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REFERENCES Advisory Committee on X-ray and Radium Protection. 1941. Safe Handling of Radioactive Luminous Compounds. In: National Bureau of Standards Handbook 27. Washington, DC: National Bureau of Standards. Ahmed JU. 1992. Regulatory approach toward controlling exposure to radon in dwellings. Radiation Protection Dosimetry 45~1/4~:745-750. Alter HW, Oswald RA. 1987. Nationwide distribution of indoor radon measurements: a preliminary data base. Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 37:227-231. Anonymous. 1995. New rules could bring ceramics industry under LLW standards. Nuclear Waste News 15~44~:435. Baes CF, Marland G. 1989. Evaluation of Cleanup Levels for Remedial Action at CERCLA Sites Based on a Review of EPA Records of Decision. ORNL- 6479. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Bair WJ, Sinclair WK. 1992. Response to Drs. Puskin and Nelson note. Health Physics 63~5~:590. Barretto PMC, Clark RB, Adams JAS. 1975. Physical characteristics of radon- 222 emanation from rocks, soils, and minerals: its relation to temperature and alpha dose. In: Adams JAS, Lowder WM, Gesell TF teds.), The Natural Radiation Environment II, August 7-11 1972, Houston, TX. C0NF-720805- P1. Washington, DC: Energy Research and Development Administration. pp. 731-740. Baxter MS. 1996. Technologically enhanced radioactivity: an overview. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 32(1 -2~:3- 17. Beck HL. 1966. Environmental gamma radiation from deposited fission products, 1960-1964. Health Physics 12:313-322. 249

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250 GUIDELINES FOR EXPOSURE TO TENORM Beck HL. 1975. The physics of environmental radiation fields. In: Adams JAS, Lowder WM, Gesell TF (eds.), The Natural Radiation Environment II. CONF-720805-P1. Washington, DC: Energy Research and Development Administration. pp. 101-133. Beck HL. 1980. Exposure Rate Conversion Factors for Radionuclides Deposited on the Ground. EML-378. New York: Department of Energy. Bernhardt DE, Owen DH, Rogers VC. 1996. Assessments of NORM in pipe from oil and gas production. In: Mossman KL, Thiemann KB (eds.), NORM/NARM: Regulation and Risk Assessment, Proceedings of the 29th Midyear Topical Meeting of the Health Physics Society. McLean, VA: Health Physics Society. pp. 133 - 138. Bliss JD. 1978. Radioactivity in Selected Mineral Extraction Industries: A Literature Review. Technical Note ORP/LV-79-1. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency. Blot WJ, Xu ZY, Boice JD, Zhao DZ, Stone BJ, Sun J. 1990. Indoor radon and lung cancer in China. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 82~12~:1025- 1030. Boothe OF, Stewart-Smith D, Wagstaff D, Dibblee M. 1980. The radiological aspects of zircon sand use. Health Physics 38~3~:393-398. Boyle RW. 1982. Geochemical Prospecting for Thorium and Uranium Deposits. New York, NY: Elsevier. Breas GM, van der Vaart PI. 1997. Scrapmetals and NORM. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Radiological Problems with Natural Radioactivity in the Non-Nuclear Industry September 8-10 1997. Arhem, The Netherlands: KEMA. Section 6.5. Brown SL. 1992. Harmonizing chemical and radiation risk management. Environmental Science & Technology 26~12~:2336-2338. Cameron FX. 1996. The odyssey of the good ship NORM: the search for a regulatory safe harbor. In: Mossman KL, Thiemann KB (eds.), NORM/NARM: Regulation and Risk Assessment, Proceedings of the 29th Midyear Topical Meeting of the Health Physics Society. McLean, VA: Health Physics Society. pp. 13-18. Carter MW, Coundouris AN. 1993. Radiation protection in the mineral sands industry in New South Wales. Radiation Protection in Australia 11 :90-96. Chhabra AS. 1966. Radium-226 in food and man in Bombay and Kerala State (India). British Journal of Radiology 39~458~:141-146. Clarke RH. 1995. ICRP recommendations applicable to the mining and minerals processing industries and to natural sources. Health Physics 69~4~:454-460. Clarke RH. 1996. Control of exposure to natural radiation: an ICRP perspective. Environment International 22(Suppl. 14: S 105 -S 110.

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REFERENCES 251 Clay DR. 1991. Role of the Baseline Risk Assessment in Superfund Remedy Selection Decisions. Directive 9355.0-30. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. Cohen BL. 1986. A national survey of Rn-222 in U.S. homes and correlating factors. Health Physics 51~2~: 175-183. Cohen BL. 1989. Measured radon levels in U.S. homes. In: Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Annual Meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. NCRP Proceedings No. 10. Bethesda, MD: National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. pp. 170-181. Cohen BL. 1991. Variation of radon levels in U.S. homes correlated with house characteristics, location, and socioeconomic factors. Health Physics 60(5):631-642. Cohen BL, Kulwicki DR, Warner Jr KR, Grassi CL. 1984. Radon concentrations inside public and commercial buildings in the Pittsburgh area. Health Physics 47~34:399-405. Colgan PA, Gutierrez J. 1996. National approaches to controlling exposure to radon. Environment International 22(Suppl. D:S1083-S1092. Coll L. 1997. Chemical Decontamination of NORM Scales. Research Triangle Park, NC: CORPEX Technologies Inc. Cothern CR, Lappenbusch WL. 1984. Compliance data for the occurrence of radium and gross -particle activity in drinking water supplies in the United States. Health Physics 46~3~:503-510. CRCPD. (Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, Inc.~. 1978. Natural Radioactivity Contamination Problems: A Report of the Task Force. EPA 520/4-77-015. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency. CRCPD. (Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, Inch. 1997. Part N Regulation and Licensing of Technologically Enchanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) Draft. Frankfort, KY: Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (February). CRCPD (Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, Inc.~. 1998. Available at: http://www.crcpd.org/. Cross FT, Harley NH, Hotmann W. 1985. Heal effects and risks from 222Rn in drinking water. Health Physics 48~5~:649-670. Cullen TL, Paschoa AS. 1978. Radioactivity in certain products in Brazil. In: Moghissi AA, Parras P. Carter MW, Barkers RF (eds.), Radioactivity in Consumer Products. NUREG/CP-0001. Washington, DC: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. pp.376-379. Curtis SB, Dye DL, Sheldon WR. 1966. Hazard from highly ionizing radiation in space. Health Physics 12: 1069- 1075.

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252 GUIDELINES FOR EXPOSURE TO TENORM DHHS. (Department of Health and Human Services). 1989. Reducing the Health Consequences of Smoking: 25 years of Progress. A Report of the Surgeon General. 89-8411. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services. DOE. (Department of Energy). 1988. Radioactive Waste Management. DOE Order 5820.2A. Washington, DC: Department of Energy. DOE. (Department of Energy). 1990. Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. DOE Order 5400.5. Washington, DC: Depa~ll~ent of Energy. DOE. (Department of Energy). 1993a. 10 CFR Part 83~Radiation protection of the public and the environment. Proposed rule. Federal Register 58~56~: 16268-16322. DOE. (Department of Energy). 1993b. Generic Protocol for Th-230 Cleanup/Verification at UMTRA Project Sites. Albuquerque, NM: Department of Energy. DOE. (Department of Energy). 1996. Integrated Data Base Report 1995: U.S. Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste Inventories, Projections, and Characteristics. DOE/RW-0006, Rev. 12. Washington, DC: Department of Energy. DOE (Department of Energy). 1997. Reindustrialization, Reuse, and Recycling on FUSRAP Environmental Remediation Projects. Available at: http://www.fusrap.doe.gov/techpap/reindust.html. Dunning Jr DE, Leggett RW, Sullivan RE. 1984. An assessment of health risk from radiation exposures. Health Physics 46~15~:1035-1051. Dunning Jr DE, Leggett RW, Yalcintas MG. 1980. A Combined Methodology for Estimating Dose Rates and Health Effects from Exposure to Radioactive Pollutants. ORNL/TM-7105. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Durrance EM. 1986. Radioactivity in Geology: Principles and Applications. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons. EC. (European Communities). 1990. Commission recommendation of 21 February 1990 on the protection of the public against indoor exposure to radon. Official Journal of the European Communities L80:26-28. Eckerman KF, Leggett RW, Nelson CB, Puskin IS, Richardson ACB. 1998. Health Risks from Low-Level Environmental Exposure to Radionuclides, Federal Guidance Report No. 13, Part 1-Interim Version. EPA 402-R-97-014. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Environmental Protection Agency. Eckerman KF, Ryman JC. 1993. External Exposure to Radionuclides in Air, Water, and Soil, Federal Guidance Report No. 12. EPA 402-R-93-081. Washington, DC: Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Environmental Protection Agency.

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REFERENCES 253 Eckerman KF, Wolbarst AB, Richardson ACB. 1988. Limiting Values of Radionuclide Intake and Air Concentration and Dose Conversion Factors for Inhalation, Submersion, and Ingestion, Federal Guidance Report No. 11. EPA-520/1-88-020. Washington, DC: Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Environmental Protection Agency. Eisenbud M, Gesell T. 1997. Environmental Radioactivity. 4th edition. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. EPA. (Environmental Protection Agency). 1977. Proposed Guidance on Dose Limits for Persons Exposed to Transuranium Elements in the Natural Environment. EPA/520/4-77/016. Washington, DC: EnvironmentalProtection Agency. EPA. (Environmental Protection Agency). 1982. Final Environmental Impact Statement for Remedial Action Standards for Inactive Uranium Processing Sites (40 CFR 192~. EPA 520/4/82/013-1. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency. EPA. (Environmental Protection Agency). 1985. 40 CFR Part 191 Environmental standards for the management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel, high-level and transuranic radioactive wastes. Final Rule. Federal Register 50~182~:38066-38089. EPA. (Environmental Protection Agency). 1987a. Radiation protection guidance to federal agencies for occupational exposure. Federal Register 52~17~:2822- 2834. EPA. (Environmental Protection Agency). 1987b. Radon Reference Manual. EPA 520/1-87/20. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency. EPA. (Environmental Protection Agency). 1989a. 40 CFR Part 764- Environmental standards for management, storage, and land disposal of naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive waste. Draft proposed rule (April 6~. EPA. (Environmental Protection Agency). 1989b. Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed NESHAPs for Radionuclides. 520/1-89-005. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency. EPA. (Environmental Protection Agency). 1989c. Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part A). Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund. EPA/540/1- 89/002. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency. EPA. (Environmental Protection Agency). 1989d. 40 CFR Part 61 National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants; radionuclides. Final rule. Federal Register 54~240~:51654-51715. EPA. (Environmental Protection Agency). 1990. Suggested Guidelines for the Disposal of Drinking Water Treatment Wastes Containing Naturally Occurring Radionuclides (Draft). Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Drinking Water.

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254 GUIDELINES FOR EXPOSURE TO TENORM EPA. (Environmental Protection Agency). 1991a. 40 CFR Parts 141, 142- National primary drinking water regulations; radionuclides, Proposed rule. Federal Register 56~138~:33050-33127. EPA. (Environmental Protection Agency). l991b. Protecting the Nation's Ground Water: EPA's Strategy for the 1990s. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency. EPA. (Environmental Protection Agency). 1992a. Manual of Protective Action Guides and Protective Actions for Nuclear Incidents. EPA 400-R-92-001. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency. EPA. (Environmental Protection Agency). 1992b. National Residential Radon Survey. EPA 402-R-92-011. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency. EPA. (Environmental Protection Agency). 1992c. Technical Support Document for the 1992 Citizens Guide to Radon. EPA 400-R-92-011. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Radiation and Indoor Air. EPA. (Environmental Protection Agency). 1992d. 40 CFR Part 61 National emissions standards for hazardous air pollutants; national emissions standards for radon emissions from phosphogypsum stacks. Final rule. Federal Register 57(107):23305-23320. EPA. (Environmental Protection Agency). 1993a. Basis for the soil cleanup criteria in 40 CFR Part 192, Memorandum from Oge, M. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (June 10). EPA. (Environmental Protection Agency). 1993b. Diffuse NORM Wastes: Waste Characterization and Preliminary Risk Assessment. RAE-9232/1-2, Draft report. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency. EPA. (Environmental Protection Agency). 1994a. 40 CFR Part 193- Environmental radiation protection standards for the management, storage and disposal of low-level radioactive waste. Draft proposed rule. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency (November 30~. EPA. (Environmental Protection Agency). 1994b. 40 CFR Part 19~ Environmental Protection Agency radiation site cleanup regulation. Draft proposed rule. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency (May 11~. EPA. (Environmental Protection Agency). 1994c. Estimating Radiogenic Cancer Risks. EPA 402-R-93-076. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency. EPA. (Environmental Protection Agency). 1994d. Federal radiation protection guidance for exposure of the general public, Proposed recommendations. Federal Register 59~246~:66414-66428.

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REFERENCES 255 EPA. (Environmental Protection Agency). 1994e. Suggested Guidelines for Disposal of Drinking Water Treatment Wastes Containing Radioactivity. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water. EPA. (Environmental Protection Agency). 1995. 40 CFR Part 192- Groundwater standards for remedial actions at inactive uranium processing sites, Final rule. Federal Register 60~7~:2854-2871. EPA. (Environmental Protection Agency). 1997. 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142- Withdrawal of proposed national primary drinking water regulations for radon-222. Federal Register 62~15~:42221-42222. EPA and DHHS. (Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Health and Human Services). 1986. A Citizen's Guide to Radon. OPA-86-004. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency. EPA and DHHS. (Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Health and Human Services). 1994. A Citizen's Guide to Radon. EPA ANR-4 64, DHHS 402-K92-001. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. EPA-SAB. (Environmental Protection Agency-Science Advisory Board). 1992. Commentary on Harmonizing Chemical and Radiation Risk Reduction Strategies. EPA-SAB-RAC-COM-92-007. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency. Euratom. 1996. Council Directive 96/29/Euratom of 13 May 1996. Official Journal of the European Communities L159:39. Faure G. 1986. Principles of Isotope Geology. 2n~ edition. New York: Wiley. Fisenne IM. 1993. Initial study of Pb-210 in indoor air. Health Physics 64(4):423-425. Fisenne IM, Keller HW. 1970. Radium-226 in the diet of two U.S. cities. HASL-224. New York: Atomic Energy Commission. Fisenne IM, Keller HW, Harley NH. 1981. Worldwide measurement of 226Ra in human bone: estimate of skeletal alpha dose. Health Physics 40~2~: 163-171. Fowler WA. 1967. Nuclear Astrophysics. Philadelphia, PA: American Philosophical Society. FRC. (Federal Radiation Council). 1960. Radiation protection guidance for federal agencies. Federal Register 25~97~:4402-4403. FRC. (Federal Radiation Council). 1961. Radiation protection guidance for federal agencies. Federal Register 26~185~:9057-9058. GAO. (Government Accounting Office). 1994. Nuclear Health and Safety: Concensus on Acceptable Radiation Risk to the Public is Lacking. GAO/RCED-94-190. Washington, DC: Government Accounting Office. Gesell TF. 1975. Occupational radiation exposure due to 222Rn in natural gas and natural gas products. Health Physics 29:681-687. Gesell TF. 1983. Background atmospheric 222Rn concentrations outdoors and indoors: a review. Health Physics 45~2~:289-302.

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256 GUIDELINES FOR EXPOSURE TO TENORM Gesell TF, Adams JAS. 1975. Geothermal power plants: environmental impact. Science 189~4199~:328. Gesell TF, Prichard HM. 1975. The technologically enhanced natural radiation environment. Health Physics 28:361-366. Gilkeson RH, Perry EC, Cowart JB, Holtzman RB. 1984. Isotope Studies of the Natural Sources of Radium in Groundwater in Illinois. UILU-WRC-84-187. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois. Gold S. Barkhau HW, Shleien B. Kahn B. 1964. Measurement of naturally occurring radionuclides in air. In: Adams JAS, Lowder WM (eds.), The Natural Radiation Environment. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. pp. 369-382. Guimond RJ. 1978. The radiological aspects of fertilizer utilization. In: Moghissi AA, Paras P. Carter MW Barker RF teds.), Radioactivity in Consumer Products. NUREG/CP0003. Washington, DC: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. pp. 380-393. Hahn O. 1936. Applied Radiochemistry. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Harada K, Bumett WC, LaRock PA. 1989. Polonium in Florida groundwater and its possible relationship to the sulfur cycle and bacteria. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 5 3 ~ 1 ): 1 43 - 1 5 0. Harley NH. 1996. Radon: over- or under-regulated? In: Mossman KL, Thiemann KB (eds.), NORM/NARM: Regulation and Risk Assessment, Proceedings of the 29th Midyear Topical Meeting of the Health Physics Society. McLean, VA: Health Physics Society. pp. 39-45. Heaton B. Lambley J. 1995. TENORM in oil, gas and mineral mining. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 46~6/7~:577-581. Hess CT, Michel J. Horton TR, Prichard HM, Coniglio WA. 1985. The occurrence of radioactivity in public water supplies in the United States. Health Physics 48~5~:553-586. Hess CT, Norton SA, Brutsaert WF, Lowry JF, Weiffenbach CV, Casparius RE, Coombs KG, Brandow JE. 1981. Investigation of 222Rn, 226Ra, and U in Air and Groundwaters of Maine. B017-ME. University of Maine at Orono: Land and Water Resources Center. Horton TR. 1985. Nationwide Occurrence of Radon and Other Natural Radioactivity in Public Water Supplies. EPA 520/5-85-008. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency. HPS. (Health Physics Society). 1992. Position Paper on Radiation Dose Limits for the General Public. McLean, VA: Health Physics Society. HPS. (Health Physics Society). 1993. Radiation standards for site cleanup and restoration. Health Physics Society Newsletter 21~6~:7-10.

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REFERENCES 257 Hull CD, Burnett WC. 1996.238U decay-series nuclides in fluids within a Florida phosphogypsum storage stack. In: Mossman KL, Thiemann KB (eds.), NORM/NARM: Regulation and Risk Assessment, Proceedings of the 29th Midyear Topical Meeting of the Health Physics Society. McLean, VA: Health Physics Society. pp. 111- 120. Hultqvist B. 1956. Studies on naturally occuring ionizing radiation. Kgl. Sv. Vetenskapsakade Handl. 4(Suppl). IAEA. (International Atomic Energy Agency). 1982. Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency. IAEA. (International Atomic Energy Agency). 1988. Principles for the Exemption of Radiation Sources and Practices from Regulatory Control. Safety Series No. 89. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency. IAEA. (International Atomic Energy Agency). 1990. The Environmental Behaviour of Radium. Technical Report Series No. 310. Vienna, Austna: International Atomic Energy Agency. IAEA. (International Atomic Energy Agency). 1991. Airborne Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Surveying. Technical Report Series No. 323. Vienna: IAEA. IAEA. (International Atomic Energy Agency). 1992. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Plants and Animals at Levels Implied by Current Radiation Protection Standards. Technical Report Series No. 332. Vienna, Austria: L\EA. IAEA. (International Atomic Energy Agency). 1994. Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Temperate Environments. Technical Report Series No. 364. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency. IAEA. (International Atomic Energy Agency). 1995. The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management. Safety Series No. 111-F. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency. IAEA. (International Atomic Energy Agency). 1996a. International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. Safety Series No. 115-F. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency. IAEA. (International Atomic Energy Agency). 1996b. Modelling of Radionuclide Interception and Loss Processess in Vegetation and of Transfer in Semi-Natural Ecosystems, Second Report of VAMP Terrestrial Working Group. IAEA-TECDOC-857. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency. IARC. (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 1988. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Vol. 43: Man-made Mineral Fibres and Radon. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer.

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258 GUIDELINES FOR EXPOSURE TO TENORM Ibrahim SA, Wrenn ME, Singh NP, Cohen N. Saccomano G. 1983. Thorium concentrations in human tissues from two U.S. populations. Health Physics 44(Suppl. 1~:213-220. ICRP. (International Commission on Radiological Protection). 1977. Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP Publication 26, Annals of the ICRP 1~3~. Oxford: Pergamon Press. ICRP. (International Commission on Radiological Protection). 1979. Limits for Intakes of Radionuclides by Workers. ICRP Publication 30, Part 1, Annals of the ICRP 2~3/4~. Oxford: Pergamon Press. ICRP. (International Commission on Radiological Protection). 1981. Limits for Inhalation of Radon Daughters by Workers. ICRP Publication 32, Annals of the ICRP 6~1~. Oxford: Pergamon Press. ICRP. (International Commission on Radiological Protection). 1984. Principles for Limiting Exposure of the Public to Natural Sources of Radiation. ICRP Publication 39, Annals of the ICRP 14~1~. Oxford: Pergamon Press. ICRP. (International Commission on Radiological Protection). 1986. Radiation Protection of Workers in Mines. ICRP Publication 47, Annals of the ICRP 16~1~. Oxford: Pergamon Press. ICRP. (International Commission on Radiological Protection). 1987a. Data for Use in Protection Against External Radiation. ICRP Publication 51, Annals of the ICRP 17~2/3~. Oxford: Pergamon Press. ICRP. (International Commission on Radiological Protection). 1987b. Lung Cancer Risk from Indoor Exposures to Radon Daughters. ICRP Publication 50, Annals of the ICRP 17~1~. Oxford: Pergamon Press. ICRP. (International Commission on Radiological Protection). 1989a. Age- Dependent Doses to Members of the Public from Intake of Radionuclides, Part. 1. ICRP Publication 56, Annals of the ICRP 20~2~. Oxford: Pergamon Press. ICRP. (International Commission on Radiological Protection). 1989b. Optimization and Decision-Making in Radiological Protection. ICRP Publication 55, Annals of the ICRP 20~1~. Oxford: Pergamon Press. ICRP. (International Commission on Radiological Protection). 1991. 1990 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP Publication 60, Annals of the ICRP 21~1-3~. Oxford: Pergamon Press. ICRP. (International Commission on Radiological Protection). 1993a. Age- Dependent Doses to Members of the Public from Intake of Radionuclides: Part 2, Ingestion Dose Coefficients. ICRP Publication 67, Annals of the ICRP 23~3/4~. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

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REFERENCES 259 ICRP. (International Commission on Radiological Protection). 1993b. Protection Against Radon-222 at Home and at Work. ICRP Publication 65, Annals of the ICRP 23~2~. Oxford: Pergamon Press. ICRP. (International Commission on Radiological Protection). 1994. Human Respiratory Tract Model for Radiological Protection. ICRP Publication 66, Annals of the ICRP 24~1/3~. Oxford: Pergamon Press. ICRP. (International Commission on Radiological Protection). 1995. Age- Dependent Doses to Members of the Public from Intake of Radionuclides: Part. 3, Ingestion Dose Coefficients. ICRP Publication 69, Annals of the ICRP 23~3/4~. Oxford: Pergamon Press. ICRP. (International Commission on Radiological Protection). 1996. Age- Dependent Doses to Members of the Public from Intake of Radionuclides: Part4, Inhalation Dose Coefficients. ICRP Publication71, Annals of the ICRP 25~3/4~. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Janssens A. 1992. CEC radon control policy recommendations. Radiation Protection Dosimetry 45~1/4~:759-761. Janssens A, Markkanen M. 1997. Provisions on natural radiation in the new basic safety standards directive. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Radiological Problems with Natural Radioactivity in the Non- Nuclear Industry, September 8-10, 1997. Arnhem, The Netherlands: KENYA. Section 1.1. Jones MW, Dron EM. 1992. Domestic radon reduction strategy in the United Kingdom. Radiation Protection Dosimetry 45~1/4~:763-766. Kauranen P. Miettinen JK. 1969. Po-210 and Pb-210 in the arctic food chain and the natural radiation exposure of Lapps. Health Physics 16:287-296. Klemic G. 1996. Environmental radiation monitoring in the context of regulations on dose limits to the public. In: Proceedings of 1996 Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association, April 14-19, 1996. Vienna, Austria: Austrian Association for Radiation Protection. pp. 321-328. Kocher DC. 1988. Review of radiation protection and environmental radiation standards for the public. Nuclear Safety 29~4~:463-475. Kocher DC. 1989. Relationship between kidney burden and radiation dose from chronic ingestion of U: implications for radiation standards for the public. Health Physics 57~1~:9-15. Kocher DC, Hoffman FO. 1991. Regulating environmental carcinogens: where do we draw the line? Environmental Science & Technology 25~12~:1986- 1989. Kocher DC, Hoffman FO. 1992. Reply to Weisburger regarding 'regulating environmental carcinogens.' Environmental Science & Technology 26~5~:845- 846.

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260 GUIDELINES FOR EXPOSURE TO TENORM Kocher DC, O'Donnell FR. 1987. Considerations on a De Minimis Dose and Disposal of Exempt Concentrations on Radioactive Wastes. ORNL/TM- 10388. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Kolb W. Wojik M. 1985. Enhanced radioactivity due to natural oil and gas production and related radiological problems. Science of the Total Environment 45:77-84. Kraemer TF, Curwick PB. 1991. Radium isotopes in the lower Mississippi River. Journal of Geophysical Research 96(C2~:2797-2806. Lancee P. Eylander JGR, Hartog FA, Jonkers G. 1997. Review on E&P NORM volume reduction techniques and waste disposal routes. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Radiological Problems with Natural Radioactivity in the Non-nuclear Industry, September 8-10, 1997. Arnhem, The Netherlands: KEMA. Section 6.2. Landa ER. 1980. Isolation of Uranium Mill Tailings and Their Component Radionuclides from the Biosphere Some Earth Science Perspectives. Geological Survey Circular 814. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey. Landa ER. 1982. Leaching of radionuclides from uranium ore and mill tailings. Uranium 1:53-64. Landa ER. 1984. Geochemical and radiological characterization of soils from former radium processing sites. Health Physics 46~2~:385-394. Landa ER. 1987. Radium-226 contents and Rn emanation coefficients of particle-size fraction of alkaline, acid and mixed U mill tailings. Health Physics 52~3~:303-310. Landa ER, Reid DF. 1983. Sorption of 226Ra from oil-production brine by sediments and soils. Environmental Geology 5~1~: 1-8. Landa ER, Stieff LR, Germani MS, Tanner AB, Evans JR. 1994. Intense alpha- particle emitting crystallites in uranium mill wastes. Nuclear Geophysics 8~5~:443-454. Langroo MK, Wise KN, Duggleby JC, Kotler LH. 1991. A nationwide survey of Rn-222 and gamma radiation levels in Australian homes. Health Physics 61~6~:753-761. Lawrence EP, Wanty RB, Nyberg P. 1992. Contribution of Rn-222 in domestic water supplies to Rn-222 in indoor air in Colorado homes. Health Physics 62~2~: 171-177. Lee DW, Kocher DC, Wang JC. 1996. Operating limit evaluation for disposal of uranium enrichment plant wastes. In: Mossman KL, Thiemann KB (eds.), NORM/NARM: Regulation and Risk Assessment, Proceedings of the 29th Midyear Topical Meeting of the Health Physics Society. McLean, VA: Health Physics Society. pp. 91-98. Lee DW, Wang JC, Kocher DC. 1995. Operating Limit Study for the Proposed Solid Waste Landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. ORNL/TM-13008. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

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