Page 127

INDEX

A

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, 78, 86, Plate XIV

Aerosol-borne toxins, 2, 11, 60, 67

Air pollution, see Global warming

Aircraft, weather forecasting, 24, 25

Algae, 18, 30, 32

seafood, toxins in, 6, 7, 15, 18, 60-66

toxins, cost-effective detection, 6, 7, 70

toxins, general, 6, 7, 15, 17, 18, 27, 59-70

see also Harmful algal blooms; Plankton

Amnesic shellfish poisoning, 11, 60, 61, 65-66

Animal modes, 3-4, 11, 60, 71, 72, 74-75, 81-82, 83-95

Anoxia, 2

see also Dissolved oxygen levels

Antibiotics, 6, 50, 74, 81, 87

Atmospheric processes, see Climate; Weather

B

Bacteria, general, 3, 10, 44-45, 46, 50, 78

antibiotics, 6, 50, 74, 81, 87

coliform bacteria, 6, 46-48, 49, 57

vibrios, 3, 10, 27, 44, 45, 46, 50, 51-52, 57

see also specific and bacterial diseases

Bioassays, 48, 50, 57, 72, 74, 77, 80, 82, 94

Biodiversity, 71-95

pharmaceuticals and, 6-7, 11

Bioluminescence, 11, 79-80

Biomedical sciences, 1, 6-7, 9, 15, 43-70, 83-95

biodiversity and, 6-7, 11, 71-95

bioluminescence, 11, 79-80

biotechnology, general, 48, 72

see also Pharmaceuticals

fluorescence, 11, 46, 48, 79, 80, Plate XIV

fungi, 46, 74, 78

marine organisms as models, 3-4, 11, 60, 71, 72, 74-75, 81-82, 83-95

see Cellular biology;Diseases and disorders; Health services; Immunology; Neurobiology

Brevetoxins, 63, 64, 67, 68, 71

Bryostatin, 76

C

Calcium, 60, 79-80, 88, 89, 94

Caliciviruses, 10, 50

Cancer drugs, 3, 7, 9, 74, 75-76, 78, 81

Cancer models, 85, 94-95

Cellular biology, 11, Plate XIV

calcium, 60, 79-80, 88, 89, 94, Plate XVI

marine organisms as models, 4, 7, 79-80, 83-95

pharmaceuticals, 7, Plate X, Plate XI

see also Cancer drugs; Immunology; Neurobiology



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Page 127 INDEX A Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, 78, 86, Plate XIV Aerosol-borne toxins, 2, 11, 60, 67 Air pollution, see Global warming Aircraft, weather forecasting, 24, 25 Algae, 18, 30, 32 seafood, toxins in, 6, 7, 15, 18, 60-66 toxins, cost-effective detection, 6, 7, 70 toxins, general, 6, 7, 15, 17, 18, 27, 59-70 see also Harmful algal blooms; Plankton Amnesic shellfish poisoning, 11, 60, 61, 65-66 Animal modes, 3-4, 11, 60, 71, 72, 74-75, 81-82, 83-95 Anoxia, 2 see also Dissolved oxygen levels Antibiotics, 6, 50, 74, 81, 87 Atmospheric processes, see Climate; Weather B Bacteria, general, 3, 10, 44-45, 46, 50, 78 antibiotics, 6, 50, 74, 81, 87 coliform bacteria, 6, 46-48, 49, 57 vibrios, 3, 10, 27, 44, 45, 46, 50, 51-52, 57 see also specific and bacterial diseases Bioassays, 48, 50, 57, 72, 74, 77, 80, 82, 94 Biodiversity, 71-95 pharmaceuticals and, 6-7, 11 Bioluminescence, 11, 79-80 Biomedical sciences, 1, 6-7, 9, 15, 43-70, 83-95 biodiversity and, 6-7, 11, 71-95 bioluminescence, 11, 79-80 biotechnology, general, 48, 72 see also Pharmaceuticals fluorescence, 11, 46, 48, 79, 80, Plate XIV fungi, 46, 74, 78 marine organisms as models, 3-4, 11, 60, 71, 72, 74-75, 81-82, 83-95 see Cellular biology;Diseases and disorders; Health services; Immunology; Neurobiology Brevetoxins, 63, 64, 67, 68, 71 Bryostatin, 76 C Calcium, 60, 79-80, 88, 89, 94 Caliciviruses, 10, 50 Cancer drugs, 3, 7, 9, 74, 75-76, 78, 81 Cancer models, 85, 94-95 Cellular biology, 11, Plate XIV calcium, 60, 79-80, 88, 89, 94, Plate XVI marine organisms as models, 4, 7, 79-80, 83-95 pharmaceuticals, 7, Plate X, Plate XI see also Cancer drugs; Immunology; Neurobiology

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Page 128 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 57 Cholera, 10,
21, 39, 44, 45, 52, 57 Ciguatera fish poisoning, 11, 61, 62, 63, 64 Climate, 1, 2, 4, 9-10, 11, 33-39 computer models, 36, 38, 40, 42 databases, 4-5 diseases and, 19, 33 drought, 3, 4, 18, 19, 33-34, 53, 54 ENSO, 2-3, 5, 9, 10, 15, 17-18, 33-34, 38, 39, 53, 54 monitoring programs, 31, 32, 39 North Atlantic Oscillation, 2-3, 33-34 see also Global warming Climate Variability and Predictability Programme, 41 Coastal areas, 18, 27-32 pathogens, 27, 44-51 salinity, 27-29, 30, 31, 32 wetlands, 27 see also Estuaries; Harmful algal blooms; Tropical storms; Tsunamis, storm surges and tidal waves Coliform bacteria, 6, 46-48, 49, 57 Computer applications climate models, 36, 38, 40, 42 databases, 4-5 global warming models, 36, 38 Internet, 41 Cooperative Research and Development Agreement, 76 Cost and cost-benefit issues algal toxin detection, 6, 7, 70 coliforms as indicator of fecal pollution, 57 health services, 22, 39 pharmaceuticals development, 7, 72, 77-78 storms, 5, 22, 24 Cross-disciplinary approaches, see Multidisciplinary approaches Cyanotoxins, 66 Cyclin, 87-88 Cyclones, see Tropical storms D Databases, 4-5, 41 chemical and biological data, 40 HEED, 37 Dengue fever, 3, 21-22, 39, 55 Developing countries, 2, 5 disasters, 10, 19, 20, 22-23, 26-27, 41 global warming, 39 Diarrheal diseases, 21, 60 cholera, 10, 21, 39, 44, 45, 52, 57 diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, 11, 60-62, 65 typhoid fever, 21 Diatoms, 65, 66, 75 Dinoflagellates, 9, 31, 32, 63, 64, 65, 67-68, 79 Discodermolide, 76, Plate XII Diseases and disorders, general, 5 amnesic shellfish poisoning, 11, 60, 61, 65-66 cholera, 10, 21, 39, 44, 45, 52, 57 dengue fever, 3, 21-22, 39, 55 diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, 11, 60-62, 65 ENSO, 3, 5, 15, 33-34, 36, 52-56 gastroenteritis, 45, 50, 63, 64, 65 malaria, 3, 15, 21-22, 39, 53-54 marine organisms as models, 3-4, 74-75, 81-82, 85, 94-95 neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, 60, 61, 63 paralytic shellfish poisoning, 11, 32, 60, 61, 62-63, 66, 71 parasitic, 46, 68 weather factors, 2, 5, 15, 19 waterborne diseases, 17, 21, 43-53, 57 see also Health services;Infectious diseases; Pharmaceuticals; Vector-borne diseases Dissolved oxygen levels, 30-31, 40 see also Anoxia; Hypoxia DNA, 6, 7, 80, 88 probes, 46, 48, 57, 72 Domoic acid, 65, 66 Drinking water, 3, 9, 21, 44 Drought, 4, 19, 33-34 ENSO/NAO, 3, 18, 34, 53, 54 Drugs, see Pharmaceuticals E Earthquakes, see Tsunamis, storm surges and tidal waves The Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms: A National Research Agenda (ECOHAB), 11, 69 Economic factors poor communities, 19 see also Cost and cost-benefit issues; Developing countries Education and training health service professionals, 19, 38, 41, 70 professional, 7, 19, 38, 41, 70, 81, 82, 95 public, 19 (Continued on next page)

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Page 129 (Continued from previous page) see also Learning and memory El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), 2-3, 5, 9, 10,
15, 17-18, 33-34, 37, 38, 39, 53, Plate VII diseases related to, 3, 5, 15, 33-34, 36, 52-56 drought, 3, 18, 34, 53, 54 ENSO experiment, 56 Estuaries, 18, 27-32 pathogens, 27, 31-32, 44, 45, 48-51 salinity, 27-29, 30, 31, 32 wetlands, 27 see also Harmful algal blooms F Federal Emergency Management Agency, 24 Federal government, see terms beginning "National" and "U.S." Fertilization, 80, 85, 87-88, Plate XVI Fishing, 26, 66 see also Food products Floods, 9 ENSO, 36 estuarine salinity, 31 mortality, 20 see also Tsunamis, storm surges and tidal waves Fluorescence, 11, 46, 48, 79, 80 Food products algal toxin contamination, 60-70 availability of, 3 infectious diseases transmitted by, 10-11, 31, 32, 43, 44, 46, 47-48, 50, 51-52, 60-66 marine pharmaceuticals, 80 Fungi, 46, 74, 78 G Gastroenteritis, 45, 50, 63, 64, 65 Global Ocean Observing System, 41 Global warming, 9-10, 34-38, 41 computer models, 36, 38 ENSO/NAO, 36 infectious diseases and, 36, 39, 51-53 salinity and, 38 sea level and, 36, 37-38 tropical storms, 3, 5, 15, 33-34, 36, 52-56 vector-borne diseases and, 53 Greenhouse effect, see Global warming Gulf of Maine, 32 Gulf of Mexico, 20, 25, 26, 32, 63, Plate IV Gulf Stream, 26, Plate VIII H Harmful algal blooms, 2, 3, 5-6, 9, 10-11, 15, 17, 30, 31, 32, 59-70, 71, 72, Plate VIII, Plate IX amnesic shellfish poisoning, 11, 60, 61, 65-66 ciguatera fish poisoning, 11, 61, 62, 63, 64 diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, 11, 60-62, 65 dinoflagellates, 9, 31, 32, 63, 64, 65, 67-68, 79 neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, 60, 61, 63 paralytic shellfish poisoning, 11, 32, 60, 61, 62-63, 66, 71 Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point program, 62 Health, Ecological and Dimensions of Global Change Program (HEED), 37 Health sciences, see Biomedical sciences Health services, 19, 41 cost factors, 22, 39 databases, 5 developing countries, 91, 21, 22-23, 39, 41 Pan American Health Organization, 41, 42, 55, 56 professional training, 19, 38, 41, 70 tropical storms, response, 9, 19, 21, 38-39 World Health Organization, 22, 41, 42, 55, 56, 57 Hepatitis, 10, 44, 50 Herpes, 75 Housing, 19 Human immunodeficiency virus, see Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome Hurricane Bonnie, Plate III Hurricane Gilbert, 22 Hurricane Mitch, 20, 41 Hurricane Opal, 24-26, Plate IV Hurricanes, see Tropical storms Hypoxia, 31, 32 see also Dissolved oxygen levels I Immunoglobulin, 48, 87

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Page 130 Immunology, 11, 50, 74-75,
76, 77, 79 antibiotics, 6, 50, 74, 81, 87 inflammations, 11, 73, 74, 77, 78, 79, 81, Plate XIII marine organisms as models, 84, 85, 86-87 Infectious diseases, 1, 2, 3, 11, 43-58 drug discovery, 7, 81 food products transmitting, 10-11, 31, 32, 43, 44, 46, 47-48, 50, 51-52, 60-66 global warming and, 36, 39, 51-53 recreational exposure to pathogens, 2, 43, 45, 46, 47, 51, 66 weather and, 10, 19, 20, 21, 39 Inflammation, 11, 73, 74, 77, 78, 79, 81, Plate XIII Insects, see Mosquitos Interdisciplinary approaches, see Multidisciplinary approaches International Decade of Natural Disaster Reduction, 41 International Year of the Ocean, 1 Internet, 41 L Land and resource management, 19, 27, 39 see also Vulnerability Learning and memory, 4, 65, 92-93 London Dumping Treaty, 49 M Malaria, 3, 15, 21-22, 39, 53-54 Marine Biotoxins and Harmful Algae: A National Plan, 11 Marine mammals, 50, 59, 62, 71, 84 Medical science, see Biomedical sciences; Diseases and disorders; Pharmaceuticals Medical services, see Cellular biology; Health services; Molecular biology Memory, see Learning and memory Microbes, 3, 45, 46, 74, 76, 77, 78, 81, 87 Microbiology, general, 5, 7, 45, 57 Molecular biology, 3, 48, 57, 70, 79 algal toxin detection, 6 marine organisms as models, 4, 88-89, 93 probes, 46, 48, 57, 72, 79 see also DNA; RNA Monitoring programs climate and weather, 4-5, 31, 32, 39 harmful algal blooms, 60, 68 infectious diseases, 41-42, 57, 58 see also Sensor technology Monoclonal antibodies, 48, 57 Monsoons, 34, 53, 54 Mosquitos, 3, 15, 21-22, 54-55 Multidisciplinary approaches, 5, 7, 15, 37, 52, 57, 78, 81-82, 95 N National Cancer Institute, 75-76, 81 National Center for Research Resources, 95 National Institutes of Health, 75-76, 81, 95 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 25 National Shellfish Sanitation Program, 47-48 Natural Products National Cancer Drug Discovery Groups, 81 Neurobiology algal toxins, 11, 59-66, 68-69, 79 drug treatment, 7 learning and memory, 4, 65, 92-93 marine organisms as models, 4, 7, 11, 83-84, 85, 88-89, 91-94, 95 pharmaceuticals, 74 Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, 60, 61, 63 Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate, 88-89 North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), 2-3, 33-34 Nutrients, 10, 18, 32, 33 ENSO, 52-53 harmful algal blooms, 68 infectious diseases and, 49, 50, 51, 52-53, 57 pharmaceuticals, 77 sensors, 6, 40 O Ocean Dumping Act of 1988, 49 Office of Naval Research, 25 Osmotic processes, 89-91 P Pan American Health Organization, 41, 42, 55, 56 Paralytic shellfish poisoning, 11, 32, 60, 61, 62-63, 66, 71

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Page 131 Parasites, 46, 68 Pfiesteria, 9, 60, 67-68 Pharmaceuticals, 3, 6-7, 11, 72, 73-82 antibiotics, 6, 50, 74,
81, 87 anti-inflammatory agents, 73, 74, 77, 78, 79, 81 algal toxins, 7, 68-69 bioassays, 48, 50, 57, 72, 74, 77, 80, 82, 94 biodiversity and, 6-7, 11 cancer drugs, 3, 7, 9, 74, 75-76, 78, 81 cost factors, 7, 72, 77-78 Physical oceanography, general, 9, 12, Plate I baseline observations, 5, 40 databases, 4 estuaries, 27, 32 forecasting, 5, 17, 40, 41 harmful algal blooms, 32, 68 sea surface temperature, 10, 26, 33, 34, 35, 39, 52, 65-66 stratification processes, 18-19, 27-32 Plankton, 18, 27, 32, 44, 57, 75 cholera and, 10, 52 see also Harmful algal blooms Phytoplankton, 18, 27, 32, 44, 51, 52, 59, 65, 75 Pollution, 1(n.1), 3, 44, 51, 53 coastal areas and estuaries, 31, 32, 48-50 coliform bacteria, 6, 46-48, 49, 57 dissolved oxygen levels, 30-31, 40 drinking water, 3, 9, 21, 44 ship ballast and bilge, 2, 10, 43, 49, 62 see also Harmful algal blooms Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 50 Polymerase chain reaction, 48, 80 Polyunsaturated fatty acids, 80 Professional societies, 5, 58 R Rain, 4, 20 drought, 3, 4, 18, 19, 33-34, 53, 54 forecasts, 24, 25 health impacts, 2, 46-47, 49, 52, 53, 54, 55 monsoons, 34, 53, 54 Recreational exposure to pathogens, 2, 43, 45, 46, 47, 51, 66 Red tides, see Harmful algal blooms Rift Valley fever, 54-55 Rivers, see Estuaries RNA, 50, 80 S Salinity, 18, 19, 78 coastal areas and estuaries, 27-29, 30, 31, 32 global warming, 38 infectious disease transmission, 52 measurement technology, 40 osmoregulation, 89-90 tropical storms and, 21 Satellite technology, 5-6, 39-40, Plate III , Plate VIII storm prediction, 24 Saxitoxin, 62, 63, 68, 79 Sea level, 26, 27 global warming, 36, 37-38 Seafood, see Food products Sea surface temperature, 10, 26, 33, 34, 35, 39, 52, 65-66, Plate VI, Plate VIII Sea urchins, 44, 79-80, 84, 86, 87-89, Plate XV Sensor technology, 40, 39-40 aircraft-based, 24, 25 chemical and biological, 5-6, 40 satellites, 5-6, 24, 39-40 Sharks, 13, 87, 91 Ships and shipping, 43 cholera transmission, 10 pathogens in ballast and bilge, 2, 10, 43, 49, 62 Small Business Innovative Research, 81 Sponges, 75, 76, 79, Plate XI, Plate XII Squid, 5, 93-94, 95 Storm surges, see Tsunamis, storm surges and tidal waves Stratification processes, 18-19, 27-32 T Temperature factors, 3 drought, 33 sea surface temperature, 10, 26, 33, 34, 35, 39, 52, 65-66 storm forecasting, 25 stratification, 18-19, 27-31 see also El Niño/Southern Oscillation; Global warming;North Atlantic Oscillation Tidal processes, 2, 18, 26-32 (passim), 75 Tidal waves, see Tsunamis, storm surges and tidal waves TOPEX (The Ocean Topography Experiment), 39, Plate IV, Plate VII

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Page 132 Training, see Education and training Tropical storms, 9, 19-23 cost factors, 5, 22, 24 developing countries,
10, 19, 20, 22-23, 26-27, 41 diseases and, 19 forecasting, 5, 23-27, 38-39 global warming and, 3, 5, 15, 33-34, 36, 52-56 health services response, 9, 19, 21, 38-39 monsoons, 34, 53, 54 mortality and injury, 20, 22, 38-39 salinity and, 21 wind, 23, 24, 25, 26, 32 see also Floods; Tsunamis, storms surges and tidal waves Tsunamis, storm surges and tidal waves, 2, 19, 21, Plate II forecasting, 21, 23-24, 25 mortality, 20, 21, 26 sea level change, 37 storm surges described, 26 tsunamis described, 21 Typhoid fever, 21 U United Nations, 1 United States climatic changes and disease, 39 coastal/estuarine pathogens, 49, 50, 51-52, 62-63, 65, 67 harmful algal blooms, 68 marine biotechnology investment, 72 pharmaceuticals, 76, 77, 78, 81 seafood, 43, 50, 51-52, 62-63 tropical storms, 20, 23-24, 38 see also terms beginning "National" and "U.S." Upwelling, 4, 17, 18, 32 U.S. Agency for International Development, 42, 57 U.S. Air Force Reserve, 25 U.S. Department of Defense, 57 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, see National Institutes of Health U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 47 U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 62 U.S. Geological Survey, 68 U.S. Navy, 25 U.S. Weather Research Program, 26 V Vector-borne diseases, 3, 15, 17, 21-22, 53-57 dengue fever, 3, 21-22, 39, 55 global warming and, 53 malaria, 3, 15, 21-22, 39, 53-54 Rift Valley fever, 54-55 Vibrios, 3, 10, 27, 44, 45, 46, 50, 51-52, 57 Viruses, 10, 44, 45, 46, 50-51, 53, 54-55 caliciviruses, 10, 50 dengue fever, 3, 21-22, 39, 55 herpes, 75 HIV/AIDS, 78, 86 pharmaceuticals, 74 yellow fever, 3, 21-22, 55 see also Vector-borne diseases Vulnerability, 9, 19-27 (passim), 35 see also Land and resource management W Warm core rings, 26, Plate IV Waterborne diseases, 17, 21, 43-53, 57 see also specific diseases Water quality dissolved oxygen levels, 30-31, 40 drinking water, 3, 9, 21, 44 see also Harmful algal blooms;Pollution; Salinity Weather, 2, 18 diseases and, 19 forecasting, 5, 11, 17, 21, 24, 25 infectious diseases and, 10, 19, 20, 21, 39 see also Climate;Temperature factors; Tropical storms; Wind Wetlands, 27 see also Estuaries Wind ENSO, 33 jet-stream, 5, 25 tropical storms, 23, 24, 25, 26, 32 wind-driven currents, 2, 18, 31, 32 World Health Organization, 41, 42, 55, 56, 57 health defined, 22 World Weather Research Program, 26 Y Yellow fever, 3, 21-22, 55 PLATE SECTION Plate I image Plate I: Arteries of the ocean circulation carry warm water to the North Atlantic where it is cooled by the Arctic cold air masses. This cooling makes the water denser and it sinks to the bottom, forming a southward-moving water mass that flows around Antarctica, then filling the world ocean basins and gradually returning to the surface. Nutrients brought up to the sunlit surface layers can then support the growth of plankton (after Schmitz, 1996) Plate II image Plate II: Snapshot from a preliminary simulation of the 1998 New Guinea tsunami illustrating the concentrated surge as the wave hit the coastline (USGS, 1998). Plate III image Plate III: Satellite image of Hurricane Bonnie off the coast of Florida on August 24, 1998. Image taken by NASA/GSFC SeaWIFS satellite. Hurricanes are fueled by the warm tropical ocean, and are sensitive to ocean temperatures along their paths. Plate IV image Plate IV: Storm track of Hurricane Opal in the Gulf of Mexico showing the pressure drop as the storm passed over the Loop Current warm core ring (red, WCR). The atmospheric upper-level trough (blue) influenced the steering of the hurricane as it approached landfall. The diagram is based upon TOPEX altimetry data and post-storm AVHRR images. (Adapted from Marks and Shay, 1998: Shay et. al., 1998) Plate V image Plate V: Patients suffering from cholera in a Bangladesh hospital. Photo courtesy of D.J. Grimes. Plate VI image Plate VI: Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) data near the western coast of South America show the temperature started rising quickly in November 1997, and remained high throughout the spring of 1998. This chart was generated as part of an EPA funded project: ''Global Climate Change and Infectious Disease: Application of Remote Sensing in Cholera Prediction," involving R. Colwell, A. Huq, J. Patz, A. Gil, B. Sack, B. Lobitz, and B. Wood. SST data source: JPL Physical Oceanography DAAC AVHRR Multi-channel SST. Plate VII image Plate VII: While Plate VI showed the warm water persisting through the spring of 1998, the elevation of this water mass (Sea Surface Height. SSH) off the coast of Equador (4°S latitude) peaked in December 1997, true to its namesake. "El Niño." This chart was generated as part of an EPA funded project: "Global Climate Change and Infectious Disease: Application of Remote Sensing in Cholera Prediction," involving R. Colwell, A. Huq. J. Patz, A. Gil, B. Sack, B. Lobitz, and B. Wood. SSH data source: University of Texas TOPEX Sea Surface Anomalies. Plate VIII image Plate VIII: Reverse colored (warmest is deepest blue; coldest is red) sea surface temperature image that shows the strong shoreward intrusion of Gulf Stream water (darkest blue, 28 °C) into the nearshore regions of the North Carolina coast. The Gulf Stream and meanders of Gulf Stream water serve as a transport mechanism for Gymnodinium breve red tide cells onto the continental shelf in the U.S. South Atlantic Bight. Image from the NOAA-9 polar orbiting satellite (AVHRR advanced very high resolution radiometer) on October 31, 1987; image provided by Tom Leming, National Marine Fisheries Service (NMES), NSTI. MS. Plate IX image Plate IX: These maps depict the HAB outbreaks known before (top) and after (bottom) 1972. This is not meant to be an exhaustive compilation of all events, but rather an indication of major or recurrent HAB episodes. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning = NSP, paralytic shellfish poisoning = PSP, and amnesic shellfish poisoning = ASP (Anderson, 1995). Plate X image Plate X: In densely populated habitats, marine plants and animals produce chemicals to protect them from predation and overgrowth. Some of these bioactive chemicals have potential value as pharmaceuticals. Photo courtesy of William Fenical. Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Plate XI image Plate XI: Sponges are dominant components of many marine ecosystems and provide a source of unique chemicals with pharmaceutical potential. This bright orange sponge is called Teichaxinella morchella and was photographed in the Bahamas at a depth of 100 feet on a deep water reef. This species has several interesting bioactive compounds, one of which has antitumor activity. Photo by John K. Reed, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution. Plates XIIa-XIIc image Plate XIIa: The deep-water marine sponge. Discodermia dissoluta, from which the compound discodermolide is obtained. This sponge was collected at a depth of approximately 500 feet. Photo courtesy of Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Inc., ©1998. Plate XIIb: Untreated human cancer cells stained with fluorescently labeled anti-alphatubulin antibody. The individual, green hair-like structures are microtubules which form an organized meshwork or cellular skeleton (cytoskeleton) in cells. Microtubules also assist in the segregation of chromosomes during cell division. Photo courtesy of Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Inc., ©1998. Plate XIIc: Human cancer cells treated with discodermolide. The microtubule network has become reorganized due to the activity of discodermolide. This results in the formation of microtubule bundles, disruption of cell division, and death of the cancer cells. Photo courtesy of Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Inc., ©1998. Plate XIII image Plate XIII: Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae, a Caribbean gorgonian, is the source of potent anti-inflammatory compounds. Photo courtesy of William Fenical, Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Plate XIV image Plate XIV: Two mutants of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), derived from a jellyfish, are fused to HIV genes encoding a cytoplasmic protein (green) and a nuclear protein (blue). GFP can be linked to a variety of genes to monitor protein expression and subcellular localization (Stauber et al., 1998). Plate XV image Plate XV: Photo of the sea urchin Lytichinus pictus spawning. The female is inverted on top of the beaker and the plentiful orange eggs drop to the bottom. A spawning male appears to the side of the beaker—the white foam on the top of the urchin contains the sperm. Photo courtesy of Chris Patton, Hopkins Marine Station. Stanford University. Plate XVI image Plate XVI: Confocal microscope images taken at 5-second intervals of a fertilization-induced calcium wave in a Pisaster ochraceus starfish oocyte. The color spectrum indicates the relative concentration of calcium where blue-green represents low calcium and yellow-red represents high calcium. Photo provided courtesy of Stephen A. Stricker. Department of Biology, University of New Mexico.