of heavy metals and minerals from mine refuse, and conducting a variety of tests. In the field of industrial ecology, the institute has developed a system to audit conditions along oil-and-gas pipelines and the state of the environment along the pipelines' path. The institute makes recommendations on construction of ecologically safe underground repositories for the burial of toxic and radioactive wastes. It also has developed several water purification methods.
The main research and development activities of the St. Petersburg Mining Institute have been conducted in close cooperation with other universities and with research and production firms, including converted military firms. Most developments are tested and then patented. More than 60 of the institute's patents are in use.
However, as a result of the many years of operating under a planned economy, the institute lacks experience in using its intellectual property in economic activity. Nevertheless its research activities during the past two years have created conditions favorable for the commercialization of such property:
Under the conditions of economic crisis, science can survive only in those organizations that consider it an economic resource. Science responsive to market demand can create conditions for enhancing the life of scientists and improving their material welfare.