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CHAPTER 6. DEVELOPMENT OF IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL Introduction Although He ideas and me~odolo~es behind Be prototype QA program were fairly well documented during Me various phases of development, the documented information was far from being We instructional guide intended for use by agencies interested in developing and implementing He QA program. Thus, a separate task was necessary in order to fully present He QA program and describe step-by-step how an agency can develop, install, and administer the program, given He agency's unique management structure and style. This chapter discusses He development of He principal product of He NCHRP Project 1~12, He prototype QA program Implementation Manual, which exists as a stand-alone instructional document. The first part of this chapter discusses He purpose and scope of the Implementation Manual. This is followed by a section briefly describing He Manuals development, along win details about its content and organization. The final section of this chapter discusses He anticipated receptiveness to He Manual by the maintenance community, as weD as He expected Imp act of He Manual on current maintenance practices. Purpose and Scope of Manual The Implementation Manual was developed to serve as an instructional guide for highway agencies Interested in developing, implementing, and operating a maintenance QA program. Included In He document are discussions concerTung He fundamental requirements and step-by-step instructions for establishing a QA program, along wad ~nfonnation on ways of determining if the program is having a positive unp act on the long-term performance of highway features. Overview of Manual and Its Development Work on He Implementation Manual was initiated In June 1996, following substantial progress made In the development of He prototype QA program. Though many of the details of the prototype QA program had been drafted at that time, considerable effort was required to reorganize and expand the written material into an easy-to-read, user- manual format. As the results of He Investigations into tracking QA output-long-term performance relationships became largely available, detailed descriptions of the two methodologies believed to be most adaptable by highway agencies were prepared and inserted ~ he Manual. ~7
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The Implementation Manual was developed within Me framework of state-of-the-art quality management concepts and on We foundation of effective and practical quality assessment mesons inherent in the QA programs of selected transportation agencies. The document was designed to be used by all types of highway maintenance agencies, from small local government agencies to large State agencies. Although quite comprehensive, it was written to be easily understandable by maintenance practitioners, Hereby diminishing the need for oversight or assistance in He implementation process by outside parties experienced in the formal methodology. The Implementation Manual consists of two volumes. Volume I is an Executive Summary Hat provides top-level management win a general overview of the prototype QA program and a brief summary of the requirements, benefits, and obstacles Hat can be expected from its implementation and use. Volume ~ is a detailed User's Guide Hat agency coordination staff can use to unplement a customized version of He prototype once an agency has decided to pursue quality management. The User's Guide is He principal document for developing and unplementing He prototype program. Presented in it are a series of 23 well-defined steps, each consisting of a statement of what is intended to be accomplished as a result of completing He step, a clear concise description of how He step is to be completed, and an illustrative example, where appropriate and possible. The User's Guide consists of SLY chapters, including an introductory chapter. Chapter 2 discusses the various resources required for an agency interested In establishing He QA program. Chapter 3 describes He steps for developing a customized LOS rating system designed to assess maintenance quality. Chapter 4 details how an agency-approved LOS rating system is forTnally applied In the field and how a continuous quality updating cycle is achieved. Chapter 5 addresses He many institutional barriers Hat can be expected to be encountered during the establishment of the QA program. Lastly, chapter 6 provides a brief summary of the QA program and the positive effects it can have on highway maintenance programs. Three appendices and a glossary are included way the User's Guide. Appendix A describes how He QA program can be applied to He maintenance areas of snow and ice control and bridge maintenance. Appendix B discusses He potential for use of data from various management information systems In He QA program. Appendix C provides illustrations of how He relationship between QA program outputs and long- term performance of highway elements can be monitored. Finally, to give readers magnum comprehension of the QA program, a glossary is included that contains a list of definitions for key terms used throughout the document. Interpretation, Appraisal, and Applications For a transportation agency to use the Implementation Manual, it must have a basic understanding of maintenance management, pavement management, highway physical 118
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features inventory, work reporting and accounting practices, and quality management principles. Each transportation agency that implements a QA program must have a strong commitment from top management win a sincere desire to provide the necessary resources (personnel, training, materials, and equipment) to install and operate the QA program. The implementing transportation agency must also desire to have a clear understanding of its existing highway conditions and be willing to allow highway users to provide meaningful input and their expectanons of acceptable highway conditions. Once a highway agency has implemented the maintenance QA program, it can expect the program to provide information that will enable the agency to bring about a more uniform quality of performance. This information) coupled win clearer documentation of Me agency's funding needs to provide We desired LOS uniformly throughout its highway system, can be a powerful decision-making tool for managers. The success of any maintenance QA program will depend on bow short-term and long-term results. A OA Program must have the capability of providing both of these . . - ~ v ~ In a timely manner, while providing mid- and top-level managers with the outcomes of Heir decisions. Depending on the time frame selected for periodic surveying of field conditions, managers can generally determine if Heir decisions are having He desired results in a timely manner. It should also be noted Hat "all information is positive, even if it shows negative results." Managers must understand that occasional mistakes In their judgment may occur, and admitting to this possibility will be a major step In correcting unneeded or unwanted results. The QA program must also convince highway workers of its value by identifying not only what LOS needs to be provided, but by also identifying when that level has been reached In their area of responsibility. Similarly, the highway users must also see that their expectations are being met and that a uniformity of conditions throughout the highway system is being provided. By developing a timely manner of showing the results that are actually being achieved, managers, field workers, and the highway users can determine if He trend is in He right direction; He right direction being movement toward He desired, or target, T-OS. Part of He "balancing act" required of He unplementing agency is He identification of work activities Hat need more or less funding and the demonstration that, once funding needs have been identified and the necessary resources provided, progress has been made toward reaching the target LOS. The QA program outlined In He Implementation Manual should enable an implementing agency to produce a much-improved and well-balanced maintenance LOS of its highway facilities. Great satisfaction can be had by an agency that can: · Identify a target LOS. Predict and obtain He funding level necessary to produce the target LOS. Provide the correct blend of resources within work units necessary to achieve the target LOS. ~9
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· Establish a method of reporting Mat shows if or when unifor~nitr on We highway system Is being achieved. · Identify Me skills necessary for agency employees to provided Me desired LOS, and provide Hem win Hose skins. These benefit and more win be available to any agency win He desire to provide ib; customers win a stable and uniform LOS. Perhaps He entire process and its chances for success can best be stated by a quote from MacLean (1993) in his publication, Documenting Quality for ISO 9000 and Other Industry Standards, "If you can't measure it, you can't unprove upon it. If you don't measure it, you won't even try to improve upon it." The QA program, developed under He NC~P 14~12 project and detailed in He Implementation Manual, describes a combination of tried-and-true quality practices, augmented by sound quality management pro pies and statistical applications. Although variations will exist in highway agency philosophies, structures, and styles, He QA program has been cast into a framework of required and optional components, Hereby giving agencies flexibility in program development and Implementation. 120 ~- ,
Representative terms from entire chapter: