. "3 Overview of Programs of Research on Ethnic Minority and Medically Underserved Populations at the National Institutes of Health." The Unequal Burden of Cancer: An Assessment of NIH Research and Programs for Ethnic Minorities and the Medically Underserved. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1999.
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Risk Factor Prevention for Hispanic Youth
NCI is supporting a Category I study evaluating a comprehensive cancer-risk prevention intervention targeting preadolescents in schools serving predominantly low-income Hispanic families. School-based and parent interventions are coupled with a school food service intervention in 14 schools in San Jose, California, to increase healthful eating practices and levels of physical activity among youth and provide instruction in weight regulation skills. A primary objective is to reduce the level of prevalence of obesity at the end of the 2-year intervention, whereas secondary objectives include increasing the level of consumption of low-fat foods (including fruits and vegetables and dietary fiber), increasing the level of physical activity, and decreasing the level of consumption of dietary fat.
5 A Day Behavioral Research and Evaluation
NCI's 5 A Day program seeks to increase awareness of healthy dietary patterns and to increase levels of consumption of fruits and vegetables. These programs have been adapted to serve the needs of ethnic minority consumers. In North Carolina, an NCI-funded project mobilized community and religious organizations to tailor a 5 A Day program to the needs of an African-American community. Local businesses, churches, and media worked collaboratively with local health officials and cooperative extension staff to help implement the program. In Minnesota, an NCI-funded 5 A Day program targeted a multiethnic (45 percent minority) cohort of schoolchildren, including Asian-American, African-American, Hispanic, and American-Indian children, with a school-based intervention involving school curriculum, food service menu changes, and industry and media support. In Arizona, the 5 A Day-Healthier Eating for the Overlooked Worker project targeted a predominantly Hispanic population to compare the impacts of peer educational programs at work sites to those of traditional work-site wellness programs. The Treatwell 5 A Day Work-site Nutrition Intervention in Massachusetts serves a population that is approximately 33 percent African American and 33 percent Hispanic with a work-site intervention and family involvement component to assess their synergistic effects. The program is sponsored collaboratively by an NCI-supported comprehensive cancer center, the state health agency, cooperative extension, and industry. In Maryland, the effects of a program combining nutrition education, lay counseling, print materials, and community-based family involvement on levels of fruit and vegetable consumption among a low-income, primarily African-American population was assessed in the 5 A Day WIC Promotion Program (WIC is the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children). Finally, NCI has supported communications research, including focus groups with African-American men and women, to