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--> 3 Leveraging Advances in Commercial Manufacturing Introduction Manufacturing technologies are advancing rapidly, and, by 2010, new technologies and practices will lead to even more dramatic improvements in quality and productivity. To meet the challenges described in Chapter 1 and develop the required defense capabilities described in Chapter 2, defense manufacturing must take advantage of technology advances being pioneered by the commercial sector in areas applicable to defense products. A growing trend among government and defense manufacturers is the adoption of commercial ''best practices." In addition, many companies have combined commercial and defense manufacturing processes and products to take advantage of economies of scale in facilities, resources, and organizational structure. This approach also provides opportunities for leveraging suppliers, material purchases, and systems. Many defense contractors are working to integrate their defense and commercial manufacturing operations, and this trend will continue. Commercial manufacturers have become increasingly important as sources of defense products. The increased emphasis on low-cost has led DOD to promote the use of COTS products and to investigate the possible manufacture of defense products on commercial production lines. Because commercial industry is much larger than the defense industry, it has a correspondingly stronger base for technology development and manufacturing advances. For example, the commercial electronics industry will provide most of the advances in technology and manufacturing for defense products (with the exception of some defense-unique products). The advantages of COTS hardware and software include much lower
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--> development costs, tested reliability and performance, and substantially shorter product cycles. Advances in Commercial Manufacturing To evaluate advances in commercial manufacturing and identify those with potential for meeting the needs of defense manufacturing, the committee reviewed forward-looking manufacturing studies, including Next Generation Manufacturing (NGM, 1997) and Visionary Manufacturing Challenges for 2020 (NRC, 1998). In addition, the committee reviewed information sources available on the World Wide Web (see Appendix B) and invited speakers to assess advances anticipated in manufacturing. The committee then identified the following areas of management and technology advances that defense manufacturing can expect to draw on: industry collaboration adaptive enterprises high-performance organizations life-cycle perspectives advanced manufacturing processing technology environmentally compatible manufacturing shared information environments These advances are interactive, rather than being independent of each other (i.e., shared information environments may support the goals of high-performance organizations and adaptive enterprises may promote industry collaboration). Each of these advances is composed of a number of elements, which may also be applicable to other areas. These elements are summarized in Table 3–1 and described below. Advanced Approaches to Manufacturing Accounting Activity-Based Accounting In activity-based, or process-based, accounting, costs are assigned to the actual activity or process in which they occur. In conventional systems, average costs are allocated per product. Total product costs are the same in both approaches, but, in the conventional system, it is impossible to assess cost drivers. The disadvantage of changing to activity-based accounting is the effort involved in revamping existing systems.
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--> TABLE 3-1 Commercial Manufacturing Advances and Elements Advance Elements Industry collaboration Electronic commerce Teaming among organizations Long-term supplier relationships Virtual enterprises Adaptive enterprises Agile enterprises Reduced lead time Reduced cycle time Activity-based accounting Lean enterprises Knowledge-based and learning enterprises High-performance organizations Virtual co-location of people High-performance work teams Cross-functional teams Life-cycle perspective Standardization of parts and reduction in number of parts Integrated product and process development Life-cycle design Cost as an independent variable accounting Advanced manufacturing technology Flexible assembly Soft tooling Single-piece fabrication Rapid prototyping Three-dimensional digital product models High-speed machining Simulation and modeling Predictive process control technologies Adaptive machine control Tool-less assembly Nanotechnology Biotechnology Embedded sensors Generative numerical control Flip chips Environmentally compatible manufacturing Cleaning systems Coating systems Material selection, storage, and disposal Shared information environment Data interchange standards Internet, intranets, and browser technology Intelligent agents Seamless data environment Telecommunications Distance learning
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--> Accounting with Cost as an Independent Variable When cost is considered as an independent variable (CAIV) in accounting, it can be treated as a fixed parameter, and performance and design criteria can be traded off to meet cost objectives. This cost accounting method can be used to improve design decisions. Advanced Approaches to Product Design Life-Cycle Design The life-cycle perspective takes into account the entire life cycle of a product; thus life-cycle design includes designing for all stages (initial development through disposal) and all aspects of a product's producibility, reliability, maintainability, and affordability. For example, life-cycle design can include "design for assembly," i.e., design of parts aimed at decreasing the time and cost required for product assembly. The life-cycle design process incorporates product disposal considerations by selecting materials that are recyclable or easily disposable. In some cases, materials decisions have to take into account environmental legislation, as is the case with the use of fluorocarbon refrigerants and radioactive components. The cost of virgin materials versus reclaimed materials can also be considered. Studies have shown that more than 80 percent of product costs are established during the design process. Life-cycle design can, therefore, have a major impact on total life-cycle cost, especially for long-lived products. Sophisticated cost analysis, such as CAIV, and design trade-off tools, as well as more open communication, linkages with supplier capabilities and costs, and interactive iterative dialogues with customers will be required. Integrated Product and Process Development Integrated product and process development (IPPD) emphasizes the timely collaboration of stakeholders, including customers and key suppliers, in a systematic development process. IPPD encompasses new business development, research and development, product and process development, transition to production, and continuous product improvement. IPPD is a standard framework and culture for operating a design-engineering, manufacturing, support enterprise that integrates the customer, sites, and suppliers. Products are designed for manufacturability, assembly, and support. A number of different approaches to IPPD can be taken, the success and appropriateness of which depend on the nature of the product, the culture of the organization, and the team members involved. IPPD can be used to incorporate life-cycle perspectives, make cost versus performance trade-offs, and run simulation models to evaluate design alternatives.
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--> Standardization and reducing the number of parts is a demonstrated approach to reducing costs in components and assemblies. Using commercially available components and standard parts wherever possible can reduce costs. Modular designs allow for more flexibility in technology upgrades and component replacements. In addition, organizations can apply standards to the processes involved in designing, producing, and supporting products, although they must also relinquish some creative freedom. Three-Dimensional Digital Product Models A three-dimensional digital model of a product fully describes the geometry of the product, materials to be used, the attributes of its parts, and the relationship between its parts. In other words, such a model includes all critical information regarding a product's physical dimensions. CAD packages, increasing computer power, and robust product data management systems have enabled this technology, which can manage, in a configuration-controlled environment, almost all descriptive data about a product and can be used to provide an electronic mockup (in place of a physical mock-up) during product development. The flow of data between the phases of product development must be seamless, thereby eliminating the revision or reloading of data with each new phase. Digital models must be able to automatically generate the preferred manufacturing plan or process. Product model data can be used to provide real-time manufacturing cost estimates. When electronic "prototypes" replace physical prototypes, the need for some physical testing to confirm the design and performance may be eliminated. Visualization, two-dimensional and three-dimensional representations of objects based on digital source data (e.g., an electronic mock-up of a product under development), is increasingly being used as an extension of CAD. Design data is normally viewed through the CAD platform and requires high-end graphics facilities to display midweight and heavyweight models. Group visualization sessions are used by product development teams to facilitate understanding by all stakeholders of the product being developed. Visualization facilities today are stationary and relatively expensive to build and outfit. Distributed visualization will be possible when two-dimensional and three-dimensional information becomes accessible through low-cost, standards-based, decentralized viewing devices. Visualization aids at job sites can show manufacturing sequences and assist with work operations, such as the assembly of complex items. Nongraphical data can be appended or incorporated into product visualizations to convey a richer understanding of the product. The in-process status of a complex assembly might be shown by using different colors for installed and uninstalled pieces.
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--> Simulation and Modeling Simulation-based design utilizes the product model data to simulate processes and events that will occur during the product life cycle. Simulation and/or modeling techniques can predict outcomes in product development, such as product performance, fabrication processes or equipment, software checkout, product testing, and product flow. By replication, these processes can be adapted as necessary before a commitment is made to a prototype or production mode. Techniques such as variation simulation analysis (VSA) and factory floor layout simulation can improve product performance. Assembly modeling can be used to complement simulations to determine if changing the order of steps in the assembly of a complex product can lead to labor savings and reduce variation. CAIV accounting can be facilitated by modeling to determine if design trade-offs will reduce costs or improve performance. Combining three-dimensional product modeling with simulation techniques can help determine the cost of alternative manufacturing processes. Rapid Prototyping The development of a physical product includes design, materials planning, process planning, and physical manufacturing. Rapid prototyping can reduce lead time by creating a physical likeness of a product directly from a three-dimensional model. Rapid prototyping of single detail parts or one-piece models of subassemblies is typically accomplished using stereo lithography, which provides exact physical likenesses of products fabricated from specialized polymers. The prototypes are accurate in physical dimensions and shape, but do not allow for testing of material properties of the production material. Work is being done on using prototypes to create molds for castings. Technically complex products could be built in quicker development cycles and at lower cost if soft tooling, three-dimensional digital product data, and generative numerical control were used. Prototyping of individual components by stereo lithography could be complimented by the fabrication of components from their actual production material through the use of emerging technologies, such as three-dimensional printing, which uses metallic particles deposited layer by layer and a binding process to fuse these layers to create a metallic prototype component. The development time of software products is being dramatically reduced by means of rapid prototyping tools that provide the look and feel of the end product in less time than conventional methods. Reusable software components, called "objects," are created and custom assembled to perform desired functions. Standards for objects and visual programming tools can support the rapid assembly of objects and other reusable components into prototypes or useful products that can then be used for proof of concept by the end user. Libraries are being developed for objects, specialized components are being created, and object library
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--> techniques are being improved so that software developers can readily find needed components. Advanced Approaches to Manufacturing Processes Generative Numerical Control Generative numerical control (GNC) is the automatic creation of numerically controlled programs for numerical control equipment as the designer creates the three-dimensional product data set. Automated numerical control is a stepping stone towards GNC and requires that parts be designed using removal volumes (i.e., removing sections of material to arrive at the finished part, similar to the way a machinist creates the part). Once removal volumes have been established, they can be used as subroutines for creating the numerical control program. GNC on the factory floor can be coupled with other knowledge bases to reduce flow times and configured to automatically generate the manufacturing plan or process concurrently from the three-dimensional data set. GNC will be able to generate the numerical control program to coordinate measuring machines for quality assurance. Cost figures can be tied to removal volumes, so that engineers have real-time cost visibility of parts as the design is being developed. Adaptive Machine Control Adaptive machine control is the ability, in real-time, to monitor a process insitu and automatically adjust the process to eliminate variations. Statistical process control uses data collected in real-time and charted by operators, but can only use measurable data. New sensors will be necessary to collect several process parameters that would alert the operator to process variations. For example, machine tool spindle speed and force can be measured, as well as cutter location, but real-time data on the actual amount of material being removed at the cutter tip cannot be measured. This measurement would tell whether the desired product dimensions were being generated and would allow immediate control feedback to prevent variations before they occur. This data could be collected with sensors, transducers, and softeners. Using sensors coupled with three-dimensional data sets, products could be inspected in real-time against dimensional properties. Predictive Process Control Technologies Predictive process controls can analyze and predict variations in a fabrication process, enabling the process configuration (e.g., process steps and equipment) with the least variation and a reasonable cost to be found. VSA is one example of predictive process control. In the automotive industry, key characteristics (the measurable qualities of a part) that directly affect customer form, fit, or
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--> function requirements are identified and VSA utilized to determine the process that will best deliver these key characteristics. VSA and other predictive process control methods could also be used on the factory floor to assist tool designers, process planners, and process engineers in implementing process changes or procedures to achieve real-time reductions in variations. These capabilities could allow a reduction in statistical process control data collection by ensuring that the process, not just the product, is robust. High-Speed Machining In high-speed machining (HSM), the cutting tool spindle operates at speeds of more than 30,000 rpm and feed rates of more than 200 inches per minute (508 cm/min). Conventional machining parameters are spindle speeds of less than 10,000 rpm and feed rates of less than 100 inches per minute (254 cm/min). HSM depends on the rapid removal of metal chips so that heat generated during the machining process is not transferred to the part being machined. Aluminum and other soft metals can be machined using HSM. Parts with extremely thin final cross-sectional thickness can be machined from billets, effectively replacing sheet metal fabrications. With hard metals, such as titanium, the material may weld itself to the cutting tool. In the future, equipment and cutting tools must be made more reliable; numerically controlled equipment with increased reliability and tolerance control will be important, as will cutting tool technologies that increase metal removal rates. Parts could be designed to take advantage of the reduced flow time and the use of single-piece fabrication with HSM. Flexible Tooling and Soft Tooling Flexible tooling is tooling that can be used to assemble more than one product and can thereby reduce nonrecurring costs by eliminating the cost of dedicated tooling. Soft tooling is tooling constructed from nontraditional materials (e.g., wood or foam), instead of the traditional materials used for hard tooling (e.g., metal). Soft tooling has advantages for rapid prototyping, where tooling must be built quickly and at low-cost. The disadvantages of using soft tooling include its inability to withstand autoclave processes and concerns about configuration control at high production volumes. Tool-less Assembly Tool-less assembly, or determinate assembly, is the joining of detail parts to form subassemblies or the joining of subassemblies to form final products without using tooling or locating fixtures. Tool-less assembly is accomplished by either predrilling or machining parts so that all parts are self-locating or by making a few critical locating points on one (primary) part and installing other parts
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--> relative to the primary part. In this scenario, a part can be thought of as a tool or locating fixture. Tool-less assembly becomes increasingly difficult as the size and number of parts increases, and variations in locating points caused by fluctuations in temperature can be a problem. Tool-less assembly can reduce nonrecurring costs for low-rate production. The assembly process can be created to meet the form, fit, and function requirements for each product. Embedded Sensors Embedded sensors are sensors placed in a product to monitor performance and to provide feedback on adjustments. For example, embedded sensors in helicopter blades can determine the strain and lift in the blade, information that is then used to optimize performance. Sensors can also warn of conditions that require maintenance or repair. Problems with fabricating embedded sensors will have to be overcome, and sensors must become more robust and able to withstand harsher environments. Data transmission from sensors must also be improved. With advances in nanotechnology, microdevices and micromachines could be manufactured that would further the development of embedded sensors. Flip Chips Flip chip technology (also called chip-on-board or direct-chip attachment) has the potential for electronic miniaturization, with up to 50 percent reductions in board area and 80 percent reductions in component weight over packaged devices, and increased reliability as a result of the elimination of one level of interconnection. Commercial applications include single-chip packaging, multi-chip packaging, and direct attachment to printed wiring boards. For use in advanced military applications, the thermal shock resistance, thermal cycling fatigue strength, temperature and humidity bias, and resistance to mechanical shock and vibration of flip chip technology will have to be established. Nanotechnology and Biotechnology Nanotechnology, which involves the precise control of materials architecture at the molecular or atomic level, has great potential for the development of manufacturing processes that can vary material composition throughout a structure. Nanofabrication methods include nanomachining (in the 0.1 to 100 nm range) and molecular manufacturing (NRC, 1998). This technology could be used to manufacture microdevices and to produce complex shapes. Biotechnology can precisely control molecular synthesis and assembly processes to produce a wide range of components from a limited number of constituent materials. Bioprocesses with potential manufacturing applications include: methods of coupling synthesis and self-assembly processes to produce oriented
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--> and functionally-graded structures; biological surfactant-based self-assembly processes that are effective in the 1 nm to 1,000 nm range; and biosynthetic path-ways to genetically engineered protein polymers (NRC, 1998). Environmentally Compatible Manufacturing Technologies Cleaning Systems Before a protective coating can be applied to a product, the surface of the product must be thoroughly cleaned. In the fabrication of electronics, several different surface layers must be cleaned to remove organic compounds that can affect adhesion. Contaminants, such as scale, must also be removed to reduce the risk of corrosion. In vapor degreasing, the most widely used method of cleaning, chlorinated fluorocarbons are heated and the vapor allowed to condense on the part being cleaned. This system is now being replaced, however, by systems that use cleaning solutions that are more environmentally compatible, but also more labor intensive. In airless degreasing systems, for example, parts are placed in a vacuum chamber and cleaned using freon vapor, which is then condensed and collected with limited exposure to the atmosphere. Ferrous materials and nonporous surfaces, such as castings, pose difficult challenges for these new cleaning systems. Cutting fluids used in fabrication processes are also being reconfigured so they will be easier to remove. Coatings Coatings are protective layers applied over parent materials to hinder corrosion or to protect them from exposure to high temperatures or other forms of energy. Coating processes include painting, chemical processing (e.g., anodizing), and the use of appliqués or stick-on coatings. Manufacturers have been shifting from the use of solvent-based paints to the use of water-based paints to decrease the environmental problems associated with application. In addition, controls are being put in place to trap the solids and volatile organic compounds generated during application of solvent-based paints. The use of paints containing chrome may soon be eliminated. Problems associated with environmentally compatible coatings include the fact that water-based paints must be applied in lower humidity environments. As a result, water-based paints can only be applied to naval aircraft on an aircraft carrier about 10 days per year. From an environmental perspective, appliqués are considered to be a move in the right direction, although concerns about their durability remain. When process application and durability issues have been addressed, appliqués are expected to be used on many products, although cost competitiveness may still be a problem.
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--> Materials Selection, Storage, and Disposal Product materials must meet customer requirements, such as titanium, which is being used in military fighters because it has a greater strength-to-weight ratio than aluminum. Composite materials and ceramics are also increasingly being used to meet customer specifications. However, the process of obtaining the raw materials may have adverse environmental impacts. In addition, materials currently being used may be increasingly restricted in the future by environmental regulations, and alternative materials may have to be developed. Although substantial efforts are being made to develop and use alternative materials, some manufacturing processes will continue to require hazardous materials. The most significant environmental concern for defense manufacturing is the storage and disposal of these hazardous materials. Storage and disposal sites are now licensed, and regulations are likely to become increasingly restrictive on storage and disposal facilities, which may be required to maintain special storage areas, provide safety training, and develop emergency management plans. These requirements will increase liability and insurance costs and encourage a just-in-time acquisition policy for hazardous materials. Advanced Approaches to Business Organization In the past 15 years, many business organizations have been reassessing their strengths and weaknesses and identifying ''core competencies." As a result, fundamental and lasting changes are being made in the nature of business relationships. Interorganizational Practices Teaming among Organizations. Teaming is an effective organizational approach to the collective pursuit of a shared objective because teams combine the contributions of many individuals to accomplish a single objective. In the defense shipbuilding industry, for example, dramatically reduced production rates for submarines prompted the Electric Boat Corporation to propose a teaming arrangement with its competitor, Newport News Shipbuilding, to reduce the overall costs of new attack submarines. When independent companies compete for a share of the market, the free flow of information between companies is discouraged. Teaming requires neutral or common processes and business objects that encourage the exchange of information between organizations. Like virtual enterprises, teams are created and dissolved rapidly in response to business opportunities. The security of information systems, intellectual property, competition sensitive business processes and practices, and risk sharing must be resolved for teaming to be successful.
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--> Distance Learning Learning involves the transfer of knowledge and the ability to use that knowledge. Knowledge transfer can occur through a variety of media, including written materials, electronic media, and personal interactions. The ability to use knowledge requires repetition and feedback, which can be facilitated by interaction with an expert or mentor. Interactive sessions between experts and students can be provided via the Internet. Virtual reality and simulation techniques may eventually also enhance the learning process. In addition, an expert could be brought to a location virtually where his or her expertise is needed, such as medical teams performing complex medical procedures. Leveraging Commercial Advances Although advances in the commercial sector can be leveraged to meet many aspects of the defense manufacturing challenges identified in Chapter 1, some required capabilities will have to be developed specifically by the defense community. Low-Cost Rapid Product Realization Opportunities Rapid (and flexible) product realization refers to the ability to undertake low-volume production at a reasonable cost, as well as the ability to build defense products on commercial lines, customize products, and reconfigure products. In the future, defense products will have to be developed and manufactured more rapidly and at lower cost. This goal can be achieved by reducing cycle times and nonrecurring costs. Drastic reductions in cycle time and nonrecurring costs can be expected as a result of the following manufacturing advances: New approaches to manufacturing accounting. Using activity-based accounting, cost drivers can be more easily assessed. Using CAIV, performance and design criteria can be traded off to meet cost objectives. These advances have the potential to streamline and reduce costs in product realization processes. New approaches to product design. IPPD can reduce cycle times by reducing the need for redesigns late in the product realization process. In addition, standardizing parts and reducing the number of parts can reduce the cost of components and assemblies, as well as the need for new components. Three-dimensional digital product models can also reduce cycle time and late redesigns by predicting problems before physical resources have been committed. Simulation and modeling can also reduce cycle
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--> times by revealing problems in processing before physical resources have been committed. With rapid prototyping, prototypes can be produced quickly from three-dimensional models. New approaches to manufacturing processes. GNC can be used to automatically generate the manufacturing plan or process concurrently with the three-dimensional data set so as to reduce flow time on the factory floor. Advances in soft tooling, flexible tooling, and tool-less assembly will enable low-rate production and the production of different products with minimal cost and reconfiguration time. The assembly process can be created to the form, fit, and function requirements of the product. New interorganizational practices. As industries shift to teaming among organizations, virtual enterprises, and long-term supplier relationships, they will have access to a large base of potential manufacturers and will be able to develop, design, and produce products at the facility best suited to the task. Both costs and cycle times for product realization will be reduced. The merging of commercial and defense production lines would facilitate the production of weapons systems on largely commercial production lines. New intra-organizational practices. As organizations shift to high-performance, lean, adaptive, and agile enterprises and knowledge-based and learning enterprises, functionally integrated teams will drastically reduce production cycle times and costs, as well as overall product realization times. As enterprises become more agile and adaptive, they will be able to reconfigure rapidly to meet the requirements of new products and, consequently, reduce cycle times and costs. In addition, reductions in cycle time and lot size available from adaptive organizations will provide significant tools for low-volume production. Gaps The only gaps to be filled are in adapting these advances to the manufacture of defense-unique products. Defense organizations will have to undertake development initiatives for the production of composites, low-volume production, surge production capacity and capability, remanufacturing of parts and assemblies, customization of weapons systems, and the rapid reconfiguration of production lines to handle multiple defense products. Joint service development of weapons systems and technology exchange among programs and services would be helpful for decreasing cycle times and costs.
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--> Expanded Design Capabilities Opportunities The design capabilities needed by defense manufacturing are: the design of products for multiservice use; designs that incorporate product life-cycle information; designs with extended-life in mind; designs for the maintainability of weapons systems; designs for technology insertion; open-architecture designs; designs for remanufacturing; designs for production by commercial processes; designs for the incorporation of COTS parts; designs for customization; and designs for reconfiguration. Advances in commercial manufacturing that could provide these capabilities are: New approaches to manufacturing design. Developments in simulation and modeling, including three-dimensional modeling, will enhance design capabilities by providing better representations of product performance as a function of design variables. Modeling and simulation of manufacturing processes and systems will facilitate the design of products for manufacturability. Significant advances are also anticipated in life-cycle design capabilities. New approaches to manufacturing accounting. The ability to design according to CAIV will also support this defense requirement. Gaps A number of design capabilities will not be achieved by advances in commercial manufacturing and will therefore require initiatives by the defense community. These include the integration of COTS into defense systems, multiservice functionality, extended-life weapons systems, improved maintainability, technology insertion, the customization, remanufacture, and reconfiguration of defense-unique products, and the use of commercial processes in defense manufacturing. Environmentally Compatible Manufacturing Defense manufacturing with low environmental impact, also called "green manufacturing," will be required to comply with increasing environmental constraints. In addition, depot and maintenance processes must have minimal environmental cost, and products must be designed using life-cycle analyses. The following advances have potential for meeting the needed capability of environmentally compatible manufacturing:
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--> Opportunities New approaches to information technology. The exchange of product and process data will provide a vehicle for capturing and identifying environmental data related to specific products and processes. New approaches to manufacturing design. Life-cycle design technology will provide a tool for analyzing the environmental impacts of products at all stages in their life cycles. Through trade-off analyses, products can then be designed to minimize their environmental effects. New approaches to manufacturing processes. Developments in this area will be useful for the defense requirement of reducing environmental impact. Advances in coating and cleaning systems will be particularly advantageous for improving depot operations. Advances in material selection, storage, and disposal will also improve many defense products and processes. Gaps Some defense capabilities will not be addressed commercially, such as defense-unique coatings. The development of pollution abatement for defense-unique materials and chemicals must be ongoing. Adaptation of Information Technologies Opportunities Defense manufacturing will need the capability to develop enabling technologies for specific applications, the capability to participate in the development of standards to ensure compatibility between defense and commercial systems, and the capability to develop product and process databases that incorporate design history, as well as worker rationale and know-how. New approaches to manufacturing processes. Improvements in the simulation of products and processes will generate information needed for defense databases and the rationale for particular designs or processes. New approaches to information technology. Standards for data interchanges and the exchange of product and process data will facilitate the use of information technologies for defense applications. New intra-organizational practices. In knowledge-based systems and organizations, rationale and know-how can be generated and captured for the design and manufacture of defense product and process databases.
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--> Gaps Government and defense contractors will have to invest in the development of simulation and modeling for defense products, in the development of cost models for all stages of product life cycles, in methods for ensuring data security,1 and in the development of interoperable 2 commercial and defense systems. Security of Product and Process Data Opportunities New approaches to information technology can support data security. Standards for data interchange, seamless product and process data flow, and the exchange of three-dimensional product models will make it easier to secure data. Gaps Although industry will develop systems for data security, they are not likely to meet the military's strict requirements, particularly for securing classified information. Therefore, security systems for defense product and process data will have to be developed, including explicit identification of suppliers. Access to Production Sources Opportunities Defense manufacturing will need guidelines for commercial industry on critical components and subsystems, identification of suppliers, strategies for maintaining alternative suppliers, and adjustments in domestic source requirements to take advantage of foreign sources. New approaches to manufacturing processes. Flexible processes will increase the number of manufacturers for a given part. Flexibility will be aided by rapid prototyping, three-dimensional product models, high-speed machining, improved simulation and modeling, production process controls, adaptive machine controls, and tool-less assembly, as well as flexible tooling and soft tooling. 1 "Data security" refers to the ability to protect military product specifications and other product information when these products are manufactured in locations outside of the well-defined U.S. defense industrial base. 2 "Interoperability" refers to the ability to exchange files and link software and hardware systems between defense and commercial industries.
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--> New approaches to intra-organizational practices. The principles of agile enterprises will enable organizations to rapidly reconfigure production lines for new products, thus increasing the number of alternative manufacturers for a given product. New approaches to interorganizational practices. As industry's rapid teaming and communication with other enterprises improve, the capability to acquire alternate sources rapidly will also improve. Gaps Advances in product and process transportability and enterprise and process flexibility will increase the number of potential manufacturers and provide a hedge against a loss of suppliers through normal attrition or because of a military conflict. However, if a unique capability makes transportability difficult, DOD will have to have systems in place to identify alternate suppliers. DOD must also be able to identify critical components and specify sources of secure production, which will necessitate the identification of suppliers. Use of Commercial Manufacturing Capacity Opportunities Defense manufacturing will need the capability to use commercial manufacturing capacity, including the use of and design for commercial processes, the incorporation of COTS parts and subsystems into defense products, the production of complete defense weapons systems on commercial lines, the reform of acquisition procedures to accommodate commercial practices, the monitoring of industry developments through technology road maps, the development of surge production capability, the avoidance of parts obsolescence, the qualification of commercial parts for military environments, and incentives for commercial industry to manufacture defense parts. Commercial manufacturing will have the ability to design some defense products for commercial production. The following advances will contribute to developing this capability: New approaches to manufacturing processes. All advances that increase flexibility for accommodating a wide range of products and configurations will facilitate the production of defense products on commercial lines, including rapid prototyping, improved simulation and modeling, tool-less assembly, and improved process control technologies. Increased process flexibility will also facilitate the development of surge production capacity and will enable more facilities to reconfigure production processes to accommodate the requirements of defense product. Flexible tooling and soft tooling can also enable the use of commercial manufacturing capacity.
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--> New approaches to information technology. Standards for data interchange will make it possible to exchange product and process data more efficiently and with greater freedom. Commercial standards will encourage defense agencies to submit their production requirements in commercially acceptable formats. The easy transfer of commercial process data to defense designers will help them accommodate commercial processes. Seamless access to product and process information will help. New approaches to manufacturing design. Comprehensive life-cycle design and design with CAIV will enable defense designers to trade-off costs of commercial processes and design products for manufacture using commercial processes. New intra-organizational practices. As enterprises become more agile, they will be able to respond better to variations in customer requirements and more easily accommodate the special requirements of defense products. Methods of manufacturing small lot sizes will also enable the production of defense products. Defense manufacturers will probably move toward consolidating defense and commercial lines to take advantage of economies of scale. Gaps DOD should remove nontechnical barriers to the use of commercial facilities, such as outmoded accounting practices and acquisition regulations. Some defense capabilities not addressed include: the qualification of commercial parts to be used in defense systems that must withstand harsh environments; the frequent obsolescence of commercial parts; and the maintenance of overall system reliability with commercial parts. Continued support of lean and agile initiatives for defense contractors will be necessary until commercial organizations can meet defense requirements. Product and process requirements that impede the production of defense products by multiple facilities will have to be reduced. Technology transfer from commercial sources should be encouraged and incentives for commercial industry to manufacture defense products should be strengthened. Sustainment of Weapons Systems Opportunities Weapons systems and other defense products will have to be longer lived than they have been in the past, as well as more fault-tolerant and more easily upgraded. They will require built-in diagnostic systems and more efficient techniques for routine maintenance. The capabilities needed by defense manufacturing include: life cycle analysis; extended life designs for weapons systems; designs for maintainability; designs for technology insertion; improved maintenance and
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--> depot processes; the development of remanufacturing processes; improved diagnostics; and product and process databases that include know-how. Relevant advances are listed below: New approaches to manufacturing processes. Advances that reduce assembly steps, the number of parts, and the number of interfaces (e.g., single-piece fabrication and high-speed machining) will produce weapons systems that are easier to sustain. Flexible assembly and forming processes will support the remanufacture of products. Embedded sensors will facilitate the development of improved diagnostic systems. Advances in manufacturing processes with low environmental impact will result in lower costs for depot operations and disposal of materials and products. New approaches in manufacturing design. Life-cycle design, the standardization of parts, and the reduction in the number of parts will simplify designs and facilitate easier maintenance and support. Cost trade-offs using CAIV accounting principles can facilitate the determination of life-cycle costs. New approaches to information technology. Seamless sources of product and process data and data exchange standards will support advances in product and process databases and remanufacturing capabilities, which will in turn support weapons system sustainment. Gaps Defense manufacturing capabilities that will not be met by the advances listed above include: extended-life designs for weapons systems; designs for maintainability; designs for technology insertion; more efficient maintenance and depot operations; the development of product and process databases; and improved diagnostics. DOD will have to support the development of methods for quantifying the ability of commercial parts to withstand harsh military environments. Defense manufacturing should be proactive in monitoring advances in commercial technology and planning for their incorporation. Recent industry road maps should be used as one source of information. DOD should also consider the management of the supply chain and establishing incentives for commercial manufacturers to produce defense parts. Although advances will be made in life-cycle analysis methods, DOD will have to develop the aspects of analysis and life-cycle models that are peculiar to weapons systems, including long-lived systems and systems that must operate in harsh environments. Summary Pressures are increasing on defense manufacturing to make use of commercial manufacturing advances, products, and production capacity. In addition, the
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--> commercial sector can provide a number of opportunities. Currently, DOD is actively pursuing the use of commercial production lines for the manufacture of defense products. The ManTech program has established several pilot projects to establish feasibility, and an Air Force pilot project has demonstrated production, on a commercial automotive manufacturing line, of digital electronic modules compatible with the F-22 Raptor fighter and the RAH-66 Comanche helicopter (Heberling et al., 1998). The use of COTS products for defense systems holds great promise but also raises concerns. First, a supplier could stop manufacturing a product if the commercial market for it becomes unprofitable. Commercial products tend to have much shorter lives than defense products and tend to be replaced with new technology much more often. In addition, it will be necessary to guard against situations in which manufacturers abandon a commercial product that has been designed into a defense system. To address this problem, design systems will have to be technology transparent and based on modular open architectures to permit new commercial components, technologies, and functions to be used to upgrade defense systems. The F-22 Raptor program is a case in point. Originally designed for existing components, millions of dollars were spent to redesign the system to accommodate new electronics components, even before the plane had entered production. Shortening the development and product realization cycle would also help avoid such problems. Second, the design limits for commercial applications may be exceeded in military use. The military environment can be harsher than the commercial product environment (e.g., high acceleration forces, vibration, and corrosive conditions). DOD will have to qualify commercial parts that are not specifically designed to withstand these environments and, if necessary, modify them to meet military needs or develop system designs that compensate for the limitations of commercial parts. The production of military parts on commercial production lines also raises concerns. Because system, subsystem, and component designs would have to be appropriate to modem commercial processes, defense manufacturers must keep abreast of advances in commercial processes, accommodate them in their designs, and pursue enabling technologies and practices that would facilitate the use of commercial production lines. Table 3-2 summarizes the defense manufacturing challenges that are supported by commercial advances.
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--> TABLE 3-2 Defense Manufacturing Challenges Supported by Commercial Advances Challenge Supporting Commercial Advances Elements Low-cost rapid product realization Industry collaboration High-performance organizations Adaptive enterprises Advanced manufacturing processing technology Activity-based accounting Cost-as-an-independent-variable accounting Integrated product and process design Three-dimensional digital product models Simulation and modeling Tool-less assembly Teaming among organizations Virtual enterprises Long-term supplier relationships Lean, adaptive, and agile enterprises Knowledge-based and learning enterprises Simulation and modeling Expanded design capabilities Life-cycle perspectives Advanced manufacturing processing technology Simulation and modeling Three-dimensional digital product models Life-cycle design Cost-as-an-independent-variable accounting Environmentally compatible manufacturing Shared information environments Life-cycle perspectives Environmentally compatible manufacturing Seamless data environment Life-cycle design Coating systems Cleaning systems Material selection, storage and disposal Adaptation of information technology Shared information environments Adaptive enterprises Advanced manufacturing processing technology Simulation and modeling Data interchange standards Seamless data environments Knowledge-based enterprises Simulation and modeling Security of product and process data Advanced manufacturing processing technology Data exchange standards Seamless data environment Three-dimensional product models
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--> Challenge Supporting Commercial Advances Elements Access to production sources Industry collaboration Shared information environments Adaptive enterprises Advanced manufacturing processing technology Rapid prototyping Three-dimensional product models High-speed machining Simulation and modeling Adaptive machine controls Tool-less assembly Agile enterprises Teaming among organizations Use of commercial manufacturing capacity Shared information environments Life-cycle perspectives Adaptive enterprises Advanced manufacturing processing technology Rapid prototyping Simulation and modeling Tool-less assembly Data interchange standards Seamless data environment Life-cycle design Cost-as-an-independent-variable accounting Agile enterprises Sustainment of weapons systems Life-cycle perspectives Advanced manufacturing processing technology Shared information environments Environmentally compatible manufacturing High-speed machining Embedded sensors Cleaning systems Coating systems Life-cycle design Cost-as-an-independent-variable accounting Seamless data environments Data interchange standards
Representative terms from entire chapter: