raw materials into intermediate and final products, the consumption of final products, and other human activities. Residuals recycled or reused at the place of generation are excluded.

Water conservation:

Preservation, control, and development of water resources, both surface and groundwater, and prevention of pollution.

Water quality index:

Weighted average of selected ambient concentrations of pollutants, usually linked to water quality classes.

Willingness to pay:

See contingent valuation.


World Resources Institute.

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