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other, the ATP reaps the benefits of synergy and, in the long run, can have a stronger impact of U.S. technology and the economy.

Focused programs are developed in response to specific suggestions received from industry and academia. In the form of white papers, the proposals outline a specific technology area and describe the potential for U.S. economic benefit, the technical ideas available to be exploited, the strength of industry commitment to the work, and the reasons why ATP funding is necessary to achieve well-defined research and business goals.

Areas that attract particularly strong interest—30 or more white papers from different sources proposing the same general effort are not unusual—then are developed further through discussions with industry, meetings, workshops, and other interactions.

Within a focused program, the ATP holds special competitions open only to project proposals that would advance the goals of the specific program. Specific projects are selected through the normal ATP competitive review process. The ATP has received over 1,000 white papers suggesting specific focused program areas. Drawing from more than 300 of these, the ATP has established 17 focused programs to date.

Source: ATP Overview, National Institute of Standards and Technology, February 1998.

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