In addition to the awards described above, a number of NIH-wide funding mechanisms related to career development and training are offered by NCI, the majority of which are open to all cancer researchers.
Nearly $2.2 million was allocated for both the Minority Investigator Supplement to NCI's cancer centers for minority research and NCI grantees to support minority researchers involved in research projects. Minority Investigator Supplements were also available for promising high school students, undergraduate students, and graduate research assistants (nearly $1.2 million in FY 1997). In 1997, 128 awards were made; these grants were overwhelmingly made to African-American (61 awards) and Hispanic (60 awards) researchers, with 4 awards made to American Indian researchers and 1 award made to a Pacific Islander. In 1996, 112 awards were made; these were made exclusively to African-American and Hispanic scientists.
Three National Research Service Awards (NRSA) are offered. A predoctoral fellowship for oncology nurses, minority students, and students with disabilities (F31 award) was established to increase the numbers of each group in the cancer research enterprise, whereas a postdoctoral fellowship (F32 award) is open to all cancer researchers holding the Ph.D. degree or its equivalent. Both fellowships require the awardee to work with an identified mentor at a sponsoring institution to supervise research and training. The NRSA Senior Fellowship (F33 award) was established for experienced scientists who seek to