75.  

Fred Robbins to Robert Sproull, October 3, 1984, Waterfall Materials; IOM Council Meeting, Minutes, November 19, 1984, IOM Records.

76.  

"Final Report of the Study Committee on the Institute of Medicine," National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., November 1984, pp. 3, 9.

77.  

Karl Yordy to Fred Robbins, December 20, 1984, and Yordy to Robbins, February 4, 1985, Yordy Files, Accession 91-05 1, IOM Records.

78.  

William Bevan, "Comments on Sproull Report," January 13, 1985; "Memorandum to File, Conversation with Dr. Phil Leder," January 2, 1985; Frederic Solomon to Charles Miller, January 3, 1985; "Transcribed Phone Call, Ben Lawton's Reaction to Sproull Committee Report," January 7, 1985; and Fred Solomon to Charles Miller, January 2, 1985, all in Yordy Files, Accession 91-051, IOM Records.

79.  

Gil Omenn to Fred Robbins, December 19, 1984, and "Comments Dictated 1/3/85 by Bob Butler," both in Yordy Files, Accession 91-051, IOM Records.

80.  

IOM Council Meeting, Minutes, January 13–14, 1985, IOM Records.

81.  

"Statement of the Council of the Institute of Medicine to the Council of the National Academy of Sciences," January 29, 1985, and Ronald W. Estabrook to Members of the National Academy of Sciences, January 25, 1985, both in Waterfall Materials.

82.  

Philip M. Smith to Members of the Council, National Academy of Sciences, January 30, 1985, Waterfall Materials.

83.  

Frederick Robbins, "Statement Before the Council of the National Academy of Sciences," February 8, 1985, Waterfall Materials.

84.  

Fred Robbins to Members of the Institute of Medicine, February 11, 1985, and Frank Press to John Sawyer, February 11, 1985, both in Waterfall Materials.

85.  

Frank Press and Fred Robbins to Paul A. Marks, March 20, 1985, Waterfall Materials.

86.  

Minutes of IOM Council Meeting, July 15, 1985, and September 23, 1985, IOM Records.

Irvine H. Page's group to discuss the formation of a National Academy of Medicine met for the first time on January 17, 1967, at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation. Although Page never realized his ambition to create such an academy, this group supplied the impetus that eventually led to the founding of the Institute of Medicine. Top, left to right: Fay H, Lefevre, M.D., J. Englebert Dunphy, M.D.; Carleton B. Chapman, M.D.; Francis D. Moore, M.D.; William B. Bean, M.D.; John B. Hickam, M.D.; E. Cowles Andrus, M.D.; Robert A. Aldrich, M.D.; Ivan L. Bennett, Jr., M.D.; and Stuart M. Sessoms, M.D. Bottom, left to right: James A. Shannon, M.D.; Frederick C. Robbins, M.D. (who would later become the Institute's fourth president, in 1980); Irving S. Wright, M.D., Irvine H. Page, M.D., Douglas D. Bond, M.D.; and Robert H, Williams. Photograph courtesy of The Cleveland Clinic Foundation.

Frederick Seitz, Ph.D., a distinguished physicist, created the Board on Medicine in 1967 during his tenure as president of the National Academy of Sciences (1962–1969). Photograph by Harris and Ewing, Washington, D.C., courtesy of the National Academy of Sciences.

Walsh McDermott, M.D., a professor of medicine and public health at Cornell Medical School, chaired the Board on Medicine and played a leading role in the creation of the Institute of Medicine. Photograph courtesy of The New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center Archives.

Irving M, London, M.D., who was chairman of the Department of Medicine at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in 1967, was a key ally of Walsh McDermott on the Board on Medicine. Photograph courtesy of Irving London.

Julius H. Comroe, Jr., M.D., director of the Cardiovascular Research Institute of the San Francisco Medical Center, tended to side with Irvine Page in the debates over the creation of the Institute of Medicine. Photograph courtesy of the University of California at San Francisco.

James A. Shannon, M.D., director of the National Institutes of Health from 1955 to 1968, believed that the primary purpose of the Institute of Medicine should be to support the government's role in medical research. Photograph by Ralph Fernandez, courtesy of the History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine.

Robert J. Glaser, M.D., who was dean of Stanford's School of Medicine in 1967, wrote the Board on Medicine's heart transplant statement and chaired the Institute's Initial Membership Committee. He also served as acting president of the Institute until John Hogness took office in the spring of 1971. Photograph courtesy of Robert Glaser.

Irvine H. Page, M.D., who was head of the Research Division at the Cleveland Clinic from 1945 to 1967 and a leading expert on hypertension and heart disease, was a strong advocate for the creation of a National Academy of Medicine. He and Walsh McDermott engaged in spirited debates within the Board on Medicine. Photograph courtesy of The Cleveland Clinic Foundation.

Philip Handler, Ph.D., a well-known biomedical researcher at Duke University who was president of the National Academy of Sciences from 1969 to 1981, played a key role in the creation of the Institute of Medicine and in its early development. His constant goal was to maintain the integrity of the Academy. Photograph courtesy of the National Academy of Sciences Archives.

Presidents of the Institute of Medicine

John R. Hogness, M.D. (1970-1974), was the Institute of Medicine's first president. He started the IOM Council and initiated many of the routines that governed the Institute's development.

Donald S. Fredrickson, M.D. (1974–1975), a distinguished biomedical researcher, stayed only a short time at the Institute before leaving to become director of the National Institutes of Health.

Presidents of the Institute of Medicine

David A. Hamburg, M.D. (1975–1980), helped to bring the Institute to national prominence. He established the divisions that still underlie the basic organizational scheme of IOM.

Frederick C. Robbins, M.D. (1980-1985), a Nobel laureate, brought his knowledge of medical research to the Institute, helping the organization to overcome the challenge posed by the Sproull report.

Samuel O. Thier, M.D. (1985–1991), energized the Institute and led a successful fund-raising effort. As a result of his work, IOM reached parity with the other components of the Academy complex.

Kenneth I. Shine, M.D. (1992–present), ushered the Institute into its second quarter century. Now in his second term, he is IOM's longest-serving president.

Karl Yordy (left), a durable and valuable member of the Institute's staff, served the IOM from the era of John Hogness into the era of Ken Shine, both as executive officer after Roger Bulger and as director of the Division of Health Care Services. Charles Miller (right) succeeded Yordy as executive officer, serving from 1983 to 1988-years that encompassed threats associated both with possible insolvency and the Sproull report, and then increasing financial security and expansion of the Institute's program. Photograph courtesy of Jana Surdi.

The Institute's first executive officer, Roger J. Bulger, M.D., was a close associate of John Hogness. He guided the daily operations of the Institute in its early years and went on to a distinguished career in medical administration, most recently as president of the Association of Academic Health Centers. Photograph courtesy of the Association of Academic Health Centers.

Enriqueta C. Bond, Ph.D. Samuel Thier relied heavily on Queta Bond to manage the day-to-day affairs of the Institute. She served in different capacities under a number of IOM presidents before assuming the presidency of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund in 1994. Photograph courtesy of the Burroughs Well-come Fund.

Karen Hein, M.D., a former Robert Wood Johnson Health Policy Fellow, served as the Institute's executive officer from 1995 until 1998 before leaving to become president of the William T. Grant Foundation. Photograph courtesy of Karen Hein.

Susanne Stoiber, M.S., M.P.A., was named IOM executive officer in 1998, She came to the Institute from the Department of Health and Human Services, where she was deputy assistant secretary for planning and evaluation. In a previous stint at the Academy, she directed the Division of Social and Economic Studies. Photograph courtesy of Susanne Stoiber.

An M.D.-Ph.D. with a background in cardiovascular surgery and long a major figure at the Institute, Theodore Cooper chaired the study that produced Confronting AIDS: Update 1988. Photograph courtesy of Pharmacia & Upjohn.

Robert A, Derzon, M.B.A., a distinguished hospital administrator, followed his service as the first head of the Health Care Financing Administration with a period as a scholar in residence at the Institute. He was an IOM Council member during Fred Robbins's tenure and helped recruit Samuel Thier. Photograph courtesy of Robert Derzon.

Robert M. Ball, M.A., head of the Social Security Administration from 1962 to 1973, became a scholar in residence at the Institute and served as a confidante of IOM presidents from Hogness through Robbins.

''Watergate''—a national preoccupation from 1972 to 1974, and a word that became synonymous with political scandal— originated with a burglary that took place on the night of June 17, 1972, in this fashionable Washington, D.C., office complex. In 1974, the Institute moved into the 6th-floor offices that the Democratic National Committee had recently vacated. Its offices attracted tourists and others interested in the "stuff of history." Photograph courtesy of Elena Nightingale.

In one of the more unusual circumstances to affect the Institute, before David Hamburg could accept the presidency of IOM in 1975, he needed to negotiate the release of some of his Stanford students who had been kidnapped by rebels in Zaire. He is shown here back in Stanford with (from left) Carrie Hunter, Steven Smith, and Emilie Bergman after their release in the fall of 1975. Photograph courtesy of David Hamburg.

Joseph A. Califano, Jr., LL.B., President Jimmy Carter's Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, worked closely with the Institute in the Hamburg era, and ultimately was elected an IOM member and a member of the IOM Council. Photograph courtesy of the History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine.

Robert Sproull, Ph.D., a well-known physicist and president of the University of Rochester, chaired a committee whose 1984 report advocated the transformation of the Institute into an academy of medicine and led to some particularly painful moments for the young organization. Photograph courtesy of the University of Rochester.

In early May 1977, a Washington Post article on the recently released IOM study Computed Tomogrophic Scanning caught President Jimmy Carter's eye. The study urged that hospitals and physicians should not overuse the new technology and that local health planners should approve the installation of new scanners, as well as ensure that they operated efficiently. Carter wanted Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare Califano to read the article as well.

Confronting AIDS (1986) commanded public attention and urged the nation to do more to combat this deadly epidemic. A follow-up report, Confronting AIDS, Update 1988, was used by President George Bush to help formulate government policy toward AIDS.

Preventing Low Birthweight attracted a great deal of attention in part because of the dramatic way in which it was released in the spring of 1985 during hearings conducted by Representative Henry Waxman (D-Calif.).

In recent years, the Institute has produced reports that grab a reader's attention visually as well as engaging them with substantive issues, as the covers of these reports show—Growing Up Tobacco Free: Preventing Nicotine Addiction in Children and Youths (1994, top left), Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease (1992, top right), and In Her Lifetime: Female Morbidity and Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa (1996, below). Such covers are strikingly different from the more ultilitarian documents that the Institute produced during its early years.

Current National Academy of Sciences President Bruce Alberts, Ph.D. (left), joins past NAS President Frederick Seitz, Ph.D. (right), at the April 1995 dedication of a portrait of Frank Press, Ph.D. Press, a noted physical scientist from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, had been President Carter's science advisor prior to taking over as NAS president in 1981. Alberts, a well-known biochemist and molecular biologist from the University of California at San Francisco, succeeded Frank Press in 1993. Photograph courtesy of the National Academy of Sciences.

A letter from President Bill Clinton commemorated the Institute's 25th anniversary in December 1995.



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