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--> Defense Manufacturing in 2010 and Beyond Meeting the Changing Needs of National Defense Committee on Defense Manufacturing in 2010 and Beyond Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1999
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--> NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an advisor to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. This study by the Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design was conducted under contract no. N00014-96-D-0301 (Task Order 02) with the U.S. Air Force, the U.S. Army, the U.S. Navy, and the Defense Logistics Agency. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 99-60164 International Standard Book Number 0-309-06376-0 Available in limited supply from: Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, D.C. 20418 202-334-3505 email: firstname.lastname@example.org Additional copies are available for sale from: National Academy Press Box 285 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.
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--> Committee on Defense Manufacturing in 2010 and Beyond ALTON D. SLAY (chair), Slay Enterprises, Inc., Warrenton, Virginia HENRY ALBERTS, Defense Systems Management College, Fort Belvoir, Virginia ROBERT F. BESCHER, Pratt & Whitney, West Palm Beach, Florida WILLIAM GIBBS, Electric Boat Corporation, Groton, Connecticut WESLEY L. HARRIS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge DAVID LANDO, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey ARIS MELISSARATOS, Westinghouse Electric Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania FREDERICK J. MICHEL, NGM Knowledge Systems, Alexandria, Virginia J. DAVID MITCHELL, Rockwell International (retired), Grand Junction, Colorado DEBORAH S. NIGHTINGALE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge DEAN RHOADS, Merrill Lynch, New York, New York RICHARD SEUBERT, The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design Staff ROBERT M. RUSNAK, Senior Program Officer BONNIE A. SCARBOROUGH, Program Officer THOMAS E. MUNNS, Associate Director AIDA C. NEEL, Senior Project Assistant CHARLES HACH, Program Officer LOIS LOBO, Research Associate Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design Liaison DOROTHY COMASSAR, GE Aircraft Engines, Cincinnati, Ohio Government Liaisons LEO PLONSKY, Office of Naval Research, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania GERALD SHUMAKER, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio CHARLES E. STUART, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.
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--> Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design F. STAN SETTLES (chair), University of Southern California, Los Angeles ERNEST R. BLOOD, Caterpillar, Inc., Mossville, Illinois JOHN BOLLINGER, University of Wisconsin, Madison JOHN CHIPMAN, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis DOROTHY COMASSAR, GE Aircraft Engines, Cincinnati, Ohio ROBERT A. DAVIS, The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington GARY L. DENMAN, GRC International, Inc., Vienna, Virginia ROBERT EAGAN, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico MARGARET A. EASTWOOD, Motorola, Inc., Schaumburg, Illinois EDITH M. FLANIGEN, UOP (retired), White Plains, New York JOHN W. GILLESPIE, University of Delaware, Newark JAMIE C. HSU, General Motors, Warren, Michigan RICHARD L. KEGG, Milacron, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio JAMES MATTICE, Universal Technology Corporation, Dayton, Ohio CAROLYN W. MEYERS, North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro FRIEDRICH B. PRINZ, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California DALIBOR F. VRSALOVIC, AT&T Laboratories, Menlo Park, California JOSEPH WIRTH, RayChem Corp. (retired), Los Altos, California JOEL S. YUDKEN, AFL-CIO, Washington, D.C. RICHARD CHAIT, Director
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--> Acknowledgments The Committee on Defense Manufacturing in 2010 and Beyond would like to thank the following individuals for their presentations: John H. Bradham, South Carolina Research Authority; Lt. Col. Nina Brokaw, Defense Systems Management College; Todd Carrico, Advanced Research Program Agency; Andrew Dallas, Maritech; John A. DeCaire, National Center for Manufacturing Sciences; Sy Deitchman, U.S. Navy and Marine Corps; Gerald E. Ennis, The Boeing Company; Col. James Feigley, U.S. Marine Corps; Brig. Gen. Harry D. Gatanas, U.S. Army; Steven L. Goldman, Lehigh University; Beryl A. Harman, Defense Systems Management College; Robert Kiggans, Advanced Technology Institute; Lt. Col. Michael B. Leahy, Jr., U.S. Air Force; Steve Linder, Office of Naval Research; Lt. Gen. Les C. Lyles, U.S. Air Force; Don Meadows, Lockheed Martin; Michael McGrath, Department of Defense; John Phillips, AlliedSignal Aerospace Services; Al Pruden, Jr., Lockheed-Martin; Herin M. Reininga, Rockwell International; Col. William F. Scott, Naval Aviation Depot, Marine Corps Air Station; L. Albert West, Sandia National Laboratories; Lt. Col. Earl Wyatt, U.S. Air Force. This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets the institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to
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--> thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Larry Cruzen, Cruzen Technologies, Inc.; Gary L. Denman, GRC International; James A. Jordan, Jr., consultant; Pradeep K. Khosla, Carnegie-Mellon University; Charles Lillie, Science Applications International Corp.; Herm M. Reininga, Rockwell International; Peter Sferro, Ford Motor Company; James Solberg, Purdue University; and Gen. William G.T. Tuttle, Jr., Logistics Management Institute. Finally, the committee gratefully acknowledges the support of the staff of the Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design, including Bob Rusnak, study director until October 1998, and Bonnie Scarborough and Tom Munns, who took over as study directors after October 1998. In addition, the work of the committee was greatly aided by Aida Neel, Charlie Hach, and Lois Lobo.
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--> Contents Executive Summary 1 1 New Context for Defense Manufacturing 7 Introduction 7 U.S. Defense Industrial Base 11 New Challenges for Defense Manufacturing 12 Committee on Defense Manufacturing in 2010 and Beyond 16 Manufacturing Technology Program 17 2 Defense Manufacturing Capabilities Required for 2010 19 Introduction 19 Defense Needs for 2010 20 Summary 37 3 Leveraging Advances in Commercial Manufacturing 47 Introduction 47 Advances in Commercial Manufacturing 48 Leveraging Commercial Advances 62 Summary 69
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--> 4 New Priorities for Defense Manufacturing 73 Setting Priorities 73 Reorienting Programs 77 Summary 80 References 83 Appendices AHistorical Perspective on the U.S. Defense Industrial Base 87 BWorldwide Web Sites and Documents Related to Defense Manufacturing 95 CBiographical Sketches of Committee Members 99
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--> Tables and Figures TABLES 1-1 Pressures and Opportunities for Defense Manufacturing 14 2-1 Required Defense Manufacturing Capabilities Based on the Defense Technology Area Plan 39 2-2 Broad Categories of Required Defense Manufacturing Capabilities 44 3-1 Commercial Manufacturing Advances and their Elements 49 3-2 Defense Manufacturing Challenges Supported by Commercial Advances 71 FIGURES 1-1 Defense budgets from 1962 to 2002 9 1-2 Consolidation of the U.S. defense manufacturing industry from 1985 to 1995 9
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--> Acronyms and Abbreviations ADA software programming language (U.S. Department of Defense) CAD computer-aided design CAM computer-aided manufacturing CAIV cost as an independent variable COTS commercial, off-the-shelf (products) DOD U.S. Department of Defense DTAP Defense Technology Area Plan FLIR forward-looking infrared (sensors) g gravity GNC generative numerical control GOCO government-owned, contract-operated HM&E hull, mechanical, and electrical HSM high-speed machining IPPD integrated product and process development IRST infrared search and track (sensors) LCD liquid crystal display
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--> ManTech Manufacturing Technology Program MLRS multiple launch rocket system MMIC monolithic microwave integrated circuit NDI nondestructive inspection RDT&E research, development, test, and evaluation SALT II Strategic Arms Limitation Talks II TOW tube-launched, optically-tracked, wire-guided (missile) VSA variation simulation analysis