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geographical area where they were located. For example, the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University is located in a heavily agricultural area. The New York State College of Ceramics (NYSCC) at Alfred University was established to educate engineers and artists for the local ceramics industry. The private school in which NYSCC is housed is responsible for the day-to-day administration of the college program and for providing student services as well as accessory tuition for courses in subjects not taught in the college (liberal arts, business, natural science, and so on). Students at NYSCC pay substantially less tuition than students in other disciplines at Alfred University.

The reputation of NYSCC in both ceramic engineering and art is without equal. The college graduates one-third of the ceramic engineers in the United States. It offers three B.S. degrees, three Masters Degrees, and two Ph.D. degrees; the Ph.D. in glass science is offered at only two other institutions—one in Sheffield in the United Kingdom and the other in St. Petersburg, Russia. All of the aforementioned degrees are considered by academics and industrialists to be the best offered in their fields.

Individual Industrially Funded Research Projects

Alfred University faculty members traditionally have conducted a larger proportion of research under industry contracts than under government grants. Compared to government grants, industrial contracts are of shorter duration with lists of well-defined deliverables and milestones toward meeting project goals. With industry contracts, considerable flexibility in intellectual property policies usually is required. Publication of results can be subject to veto or delay, depending on patent status and type of research. And because industry contracts entail confidentiality agreements and are often short in duration, they are not conducive to graduate student-based research.

For these reasons, the performance of basic research under industry funding is difficult. However, Alfred University has circumvented problems with such research by making agreements with the sponsoring companies concerning publication of research results. According to these agreements, research pertaining directly to a sponsor's product or process may not be published, but results obtained during the course of the contract that do not compromise the sponsor's competitive market position may be published (subject, of course, to examination of the proposed publication by the sponsor).

Some faculty members believe that industrial research is the scientific equivalent of prostitution, while others thrive in the problem-solving environment. Some industry representatives have complained that university researchers are slow to respond, lack focus, and generally do not understand industry needs. These criticisms usually can be reduced when scientists spend leaves of absence in industry. To build industrial partners' confidence in their



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