion. This paper provides guidance regarding sources of transportation data and analytical methods, both traditional and non-traditional, and relates these to system and modal performance measures. System performance measures are categorized into: 1 ~ travel time measures; 2) delay measures, and 3) speed, volume, and vehicle classification measures. Modal performance measures include transit, goods movement, and person movement Examples are provided for these categories of measures, including direct observation methods and advanced measurement techniques. Alternative sources of data are described along with the range of available analytical procedures and evaluation techniques. A discussion of the use and applicability of geographic information systems and intelligent transportation systems to a CMS is also presented. Three case study demonstrations of the use of transportation data in a CMS are discussed. These include the use of a highway information system and the HPMS in Montana, the integration of transportation system data into a GIS for Albuquerque, and the variety of transportation data sources used to analyze mobility in downtown Boston. Montana New Mexico Massachusetts. 3-46. Data Needs and Integrating Data Systems into Management Systems - A State DOT Perspective. Tweedie, Ronald W. (New Yorl< State Department of Transportation). Integrating Transportation Management Systems into Transportation Planning and Operations National Conference Proceedings, Nov 7 1993, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. The primary purpose of the ISTEA management systems is to provide information to help State DOTS, their local government partners and other transportation providers make better transportation decisions. Identification of specific transportation data needs and their translation into useful information cuts across modes, jurisdictions, organizations, etc. Geographic Information Systems provide a basis for linking data components of the management systems, however, they are not the nirvana. This discussant will use examples to illustrate the problems that face a State DOT in identifying data needs and integrating data systems to satisfy both State and ISTEA requirements. Solutions focus on a strong in-house analyst and computer staff to develop the systems, supplemented by technical committees consisting of stake holders such as MPOs and transit operating companies, and coordinated through a working group representing each system. Critical information needs which transcend modes will also be discussed. 3-47. Data Needs and Integrating Data Systems into Management Systems. Stryjak, Lorraine Kyle. (Texas Department of Transportation). Integrating Transportation Management Systems into Transportation Planning and Operations National Conference Proceedings, Nov 71993, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. The following points were made in the presentations by 76

OCR for page 67
Section 3 - Management Systems Ron Tweedie, Mike Moulton, and KQIIY Smith: 1) Address Institutional Issues First; 2) Being with the End in Mind; 3) Develop a Conceptual Plan; 4) Develop a Work Plan and a Data Model; 5) Don't Reinvent the Wheel; and 6) Plan a Staged Implementation. 3-48. Defining the Issues - FHWA Perspective. Kane, Anthony R. (Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC). Integrating Transportation Management Systems into Transportation Planning and Operations National Conference Proceedings, Nov 7 1993, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. 3-49. Defining the Requirements of Public Transportation Management Systems. Verchinski, Paul. (Federal Transit Administration, Washington, DC). Integrating Transportation Management Systems into Transportation Planning and Operations National Conference Proceedings, Nov 71 993, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. "The PTMS must address a variety of rolling stock equipment: commuter rail vehicles, paratransit vehicles, light rail cars, subway or heavy rail cars, and bus. On the facilities side, for bus only systems, maintenance and garage facilities would be of major concern. For rail systems, all the major support facilities should be of concern. This makes the PTMS very different from the two other asset management systems WhICh are singularly focused on pavement and bridges. PTMS, as proposed, should be more than just a simple inventory. We expect that the strategies defined as a result of the PTMS for operation, maintenance, and expansion of a transit system will guide capital investments through the metropolitan and statewide planning process. This should enable decision makers to select cost-effective strategies for providing and maintaining assets in a serviceable condition. WE are suggesting that asset information should include age, condition, remaining useful life, and replacement cost. We expect that a base year inventory will be compiled where the level of detail is appropriate to the type of capital asset. Data related to transit vehicles using highways and ridership will be collected as part of the highway traffic monitoring system. However, data for number of vehicles and ridership for dedicated transit rights of way (e.g. rail and busways) is to A collected at the maximum load points for the peak period in the peak direction and for the daily time periods that comprise the am and pm peak. Other PTMS components would require that the state in cooperation with MPOs and transit operators identify and evaluate condition measures against appropriate standards. We would expect that these measures and standards would include goals and objectives for safety, efficiency, and reliability. This, in turn, would lead to development of appropriate maintenance and replacement schedules as well as identification of system deficiencies. WE would expect that appropriate strategies would be adopted and that evauations would be conducted for projects that were implemented. This would all occur as input to the overall planning and programming process. Thestateisultimately the responsible party for the PTMS. However, the state must develop the PTMS in cooperation with the transit operators and MPOs. These primary users of the PTMS will ultimately need this information in the planning process so that when funding decisions need to be made in non-attainment areas using cmaq funds and funds are flexed from either the federal highway or transit programs, there is a context of local strategies. PTMS information will also be helpful when projects are proposed for funding from traditional federal transit act sources." Quoted from beginning of remarks in conference proceedings. 3-50. Defining the Requirements of Traffic Monitoring Systems. Kashuba, Ed. (Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC). Integrating Transportation Management Systems into Transportation Planning and Operations National Conference Proceedings, Nov 71993, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. The Traffic Monitoring System is intended to complement the Management System Public Transportation Facilities and Equipment by addressing elements of highway travel. As part of its Traffic Monitoring System for Highways (TMS/H) each State would have a comprehensive process for the collection of highway person and vehicular traffic data. This comprehensive process would address data precision, methods used in the field data collection, and consistency of data analysis. Existence of a TMS/H in each State would ensure comparable high quality data for application to the administration of the transportation program. 3-51. Delaware Intermodal Management System. Delaware Department of Transportation. The Delaware Department of Transportation (DelDOT) is developing an Intennodal Management System (IMS) in order to provide a systematic process of evaluating and defining improvements of key linkages between transportation modes which will iprove the overall performance of the transportation system. The IMS is intended to address the connections, transfers, and movements between modes of transportation rather than to be a multimodal planning tool that addresses all modes of transportation collectively. The initial focus of the Interrnodal Management System will be the transportation access routes to interrnodal transfer facilities. These access links are DelDOT's primary responsibility in the development of intermodal transportation. The majority of transfer facilitiesin Delaware are owned and operated by private 77

OCR for page 67
Project Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 (1 ) Administration. Washington, DC: Sep 1994. 3-176. Roadway Level-of-Service Determination. Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida. (Tampa, FL). May 1991. Florida. 3-177. The Role of Level of Service Standards in Florida's Growth Management Goals. Bricka, S; S. Hendncks, and K. Williams. (University of South Florida, Center for Urban Transportation Research, Tampa, FL). Oct 1993. The Florida Legislature and the Governors Office directed the Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR) to undertake the State Transportation Policy Initiative (STPI). The purpose of this multi-phase study is to reevaluate the way transportation infrastructure and services are planned and developed at the state and local levels in Flonda and to formulate options for implementing requirements of the 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act. This report is one of a series of publications resulting from Phase I of the STPI. The purpose of the report is to document the issues surrounding the evaluation of roadway level of service (LOS) in Florida. It contains an historical overview of roadway LOS standards and measurements and their evolution in response to changes in Florida's growth management legislation. The first section concentrates on Florida Department of Transportation (FOOT) LOS standards and measures developed in response to the 1985 Growth Management Act and subsequent revisions. The second section focuses on innovative LOS measures, as developed by local governments in Florida. The third section presents changes anticipated as a result of the 1993 Florida legislative session. Florida. 3-178. Role of Performance-Based Measures in Allocating Funding for Transit Operations. Hartman, Ronald J. (Columbia, Maryland). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. 3-179. The Role of Transportation Control Measures in Reducing Air Pollution: MPO Views. Reser, A. J.; D. T. Hartgen, and W. E. Martin. (North Carolina University, Charlotte, NC). May 1993. A sun/By of 98 Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) was conducted in the fall of 1992, to determine actions being taken to address the CIoan Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAM). All ozone non-attainment and several attainment areas were asked to respond. Of these, 62 cities responded. The survey dealt with general tatus of air quality planning, transportation planning efforts for CAM, and MPO roles in SIP revisions. Also reviewed were TIP revisions to account for COMA, change in emissions, transportation and emission control measure actions taken and planned, opinions about guidance, and additional suggestions. Commonly implemented actions included ridesharing, transit, and bicycle-pedestnan actions; popular planned actions included bicycle-pedestnan, enhanced JIM, transit, and employer-based trip reductions. However, the expected reduction in air pollution from these actions was very small: less that 0.5/O. Respondents expressed concern about the content, lack of clarity and timeliness of guidance, and requested more information and training on the impacts of TCMs. In 9 in-depth follow-up interviews, MPOs expressed a desire for TOM training and workshops, and a concern about lack of adequate information on TCMs, along with adequacy of the attainment schedule. Given the delay in issuing rules, the 1996 deadlines will be difficult to meet. North Carolina. 3-180. Santa Barbara Travel Model for Mobile Sources. Outwater, Maren. (KJS Associates, Inc.~. Presented to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17199S, Seattle, Washington. Santa Barbara County has undertaken a coordination effort between the travel demand forecasting and emissions modeling that is new to the community at large and is required by the recent federal and state legislation for clean air. This effort has resulted in an emission inventory that is based on estimates of on-road transportation data. This relationship between transportation and air quality will enable both communities to react to consistent forecasts, based upon the same set of assumptions. The travel model was developed using the SYSTEM 11 software package and state-of-the-art modeling techniques that meet accepted national and state standards for accuracy. These guidelines were provided, in part, by the Caltrans Travel Forecasting Guidelines. Additional attention was provided to improve the consistency and accuracy of on-road data such as speed, distance, and capacity, and of socioeconomic data such as households and employment. This paper evaluates the results and assumptions of the Santa Barbara Travel Model for the year 1990 with respect to the process for evaluation of travel demand models used in aur quality analysis. This process involves several validation exercises for travel demand models: trips by purpose and mode, non-household based trips (commercial truck, visitor, recreational, external), trip length by purpose, intrazonal trips, non-vehicular trips (walk, bike), mode choice, total trips, speed by time period, and vehicle-miles-traveled. The importance of the evaluation of travel models is to determine the appropriateness and precision of the travel activity data 104

OCR for page 67
Section 3 - Management Systems for use in air quality analysis. California. 3-181. Setting the Stage: Context for Exploring Market-Based Control Measures and Overview of June 1994 TRB Report. Wachs, Marty. (UCLA Graduate School of Architecture and Urban Planning). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. 3-182. Small City Account Program Workshop. State of Washington Transportation Improvement Board. Nov 1994. Washington. 3-183. Software for the Evaluation of TCMS and CMAQ Projects. Loudon, William R. and Deborah A. Dagang. (JHK & Associates, Emeryville, CA). Presented to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. The Clean Air Act Amendments require that certain nonattainment areas include transportation control measures (TCMS) in their effort to achieve the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NMQS). A funding source for some nonattainment areas is the Congestion Mitigation/Air Quality (CM/AQ) program available as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act's (ISTEA) flexible funding approach to improving the nation's infrastructure. CMIAQ funds can be used on projects ranging from the timing of signal systems to building bicycle lanes, and TCMs can cover an even broader range of projects. The challenge facing many jurisdictions is how to compare very different types of projects for inclusion in transportation and air quality plans, such as Sl Ps, and for CM/AQ funding. This presentation reports on software tools that have been developed to evaluate and rank projects submitted for CM/AQ funding or other projects being considered for inclusion in the SIP as TCMS. Two models that have been developed by JHK & Associates, the CMIAQ Evaluation Model and TOM Tools (developed in conjunction with Sierra Research), are user-friendly models that are PC-based. Both of these models use reported experience, combined with location-specific data, as the basis for evaluating TCMs and provide estimates of travel impacts, emissions impacts and cost-effectweness. The CMJAQ Evaluation Model also includes a procedure for developing a project rating based on a number of criteria and weighting factors that reflect their relative importance. The criteria and weighting factors can be customized to reflect the priorities of a region. One or both of these tools have been used to evaluate TCMs in counties throughout California, the Denver metropolitan region, the Phoenix and Tucson regions, the Puget Sound (WA) region, Delaware, Texas, and many other regions throughout the country. 3-184. Start Modes of Trips for Mobile Source Emlesion Modeling. Venigalla, M. M. (EG&G Dynatrend, Cambridge, MA); T. Miller, and A. Chatterjee (University of Tennessee, Knoxville). Submitted to 1995 Transportation Research Board Meeting. An important determinant of vehicle emissions during a trip is the engine temperature at trip start. A trip start may be classified as a cold start or a hot start depending on the duration of engine shutoff period prior to starting the engine. Cold starts are usually associated with higher concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC) than the hot starts. Therefore, percent cold and hot start at trip origins are necessary inputs to the mobile source emission modeling process. The emission modeling process uses these start modes as direct inputs (EMFAC 7F) or as indirect inputs that would be used to determine portion of VMT in transient and stabilized operating modes (MOBILE 5A). This paper illustrates a methodology for determining the operating mode fractions at trip ends. Specifically, a comprehensive analysis of personal travel data available in Nationwide Passenger Transportation Survey (NPTS) data is performed for deriving start mode fractions at trip origins and operating mode fractions at trip destination points. Start mode fractions as cold starts and hot starts are derived for different trip purposes and for each hour of the day. It was observed that the trip purpose is the most important explanatory variable for variance in cold starts, followed by the temporal variables such as the time of day at which the trip is made. The size of an urban area and individual metropolitan statistical areas (MSA) are found to be the two most appropriate spatial variablesfor which aggregated start mode percentages may be derived. The start mode fractions derived from this methodology will be useful for a variety of mobile source emission modeling exercises. 3-185. State DOT Responsibilities for Transportation Management Systems and Statewide Transportation Planning. Overmeyer, Randall. (Anzona Department of T r a n s p 0 r t a t i 0 n ~ . I n t e 9 r a t i n 9 T r a n s p 0 r t a t i 0 n Management Systems into Transportation Planning and Operations National Conference Proceedings, Nov 7 1993, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. 1 ) The primary responsibility of the states is to conduct comprehensive transportation planning resulting in a statewide long range transportation plan and the STIP. a) The seven management systems mandated in ISTEA (the original six plus traffic monitoring) may be viewed as databases for developing strategies to provide input into the statewide and metro area plas.... 105

OCR for page 67
Project Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 (1 ) b) The management systems also should provide information and strategies to evaluate the performance of existing facilities and/or model the performance of future ones. 2) The ISTEA planning and management requirements are imposed on both the states and the MPOs. The specific responsibilities of the states may be considered not only by what steps and factors have been prescribed, but also by what steps must be taken by the responsible agenaes to coordinate their efforts in a way that has not been universally achieved prior to the current efforts. a) These coordination steps mandate cooperation with a number of other agencies besides MPOs. Within the boundaries of Anzona are twenty-two Indian tubes, each of which is a separate public agency we must work with, along ninth NlPOs, COGs, cities, towns and counties. b) These other agencies will probably look to the states to take the lead in developing and carrying out coordination outreach efforts. The twenty three planning factors which the proposed rules suggested states should con'sider, consist, at least in part, of coordination steps. In Arizona, we have added a couple. 3) Without full partnerships between state transportation departments, MPOs, and transit authorities or operators, it will be very difficult for any single agency to develop the management systems, especially Congestion Management and Intermodal. The public participation process developed for the statewide and metropolitan planning process should also be usable for the management systems as well. 4) Summarily, None of our agencies can hope to accomplish what we have to do to comply with ISTEA on our own. If we cannot uccessfully coordinate on plans and management systems, we cannot hope to coordinate intermodally. Our primary responsibility under ISTEA is to conduct comprehensive planning. Our primary responsibility to our partners is to take the lead in developing coordination systems which help us work together to get the job done. Arizona. 3-186. State Management Systems: Overview of ISTEA Requirements and Current Implementation. Ismart, D. TR News 173. Jul 1994, Pp 2, 4. The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) requires the development and implementation by the states of the following six management systems: (1 ) Pavement Management System (PMS); (2) Bridge Management System (BMS); (3) Safety Management System (SMS); (4) Congestion Management System (C MS); (5) Public Transportation Facilities and Equipment Management System (PTMS); and (6) Intermodal Management System (IMS). In addition to the management systems, states are required to develop, establish, implement, and operate on a continuous basis a traffic-monitoring system(TMS). This article discusses: theInterimFinal Rule, issued jointly by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and Federal Transit Administration (FTA) to provide a common framework for all six management systems; the elements that should be included in each management system; and the states' progress on the implementation of the management systems. 3-187. State of the Practice: Transportation Data and Models for Air QualIty Emiselone. Hartgen, David T. (University of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC); Andrew J. Reser (Southwestern Regional Planning Commission, Pittsburgh, PA), and Walter E. Martin (University of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC). Presented to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. As part of IxICHRP project 25-7, a review is made of the modeling procedures and data used by MOPs to determine the air quality emissions impact of CAM conformity and other submittals. A total of 41 MPOs and 9 states were contacted. The survey focused on administrative procedures, traffic forecasting, speed post-processing, and emissions estimates. Conformity documents and Tips were also reviewed. The report finds a wide range of procedures in use, but most are variations of the UTPS process. About 11% of non-attainment MPO staff effort is going into air quality analysis, down from 18% in 1992. Very little use of speed feedback was documented, but most regions post-process speeds before estimating emissions. Regional projections of VMT growth are +10-30% over 10 years, but air pollution is expected to fall 15-30%; the difference between build and no-build was generally less than 1%. Numerous inconsistencies in scale, data sources, and error terms are found in the present process. The study concludes that while the UTPS process has allowed computation of air quality impacts of some transportation actions, it does so in an overly precise, disjointed, and cumbersome way. The full report also contains detailed tables, interview summaries, and a review of over 100 documents, mostly unpublished. 3-188. State of Washington Efforts to Advance the Pricing Concept. Cushman, King. (Puget Sound Regional Council). Presented to the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Jan 1995. Washington. 3-t 89. State Survey of 7 Management Systems. Festin, Scott M. and Carrol E. Collins. (University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC). Submitted to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 171995, Seattle, Washington. North Carolina. 106

OCR for page 67
Section 3 - Management Systems 3-t90. Status of Congestion Management System Development in North Carolina. Poole, Marion R. (North Carolina Department of Transportation). Integrating Transportation Management Systems into Transportation Planning and Operations National Conference Proceedings, Nov 7 1993, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. PA Task Force on Congestion Management in Project Planning has also been established within NCDOT. This Task Force is to determine how best to bring congestion management and IVHS technology into project planning and statewide highway corridor planning. other committee on ISTEA information management has been at work within the Department. Basic responsibilities of this committee include: (1 ) To determine the type information each of the ISTEA management systems require. (2) To determine particulars of the common data elements and analytical tasks that cut across two or more of the systems. (3) To determine if current efforts to address common and unique data needs are proceeding satisfactorily, and if not, what modifications should be made. (4) To determine methodologies that are available for managing data, and if these are not satisfactory, recommend changes and determine the anticipated cost. (5) To address the resources, time schedules, and requirements needed to meet deadlines required by ISTEA. In April, 1993, the State Highway Administrator established a State-MPO Congestion Management Task Force to assist in the development of the Congestion Management System for the State. There were a number of important items identified for this Task Force to accomplish." Quoted from beginning of remarks in conference proceedings. North Carolina. 3-191. The Status of the Nation's Highways, Bridges, and Transit: Conditions and Performance. Federal Highway Administration. 1993, Publication No. FHWA-PL-93-01 7. 3-192. Study Design for California Intermodal Transportation Management System. Booze, Allen Hamilton. Jun 9 1993. Califomia. 3-193. A Summary of the Transportation Programs and Provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Federal Highway Administration. (Washington, DC). 1992. To achieve the goals of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAM), State and local officials must first understand the requirements for transportation plans, programs, and projects. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has prepared this brochure to explain in detail Title I of the CAM, and selected parts of Title 11. Technical terms are highlighted and defined throughout the brochure and, for easy reference, the terms are again defined in the glossary. The contents are organized as follows: Message from the Federal Highway Administrator (T.D. Larson); Overview; Title I Transportation Provisions for Attainment and Maintenance of the locational Ambiet Air Quality Standards ~ Transportation Provisions for Ozone, Carbon Monoxide, and Small Particulate Matter Nonattainment Areas, Conformity, Transportation Planning Procedures, and Sanctions; Title 11- Transportation Provisions for Mobile Source Emissions -- Vehicle Emissions Standards, Fuel Requirements, and Clean-Fuel and Vehicle Requirements; Conclusion; List of Contacts; and Glossary. 3-194. Support for Implementing the Clean Air Act Amendments for 1990. Apogee Research, Inc., In Progress; NCHRP Project 20-7, Task 60. In recent times, nothing has had the potential to impact the provision of transportation facilities and services like the Clean Air Act Amendments (CARLA) of 1990. To meet the challenge presented by the CAAA and to do their share in providing clean air, State DOTs need a common, comprehensive, overall plan to guide their actions. State DOTs want to strike a responsible balance among environmental, economic, and mobility needs. To accomplish this, they need to develop partnerships between public and private sectors and involved public interest groups. It is imperative that State DOT forces and other concerned personnel be provided with the most current.information on activities to implement the CAM. Decision makers, such as transportation chief administrative officers (CAOs), governors, and state and federal lawmakers and regulators, also need better and more complete information about the CMA and the role of transportation in the implementation of the CAM. The objective of this effort is to help the State DOTs implement the CAM by providing complete and accurate information and developing educational packages to show the DOTs how to use this information constructively. In the short term, information dissemination is probably the most timely and cost-effective action that will help the State DOTS. Because most of this information will come from areas that are new to the states practical guidance is needed. This project was initiated by the MSHTO Standing Committee on Environment. An advisory panel has been formed and Apogee Research, Inc. is under contract to perform the task of collecting and disseminating the information and developing the education package for the State DOTS. The contractor has developed a-Clean Air Act Amendments, Transportation Handbook," which 107

OCR for page 67
Project Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 (1 ) contains information that will be helpful to state DOTs in responding to the CAM requirements. In addition educational packages have been developed that provide in depth assessments of the "New Environment" and "The Role of TCMS.". 3-195. Survey of Intermodal Roadway Pricing. Small, Ken (University of California-lrvine, Irvine, CA) and Tony Ibanez~omez (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA)., In Progress; NCHRP Project 20-5, Synthesis Topic 24-02. In view of the increased interest in international outreach, this synthesis will report on the state of the practice on congestion pricing and other user fees for road pricing, focusing on case studies from international experience that represent present and proposed applications that may be suitable to the U.S. The case studies will include the pricing objectives, implementation methods, equity and privacy issues, implementation costs, and intergovernmental coordination. A revised final draft is in preparation. 3-196. Sustainable Transportation: Developing A Framework for Policy Innovation. U.S. Department of Transportation, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. Cambridge, MA: Dec 14 1993. The 1992 Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit and the White House's 1993 formation of the President's Council on Sustainable Development has sparked interest in sustainable development. How can sustainable development be meaningfully linked to transportation? The purpose of this one day workshop is to enhance the Department of Transportation's understanding of the meaning, dimensions, and likely policy implications of 'sustainability.' Attendees from the research community, industry, government, and stakeholder groups in transportation with diverse perspectives and interests will be invited to participate in a series of sessions designed to identify and discuss issues that may underlie new policy directions. Each round table will be moderated by a different discussion leader who will open with remarl OCR for page 67
Section 3- Management Systems that would be useful to the region's transit, air quality and transportation planning agencies. One of the goals of the project was to share results, methodology and software with the Service Boards Illinois. 3-200. Transit Corridor Evaluation: A Guide From a Trade Logistics Management Perspective. Rebelo, J. and S. Thomas. Transportation Research Record 1-333. 1992, Pp 36~4. A methodology to evaluate transt corridors from a trade logistics management perspective is proposed. The approach is based on the authors' extensive experience with transit corridors throughout the world and, more recently, on a major effort recently completed by the World Bank to study transit corridors linking landlocked countries (LLCs) to the sea in West Africa. The need to quantify the overall benefits and costs to each of the countnes involved is suggested taking into account factors that, at first sight, may not seem directly related to the actual flow of goods but that are perceived by both shippers and freight forwarders to be major determinants in the choice of one corridor over another. Such exogenous factors include but are not limited to the trucking allocation agreements (Q.9., the one-third/two-thirds rule) between LLCs and transit countries, the maritime shipping cad es (e.g., the UNCTAD 40/40/20 Code of Conduct), customs procedures, freight forwarding fees, and storage policies. Proper quantification of net benefits or costs for each of the countries involved in the transit movement is probably the first step for serious negotiations of transit policies, customs, and trade facilitation procedures between the governments involved. The periodic estimation of those benefits and costs may also serve as a deterrent to unilateral decisions by customs and transport ministries to alter facilitation procedures without proper assessment of the economic and financial impact of those changes on their countries and their imposers or exporters. 3-201. Transportation Action Guide: Fair and Sustainable Mobility in the 1990's. Kennedy, R. and S. C. Stuart. (Environmental Defense Fund, New York, NY and Wisconsin's Environmental Decade, Madison, Wl). 1993. This booklet has been written as a guide to action for those seeking to create a sustainable and fair transportation future in their own locality and state. Chapter 1, Fast Facts: What about the Environment and Equal Access?, examines the following: motor vehicle emissions (tropospheric ozone, global warming, acid rain, haze, and carbon monoxide); how motor vehicles control the landscape (the demise of our Sties, habitat destruction, and urban runoffs; and the frequently unmentioned costs of driving. Chapter 2, The Clean Air Act (CAA): How Does It Work?, discusses the requirements of the CM and the 1990 CAA Amendments, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAMES), state air quality implementation plans (SlPs), transportation control measures, the five classes of ozone nonattainment, carbon monoxide nonattainment, PM-10 (particulate matter smaller than 10 micrometers), other clean air actions, CM conformity, and EPA sanctions. Chapter 3, ISTEA: NOW Funds, New Planning Requirements, looks at the funding opportunities and planning requirements in the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. Chapter 4, How to Fix It? Fair and Sustainable, Transportation Toolbox, examines the tools available for reducing vehicle miles traveled and trips, which include market-based transportation priding; light rail, heavy rail, and in between; bikes; buses; demand management; adjustments to motor vehicles to reduce their emissions and fuel consumption; improved fuels; and land use and urban design reforms that reduce the demand for private motor vehicle transportation. Chapter 5, Who Does What? City Councils, MPOs, Legislatures, explains how citizens tired of more business as usual can exercise countervailing pressures on local and state officials. Four Appendices are included: (A) Model Sustainable Planning Policy; (B) Clean Air and ISTEA Calendar; (C) Resources to Read and Bibliography; and (D) Resource Organizations to Call. Also included is a brief index that defines frequently used acronyms ad provides selected referenced text listings. 3-202. TransportationJAir Modeling and Conformity Strategy for the San Joaquin Valley Air Basin. Dowling, Richard; Robert reson; Barbara Austin, and Matthew Boyer. (Dowling Associates, Oakland, CA). Submitted to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. Califomia. 3-203. Transportation and Air Quality Planning Guidelines. Environmental Protection Agency. (Washington, DC). Jul 1992. The 1992 Transportation and Air Quality Planning Guidelines are provided in response to Section 1 08(e) of the Clean Air Act, as amended November 15, 1990. The document provides guidelines and guidance to State and local government officials to assist them in planning for transportation related emissions reductions that will contribute to the attainment and maintenance of the national ambient air quality standards (NMQS) for ozone, carbon monoxide and particulate matter. Chapter 1 provides an overview and summary of: the transportation related provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CMA), the air quality planning 109

OCR for page 67
Project Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 (1 ) process, the transportation planning process, and an overview of the document. Chapter 2 addresses many of the considerations involved in the planning process including: development of planning procedures, critical questions that need to be considered in the planning process, funding, and public participation. Chapter 3 provides examples of draft planning procedures proposed by two States and an example memorandum of understanding from the State of Michigan pursuant to Section 174 of the CAM. This memorandum assigns joint responsibilities between the State and the MPO for planning purposes. Appendix A includes a list of abbreviations used throughout the text. Appendix B includes an annotated list of references. Appendix C includes relevant sections of the CMA. Appendix D includes relevant sections of transportation laws. Appendix E includes an expanded summary of transportation related provisions of the CMA. Appendix F includes a summary table with the State submittals and actions required by the Act. Appendix G contains selected portions of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. 3-204. Transportation Conformity and Demand Management: Vital Strategies for Clean Air Attainment. Replogle, M. (Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, DC). Apr 30 1993. This report discusses key issues related to the effect of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 on transportation planning and policy in American metropolitan areas. The transportation conformity provisions of this Act were intended to ensure that transportation system investments and policies contribute to healthful air quality attainment. This will require significant changes in the strategies used by most states and local governments to reduce mobile source air pollution emissions. Strategies which speed up traffic by expanding cap amity may lead to short term improvements in air quality, but typically contribute to long term air quality degradation by stimulating suburban sprawl and increased automobile travel. A new strategic focus is needed to ensure long term attainment and maintenance of healthful air quality. This will emphasize travel demand management to limit growth in vehicle miles of travel and number of automobile trips, increasing accessibility rather than mobility, and enhancing the freedom of Americans to meet their daily activity needs without forced dependence on the automobile. This report discusses demand management strategies which can enable state and local governments to meet the requirements of the Clean Air Act and ensure both productive and more livable communities. By eliminating hidden subsidies to the automobile, putting motor vehicle use on a "pay-as-you-go" principle, and applying advanced information technologies such as "smart cards" for automated toll and parking fee collection, market forces can be reintroduced into transportation to ensure more efficient consumer choice and infrastructure financing. Similarly, growth of housing and employment can be steered into more efficient patterns by eliminating hidden subsidies which encourage sprawl and by state and regional coordination of growth management to meet air quality and other goals. Combinedwith efforts to create more pedestrian and bicycle friendly communities, strategic investment in rail and bus services on reserve rights~f-way to connect suburban centers to each other, removal of regulatory barriers which limit taxi and other paratransit services, and the substitution of communications and information systems for transportation where feasible, major reductions in travel demand and emissions can be achieved in coming years. Together these demand management strategies could produce reductions in mobile source emissions on the order of 2.5% or more a year between now and 2010, meeting CIoan Air Act conformity requirements. 3-205. Transportation Control Measure Analysis Tools. Crawford, Jason A. (Texas A & M University System, College Station, TX). Submitted to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. 3-206. Transportation Control Measure (TCM) Development Program for the Central Puget Sound Region: A Case Study for Regional Air Quality Planning. Roach, Nick (Puget Sound Regional Council, Seattle, WA); Cathy Stromborn (Parsons Brinckerhoff, Seattle, WA), and Bob Dulla (Sierra Research, Sacramento, CA). Submitted to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. Washington. 3-207. Transportation Demand Management: Case Studies of Medium-Sized Employers. Rutherford, G. Scott; Shauna 1. Badgett; John M. Ishimaru, and Stephanie MacLachlan. (University of Washington, Seattle, WA). Transportation Research Board 73rd Annual Meeting, Jan 9 1993, Washington, DC. In this report the authors explore the effects of various Transportation Demand Management (TOM) strategies on single occupancy vehicle (SOY) mode split. They describe 19 TOM programs implemented by medium-sized employers (100 to 450 employees) in several areas of the western United States. 3-208. Transportation Demand Management Planning in a Moderate Non-Attainment Area. 1 10

OCR for page 67
Section 3 - Management Systems Hosek, Jon. (Northeast Ohio Areawide Coordinating Agency, Cleveland, OH). Submitted to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 199S, Seattle, Washington. Ohio. 3-209. Transportation Demand Management: Promise or Panacea? Giuliano, Genevieve. Joumal of the Amencan Planning Association. Summer 1992, Vol. 58, No. 3. Traffic connection has become a major public policy issue in U.S. metropolitan areas. Several recent opinion surveys show that urban residents rank traffic at the top of the list of problems facing their community (Cewero 1988; Berry 1988; Public Policy Research Organization 1989), and congestion is a frequent topic in the popular press. Faced with inadequate financial resources for major transportation system improvements, and often with no consensus regarding the appropriate mix of new infrastructure, yet expected to "do something," public decision makers are increasingly turning toward strategies that attempt to control or reduce congestion by managing travel demand. Most recently, air quality concerns have intensified efforts to control travel demand, Transportation demand management (TDM) focuses on reducing peak period traffic by such strategies as shifting solo drivers to carpools or transit, shifting work schedules away from traditional peak hours, and allowing more employees to work at home. This paper uses case studies of three major TDM efforts to evaluate the technique's potential effectiveness in mitigating traffic congestion, or more precisely, in promoting behavioral change among peak period commuters that would lead to reduced traffic congestion. These case studies show that TDM has had only a small impact on traffic, but has had a significant impact on workers and their households. The case studies also demonstrate the conditions under which travel behavior is most likely to change and illustrate both the direct and indirect effects of these changes. Although TDM measures have become increasingly popular among decision makers, research is limited on the effectiveness of TDM as a congestion mitigation strategy and on the impact of these strategies on workers and their families. - 3-210. Transportation Management Systems: The Key to Efficiency. Kane, A. R. Pacific Rim Transtech Conference Proceedings. Volumes. American Socetyof Civil Engineers Third International Conference on Applications of Advanced Technologies in Transportation Engineering, Carr, W. P., Editor; Jul 25 1993, Seattle, Washington. Pp 50-56. The need is noted for the management of current transportation systems as cost effectively as possible, and invest efficiently in new capacity to satisfy long-run requirements. The federal mandate contained in the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act is discussed. The proposed regulations to address congestion, intermodal and public transit systems have certain common requirements: define system scope; develop performance measures; create data bases; identify and evaluate alternative strategies; develop an implementation mechanism; and provide feedbackJevaluation on implemented actions. Each of these areas is discussed in some detail in this paper. 3-211. Transportation Service Standard - -As if People MaUer. Ewing, R. Transporta~don Research Record 1400. 1993, Pp 10-17. The land use-transportation system is just that~a system--but it is seldom planned or managed as such. Instead, roads are viewed in isolation, and system performance is measured by levels of service on individual roadways. Operating speed becomes the essential element in transportation planning. The emphasis on speed encourages excess travel and contributes to urban sprawl, undermining Society's environmental, energy, and growth management goals. In Florida and Washington State, the search is on for better ways to measure transportation system performance. Adding impetus is the neotraditional planning movement, which has rejected speed as the ultimate measure of performance but only hinted at what might replace it. A paradigm shift in performance measurement--from speed to personal mobility, accessibility, livability, and sustainability--is argued. Alternative performance measures used around the United States are identified and assessed preGminanty. Growth management systems of the future will almost certainly rely on multiple measures, not discarding speed but giving weight to other considerations as well. Flonda. 3-212. Transportation System Management: A Hlghway-Tre-.sh Case Study. Sierakowski. M~ R. and J. T. Jarzab. Operadons R9VIQW. Fall 1gg2, 9~1), Pp 5-9. This artcie describes how highway facilities and transit operations may be combined in a cost-effective way. The Illinois State Toll Highway Authonty and Pace, the Suburban Bus Division of he Regional Transportation Authority, instituted a modest transportation system management project in cooperation with the Chicago Transit Authority and the Village of Rosemont. The project gives Pace express buses direct access from the Northwest Tollway to the CTA's River Road rapid transit station, reducing service running time and improvingservicereliabilty.Thearticledescribesthe projects background, and its benefits, and outlines the potential use of this project as a prototype for future

OCR for page 67
Pro ject Bibliography - NCHRP 8-32 (1 ) intermodal activities. Illinois. 3-213. Travel Time Needs of the Congestion Management System. Gallagher, James and Efi Pagitsas. (Central Transportation Planning Staff, Boston, MA). Presented to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. The passage of ISTEA and the Clean Air Act is leading to dramatic shifts in the way transportation planning is earned out in this country. The process must now be more inclusive, both of modes and of participants. This in turn is accelerating the process of change already taking place within the transportation profession. One are where the changes will be dramatic is in the collection and use of data. New types of data Gil be needed to respond to the multimodal questions new rising from the planning process. These new data needs w11 change the way we collect data, will impact the level of resources devoted to this effort, and will threaten the voracity of all subsequent actions if the data collected are not sufficiently robust. This paper is an attempt to investigate some of these issues within the context of the Massachusetts Congestion Management System (CMS). The Massachusetts CMS might more properly be considered a Mobility Management System, which has set its goal the satisfaction of the mobility needs of all Massachusetts citizens, rather than simply the reduction of congestion on highways and arterials. This required that a wide variety of demand management and land use strategies be considered for mobility enhancement, in addition to traditional roadway and transit options. Travel time measured in a variety of forms, has been identified as a variable which has the ability to express many of these mobility goals of the Massachusetts CMS. Perhaps not coincidentally, a wealth of travel time data has been collected in the Boston metropolitan area in the past year. A comprehensive survey of the travel and delay has been carried out using floating car techniques in the spring and fall of 1994. Eastern Massachusetts in the summer of 1993 was also one of the three sites nationwide where the automatic matching of videotaped license plates was tested as a means of collecting travel time data - a large sample of travel time information is available here for a few corndors. finally, data on spot speed is collected annually as part of the HPMS program. This available data will be used to answer a variety of questions. Can the average values and small sample sizes of the traditional travel time studies provide useful information for identifying congestion problems and successful solutions? In particular, are these results sensitive enough to detect differences in solutions where the improvements might be 5 MPH or less? If data rich but expensive techniques such as license plate matching are needed, are there solutions to reduce the cost? Can spot speed information answer the same questions as travel times? Are improved travel demand models calibrated to these variables able to provide needed forecasts? And how important are seasonal, daily, and hourly variations in travel time for answering policy questions? Our preliminary investigation of these questions is presented in this paper. The answers found will, we hope, provide some guidance on the best practices to follow in travel time datacollection, and of the confidence we can have in the use of travel time as a predictor of CMS strategies impacts. Massachusetts. 3-214. Trends In Ambient Air Quality: How Clean in the Air? Shiftan, Yoram and John Suhrbier. (Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Cambridge, MA). Submitted to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 171995, Seattle, Washington. 3-215. Urban Transportation: Reducing Vehicle Emissions with Transportation Control Measures. General Accounting Office. (Washington, DC). Aug 1993. In this report, the General Accounting Office (GAO) (1) reviews evidence on the effectiveness of transportation control measures (TCMs) in reducing pollution and (2) assesses the prospects for implementing TCMs in areas that have not attained federal air qual ty standards for ozone and carbon monoxide (CO). To meet these objectives, among other things, GAO conducted a nationwide survey of 1 19 metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) in ozone and CO nonattainment areas. Briefly, GAO found the following: The traditional TCMs listed in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (COCA) are projected to reduce regionwide hydrocarbon and CO emissions from 0 to 5% of total emissions. A strong consensus was found among transportation planners that TCMs are complementary programs that will supplement improvements in emissions technology, cleaner fuel, and vehicle inspection and maintenance programs. TCMs will play a growing role in transportation planning. The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) and CAM contain funding and enforcement provisions that will encourage states to emphasize TCMs in the future. 56% of the surveyed MPOs stated that TCMs would receive strong emphasis in their transportation programs in the next 5 years (1993-98~. Only 8% reported that TCMs had received strong emphasis in their programs during the last 5 years (1987-92~. 3-216. Using a Data Model in Systems Development. Smith, Kelly L. (CASEware Technology, Ogden, LIT). ~2

OCR for page 67
Section 3 - Management Systems integrating Transportation Management Systems into Transportation Planning and Operations National Conference Proceedings, Nov 7 1993, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. One of the best methods of managing complex environments, is by utilizing the concepts of modeling. The use of modeling has been successfully applied in the manufacturing industry through the use of Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM). CAD/CAM is used to develop graphical representation of target products. This same concept is directly applicable to Information Systems through Data Modeling with the use of Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools. This presentation will address how a Data Model reflects the business rules and constraints in a manner that can be easily and permanently maintained. An overview of how (CASE) tools are used to enhance overall quality and productivity through the utilization of models will be discussed. Mr. Smith will explain how Data Modeling can streamline the process of developing or purchasing software. He will demonstrate how Data Modeling can achieve consistency in systems development and integration for future software projects. 3-217. Using Influence Diagrams in Multiattribute Utility Analysis - Improving Effectiveness through Improving Communication. Merkhofer, MIlQY W. (Applied Decision Analysis, Inc., Menlo Park, CA). Influence Diagrams for Decision Analysis, Inference and Prediction, May 9 t911, Engineering Systems Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, CA. 3-218. 'Way to Go" TMP - Northeast Ohio. Sabath, Timothy D. and Bryan T. Groden. (Northeast Ohio Areawide Coordinating Agency). Submitted to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 17 1995, Seattle, Washington. Ohio. 3-219. What Has Happened to Carpooling: Trends in North Carolina, 1980 to 1990. Hartgen, D. T. and K. C. Bullard. Transportation Research Record. 1993, Pp 50-59. County-level trends in mode to work, particularly carpooling, for all of North Carolina's counties from 1980 to 1 990 are explored. Using 1990 census information, statistics are computed on the extent and relative levels of carpooling. These data are related to changes in demographics, geography, and accessibility. It was found that as a share of work travel, and in absolute numbers, carpooling has declined precipitously in the vast majority of North Carolina's 100 counties in the last 10 years. Overall, carpooling dropped by 122,608 workers--more than 32%--whereas totalcommutingincreased24.4/O. Of all the counties, only one registered a slight increase in carpooling during the decade. Carpooling was found to be highest--more than 25/O--in counties that are rural and isolated but within long~istance commutes of major metropolitan areas, including areas outside of the state. Carpooling was found to be lowest in major metropolitan counties and their immediate surrounding suburban counties. Per capita income levels and average travel time were found to be the highest correlates of carpooling: carpooling was found to have declined most rapidly in first-tier suburban counties that have increased greatly in accessibility and in per capita income in the last decade. Declines in carpooling have shown up as single-occupant automobile drivers rather than in public transit or other modes. It is concluded that present programs to encourage carpooling are misdirected, focusing on urban and suburban markets where carpooling is relatively low and ignoring longer~istance rural isolated marketswhere carpooling is much higher. A restructuring of carpooling programs to better fit the underlying needs of carpoolers, which are driven not by commuting costs but by long~istance job economics, is recommended. North Carolina. 3-220. What We're Learning in Developing and Implementing Our Congestion and Intermodal Management Systems. Altenstadter, Jim. (Anzona Department of Transportation, Tucson, AZ). Submitted to Transportation Planning Methods Applications Conference, Apr 171995, Seattle, Washington. ~3

OCR for page 67