TABLE 2-19 Stage of Cancer at Diagnosis by Selected Cancer Site and Ethnic Group

 

Percent

Stage of Cancer and Ethnic Group

Colon

Lung

Female Breast

Cervix (invasive)

In Situ

Non-Hispanic white

2.5

0.2

5.0

81.0

Hispanic

1.3

0.0

3.9

72.7

Native American

3.6

0.0

2.2

76.1

Local

Non-Hispanic white

28.4

32.0

52.3

12.3

Hispanic

29.3

32.5

43.8

15.2

Native American

29.1

23.2

33.3

11.3

Regional

Non-Hispanic white

43.1

24.7

36.3

4.8

Hispanic

40.7

21.9

42.9

8.5

Native American

42.7

25.3

48.4

9.2

Distant

Non-Hispanic white

26.0

43.1

6.5

1.9

Hispanic

28.7

45.6

9.5

3.6

Native American

24.5

51.5

16.1

3.3

 

SOURCE: Samet et al., (1987).

in the aggressiveness of treatment of cancer. For example, one study found that African-American women with advanced breast cancer were less likely than white women to receive surgery, and mortality was higher among African-American women than in white women with advanced disease (Breen and Ching, 1995). Similarly, SEER program data were used to evaluate prostate cancer treatment, and the proportion of African-American men who receive prostatectomy was lower than that of white men (Harlan et al., 1995). This trend appears to be consistent over the time period of evaluation (1984 to 1991).

Socioeconomic Status and Cancer Surveillance

No national database or agency reports the relationship between SES and cancer. Over the last 40 years, many studies have supported the conclusion that SES is somehow related to cancer. However, differences in the measures of SES (education, income, residence, occupation, or a calculated composite value) between studies have resulted in difficulties in examining this relationship in its entirety (Greenwald et al., 1996). Differences



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