TABLE B-1 Natural-Resource and Environmental Value Estimates


Method/Unit/Level of Detail

Activities Valued

Value of Human Health

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1997)

21 labor market estimates and 5 contingent valuation studies

Mortality ($4.8 million per statistical life)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1997)

Willingness-to-pay studies or cost of illness

Chronic bronchitis, ischemic heart disease, shortness of breath, acute bronchitis (ranges from $260,000 per case for chronic bronchitis to $5.30 per day for shortness of breath)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1997)

Labor market studies

Work-loss days ($83 per day)

Surface Water Quality

Ribaudo and Piper (1991)

Recreation demand model

National recreational fishing benefits from reduced sediment pollution

Carson and Mitchell (1993)

Contingent valuation method

Willingness to pay to improve the nation's water quality from nonboatable status to swimmable status


Hoehn and Loomis (1993), Phillips et al. (1993), and Lant and Roberts (1990)

Contingent valuation method

Protection of wetlands and wildlife habitat and water quality, and quantity decrements to nonconverted wetlands

Groundwater Quality

Sun et al. (1992)

Contingent valuation method

Keeping groundwater quality below EPA health advisory levels in southwestern Georgia

Jordan and Elnagheeb (1993)

Contingent valuation method

Protection from nitrate contamination of groundwater serving wells and drinking water utilities in Georgia

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