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with the many disagreements bearing on the social issues, the study team found substantial consensus, among experts in the relevant disciplines, on the scientific evidence bearing on potential medical use. This report analyzes science, not the law. As in any policy debate, the value of scientific analysis is that it can provide a foundation for further discussion. Distilling scientific evidence does not in itself solve a policy problem. What it can do is illuminate the common ground, bringing to light fundamental differences out of the shadows of misunderstanding and misinformation that currently prevail. Scientific analysis cannot be the end of the debate, but it should at least provide the basis for an honest and informed discussion.

Our analysis of the evidence and arguments concerning the medical use of marijuana focuses on the strength of the supporting evidence and does not refer to the motivations of people who put forth the evidence and arguments. That is, it is not relevant to scientific validity whether an argument is put forth by someone who believes that all marijuana use should be legal or by someone who believes that any marijuana use is highly damaging to individual users and to society as a whole. Nor does this report comment on the degree to which scientific analysis is compatible with current regulatory policy. Although many have argued that current drug laws pertaining to marijuana are inconsistent with scientific data, it is important to understand that decisions about drug regulation are based on a variety of moral and social considerations, as well as on medical and scientific ones.

Even when a drug is used only for medical purposes, value judgments affect policy decisions concerning its medical use. For example, the magnitude of a drug's expected medical benefit affects regulatory judgments about the acceptability of risks associated with its use. Also, although a drug is normally approved for medical use only on proof of its ''safety and efficacy,'' patients with life-threatening conditions are sometimes (under protocols for "compassionate use") allowed access to unapproved drugs whose benefits and risks are uncertain. Value judgments play an even more substantial role in regulatory decisions concerning drugs, such as marijuana, that are sought and used for nonmedical purposes. Then policymakers must take into account not only the risks and benefits associated with medical use but also possible interactions between the regulatory arrangements governing medical use and the integrity of the legal controls set up to restrict nonmedical use.

It should be clear that many elements of drug control policy lie outside the realm of biology and medicine. Ultimately, the complex moral and social judgments that underlie drug control policy must be made by the American people and their elected officials. A goal of this report is to



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