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International Linkages: Russian science and technology leaders should explore how western trade associations, professional technology transfer associations (such as the Association of University Technology Managers and the Licensing Executives Society), the Industrial Research Institute, and similar institutions could be models for strengthening internal cooperation and could serve as focal points for cooperation with western counterparts.

Management Training: Russian research organizations could be more proactive in providing management training carefully tailored to the specific needs of their personnel. Training should include technology assessment techniques, preparation of bankable business plans, marketing, and strategic planning. Both scientists and managers should be well-versed in licensing agreements, patenting, and protection of intellectual property rights.

Education in Management Sciences: Few education programs in Russia cover topics directly related to management and commercialization of technology. Several American universities that specialize in this topic could cooperate with Russian institutions to adapt programs to the Russian experience, perhaps working through the Russian network of continuing education programs under the Ministry of Education. In creating such education and training programs, the American and Russian partners should take full advantage of advances in information technology.

Problem-Solving Workshops: Small workshops could be convened among Russian researchers, government officials, and Russian and western industry on a continuing basis to discuss barriers to commercialization. One focus of these workshops could be the tax and patent framework. Topics also might include problems of marketing Russian high-technology products internationally, particularly the importance of international product standards and timing in marketing new products.

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