Hispanic, Native American, Asian-American, and white women's attitudes and knowledge regarding breast cancer and mammography. HPB has also conducted consumer research to determine how to better frame 5 A Day health messages to the African-American community. In addition, NCI staff have developed a geodemographic marketing database that links demographic, marketing, and health information to better tailor messages to the needs of specific communities.

HPB staff have also developed a number of publications and public service announcements for ethnic minority populations (see Appendix C for examples of titles). In addition, HPB supports media campaigns, such as the recent national media campaign on cervical cancer screening, that feature efforts to reach out to ethnic minority populations. The cervical cancer screening campaign included information on the incidence and rates of mortality from cervical cancer among older minority women in a media kit distributed to majority and minority media outlets.

Overall, OCC reports spending $7.4 million in FY 1997 targeting cancer information to minority and underserved populations, although this figure is derived by using "percent relevancy" calculations for monies allocated on the basis of the percentage of minority group individuals in the overall target pool. Among those programs in FY 1996 listed as "100 percent" relevant to minority populations, Hawaii's CIS received $393,000 for outreach activities targeted to Native Hawaiians, $250,000 each was allocated to the development of nutrition education materials targeted to African Americans with low levels of literacy and to community-based education projects directed at urban African-American residents, and $150,000 was allocated to the development and dissemination of culturally appropriate messages and materials for American Indians, Native Alaskans, and Native Hawaiians.

Outreach Activities and Community Education

NCI has placed a great deal of emphasis on three leadership initiatives to support minority outreach, research, and cancer control efforts.

NBLIC seeks to promote the participation of African-American community leaders in the mobilization and stimulation of community cancer prevention and control activities. NBLIC's objectives are to reduce cancer incidence and mortality rates and improve cancer survival rates among African Americans and to address barriers to cancer control services among other objectives. More than 60 community coalitions have been established through the work of NBLIC's four regional offices. NCI allocated approximately $1.7 million to this activity in FY 1997.

Through NHLIC, an initiative implementing community demonstration and health communications research projects, NCI is addressing the

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