by the Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry to commercialize research results at different stages of development are described below.
The Karpov Institute was founded in 1918 as an applied research institute but later became largely an academic organization carrying out both basic and applied research in most areas of modern physical chemistry. It is located at two sites in Moscow and has a branch in nearby Obninsk. The total staff numbers about 1,800, including 800 scientists. The Obninsk branch has been oriented mostly toward applied research and technology development, especially in the field of radiation chemistry. The institute's total budget in 1997 was about $6 million, of which the state provided $2 million and grants and contracts provided $4 million. Most of these funds were earned from the sale of products produced in Obninsk with the institute's own technology and facilities. Table 1 lists these products. Only products produced under a specific license may be legally sold.
The institute's research nuclear reactor is in Obninsk. Fifteen years ago, in an attempt to use this expensive apparatus more efficiently, the decision was made to develop chemo-nuclear technology for obtaining radioactive medicines for diagnosis and therapy and to sell medicines rather than technology. With capital provided by the state, several new technologies have been developed, leading to industrial production of a wide variety of bioactive substances containing molecules marked by the radioactive isotopes of Tc-99m, 1–123, I13 1, Sm-1 53, Re-1 86, and W-1 88. These radiopharmaceuticals are sold to more than 290 state and private hospitals and clinics all over Russia. A considerable portion of the profits is spent on scientific investigations of the radiopharmaceuticals, a search for new medically selective molecular carriers of radioactive isotopes, development of chemical synthesis and purification methods, medical testing of new preparations, licensing of industrial production