53.  

For background on this issue, see Edward Berkowitz, Disabled Policy (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987).

54.  

Institute of Medicine, Marion Osterweis, Arthur Kleinman, and David Mechanic, eds., Pain and Disability: Clinical, Behavioral, and Public Policy Perspectives (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1987), pp. 2, 3, 8, 9; Edward Berkowitz and Richard Burkhauser, "A United States Perspective on Disability Programs," in Leo J.M. Aarts et al., eds., Curing the Dutch Disease: An International Perspective on Disability Policy Reform (Alderstot, U.K.: Avebury Press, 1996), pp. 71–91.

55.  

Institute of Medicine, Annual Report, 1989, p. 5; Jessica Townsend, Study Director, to David Nexon, Committee on Labor and Human Resources, October 10, 1989, and Townsend to Frank Press, November 8, 1988, both in Records of the Committee for Supporting Graduate Medical Training in Primary Care, Accession 91-007-5, IOM Records; Institute of Medicine, Primary Care Physicians: Financing Their Graduate Medical Education in Ambulatory Settings (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1989), pp. 10–11.

56.  

Relevant IOM reports included Academic Geriatrics for the Year 2000 (1987); Strengthening Training in Geriatrics for Physicians (1993); Extending Life, Enhancing Life: A National Research Agenda on Aging (1991); Allied Health Services: Avoiding Crises (1988); Role of the Primary Care Physician in Occupational and Environmental Medicine (1988); and Meeting Physician Needs for Medical Information on Occupational and Environmental Medicine (1991), all published by the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

57.  

"Summary Report: Selected Cancers Study, Advisory Committee on the Centers for Disease Control, Study of the Health of Vietnam Veterans," April 25, 1990, Accession 90-068, IOM Records; Keith Scheider, "Agent Orange Study Was Obstructed," New York Times, August 12, 1990, p. A-12.

58.  

IOM Council Meeting, Minutes, July 21–22, 1986, IOM Records. In fairness, it should be pointed out that the IOM returned to this topic in its 1990 annual meeting.

59.  

IOM Council Meeting, Minutes, November 13–14, 1989, IOM Records.

60.  

IOM Council Meeting, Minutes, January 26, 1988, IOM Records.

61.  

IOM Council Meeting, Minutes, January 9–10, 1989, and April 10–11, 1989, IOM Records.

62.  

IOM Council Meeting, Minutes, November 13–14, 1989, IOM Records.



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