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8.

How are the human consequences of climate variability shaped by the conjunctions and dynamics of climatic events and social and other nonclimatic factors (e.g., technological and economic change, the availability of insurance, the adequacy of emergency warning and response systems)? How do seasonal forecasts interact with other factors and types of information in ways that affect the value of forecasts?

9.

How are the effects of forecasts shaped by the coping systems available to affected groups and sectors? How might improved forecasts change coping mechanisms and how might changes in coping systems make climate forecasts more valuable?

10.

Which methods should be used to estimate the effects of climate variation and climate forecasts?

11.

How will the gains and losses from improved forecasts be distributed among those affected? To what extent might improved forecasting skill exacerbate socioeconomic inequalities among individuals, sectors, and countries? How might the distribution of gains and losses be affected by policies specially aimed at bringing the benefits of forecasts to marginalized and vulnerable groups?

12.

How adequate are existing data for addressing questions about the consequences of climate variability and the value and consequences of climate forecasts? To what extent are existing data sources under-exploited?



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