Index

A

Abortion, 270

health effects of, Institute of Medicine study, 67-69, 71

unintended pregnancy issues, Institute of Medicine study, 256-258

See also Roe v. Wade

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). See HIV/AIDS

ADAMHA. See Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA)

Ad Hoc Committee on Medical Malpractice, 109, 110

Ad Hoc Panel on Further Institutional Forms for the Board on Medicine , 24, 26

Africa

AIDS epidemiology in international context, workshop, 226

Central Africa AIDS mortality, 226

women's morbidity and mortality, Institute of Medicine study, 187 188

African Americans

Board on Medicine membership, 12, 13

Aged and aging

airline pilot age, Institute of Medicine study, 138-139

See also Nursing homes

Agency for International Development (AID), 117, 120, 187, 226

Agent Orange

Vietnam veterans health effects, Institute of Medicine studies, 202 -203, 254-256

See also Chemical warfare;

Herbicides

AID. See Agency for International Development (AID)

AIDS. See HIV/AIDS

AIDS Amendments of 1988, 232

AIDS and Behavior, 243

AIDS Oversight Committee, 224, 227-230, 237, 243

Institute of Medicine AIDS activities, 232-237

National Institutes of Health AIDS programs review, 233-235

Roundtable for the Development of Drugs and Vaccines Against AIDS, 235-236

See also Confronting AIDS;

Confronting AIDS: Update 1988

The AIDS Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, 234

Aiken, Linda, 139

Airline pilot age, Institute of Medicine study, 138-139

Alberts, Bruce, 268

Alcohol abuse and treatment

AIDS research, substance abuse and mental health issues, Institute of Medicine report, 242-243

See also Drug abuse and treatment

Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA), 117

AIDS research program, Institute of Medicine study, 237, 242-243

See also Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

ALS. See Assembly of Life Sciences (ALS)



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To Improve Human Health: A History of the Institute of Medicine Index A Abortion, 270 health effects of, Institute of Medicine study, 67-69, 71 unintended pregnancy issues, Institute of Medicine study, 256-258 See also Roe v. Wade Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). See HIV/AIDS ADAMHA. See Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA) Ad Hoc Committee on Medical Malpractice, 109, 110 Ad Hoc Panel on Further Institutional Forms for the Board on Medicine , 24, 26 Africa AIDS epidemiology in international context, workshop, 226 Central Africa AIDS mortality, 226 women's morbidity and mortality, Institute of Medicine study, 187 188 African Americans Board on Medicine membership, 12, 13 Aged and aging airline pilot age, Institute of Medicine study, 138-139 See also Nursing homes Agency for International Development (AID), 117, 120, 187, 226 Agent Orange Vietnam veterans health effects, Institute of Medicine studies, 202 -203, 254-256 See also Chemical warfare; Herbicides AID. See Agency for International Development (AID) AIDS. See HIV/AIDS AIDS Amendments of 1988, 232 AIDS and Behavior, 243 AIDS Oversight Committee, 224, 227-230, 237, 243 Institute of Medicine AIDS activities, 232-237 National Institutes of Health AIDS programs review, 233-235 Roundtable for the Development of Drugs and Vaccines Against AIDS, 235-236 See also Confronting AIDS; Confronting AIDS: Update 1988 The AIDS Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, 234 Aiken, Linda, 139 Airline pilot age, Institute of Medicine study, 138-139 Alberts, Bruce, 268 Alcohol abuse and treatment AIDS research, substance abuse and mental health issues, Institute of Medicine report, 242-243 See also Drug abuse and treatment Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA), 117 AIDS research program, Institute of Medicine study, 237, 242-243 See also Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration ALS. See Assembly of Life Sciences (ALS)

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To Improve Human Health: A History of the Institute of Medicine Altman, Stuart, 101, 139, 165, 227, 230, 243, 265 AMA. See American Medical Association (AMA) American Board of Internal Medicine, 181 American Broadcasting Company (ABC), 223 American Cancer Society, 60 American College of Physicians, 29, 165, 166 American Enterprise Institute, 166 American Heart Association, 16, 250 American Medical Association (AMA), 2, 4, 12, 15, 64, 165, 188, 273 -274 American Red Cross, 237 Analgesics Reye's syndrome relationship, Institute of Medicine reports, 194 See also Drugs and drug industry Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, 78-79, 126, 152, 165, 172, 181-182, 183 Armed forces. See Military personnel; Veterans Arrow, Kenneth, 81, 137 Ashe, Arthur, 238 Aspirin. See Analgesics Assembly of Life Sciences (ALS), 147, 148 See also Commission on Life Sciences (CLS) Assessing Genetic Risks, 259 Association of American Medical Colleges, 2, 37, 74, 87, 166, 250, 269, 274 Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine, 201 Axelrod, David, 197 B Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, 219 Ball, John, 165, 166 Ball, Robert M., 69, 81, 206, 254 Baltimore, David, 215, 217, 218, 219, 220, 222, 223, 225, 226, 227 , 231, 233 Banta, David, 82 Barnard, Christian, 16 Barondess, Jeremiah, 110, 189 Barry, David W., 225 Bateman, Mildred M., 67 Bazell, Robert, 223 Bazelon, David, 137 Bedrosian, John, 152 Beeson, Paul B., 54 Behrman, Richard E., 156 Bell, Daniel, 12 Bennett, Ivan L., Jr., 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 21, 33, 36, 37, 52, 54 Berzon, Richard, 235. Bevan, William, 169 Birth control. See Family planning Birthweight low birthweight, Institute of Medicine study, 156-158, 173, 263 pregnancy (unintended) issues, Institute of Medicine study, 256-267 See also Maternity Blaxall, Martha, 68 Blood and blood products AIDS transmission through blood supply, Institute of Medicine study , 237-241 Blood diseases and disorders hemophiliacs AIDS contraction, Institute of Medicine study, 237-241 Blood Safety Committee, 241 See also Centers for Disease Control (CDC); Committee on HIV and the Blood Supply; Food and Drug Administration (FDA); National Institutes of Health (NIH) Blue Cross Association, 113 Board on Health Care Services, 190 See also Division of Health Care Services Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, 149-150 See also Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Board on Health Sciences Policy, 180-181, 188, 261 See also Division of Health Sciences Policy Board on International Health, 187 See also Division of International Health Board on Medicine, 2, 33-38, 42, 50, 52, 53, 56, 60, 61, 62 63, 64 , 66, 76, 78, 103, 114, 134, 145, 152, 172, 173, 186, 190, 203, 205 , 223, 268, 269 business of, 20-23

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To Improve Human Health: A History of the Institute of Medicine creation of, 8-16 heart transplant statement, 16-20 Institute of Medicine proposal, 38-41 membership of, 13 National Academy of Medicine debate, 23-28 See also Ad Hoc Panel on Further Institutional Forms for the Board on Medicine Boffey, Philip, 222 Bond, Enriqueta, 142, 157, 158, 167, 189, 191-192, 194, 213, 250 Bondurant, Stuart, 167, 206-207, 249-250 Bourne, Peter, 116 Bowen, Otis, 139 Brandt, Edward, 150, 166, 212 Breast feeding nutrition during, Institute of Medicine report, 262-263 See also Maternity Breslow, Lester, 197 Brigham and Women's Hospital, 19 Brodie, H. Keith H., 242 Brokaw, Tom, 223 Brookings Institution, 11, 13, 75, 103, 165, 166 Brooks, Harvey, 7 Brown, Larry, 165 Brown, Sarah, 157, 158, 185 Bryant, John, 116 Budget Subcommittee, Institute of Medicine, 162 Bulger, Roger J., 50, 58, 65, 76, 86, 87, 88, 96, 98, 101, 106, 152 , 166, 191-192, 249, 250-251 Bundy, McGeorge, 79-80, 163 Burns, John J., 212, 214 Burwell, E. Langdon, 165 Bush, Barbara, 233 Bush, George, 196, 206, 232, 233, 273 Butler, Robert, 169 C Calabresi, Guido, 110 Califano, Joseph, 18, 95, 114, 115, 118, 122, 123, 124, 125, 148, 206 Callahan, Daniel, 80 Campbell, Thomas E., 142 Canada AIDS epidemiology in international context, workshop, 226 Cancer Vietnam veterans herbicide exposure, studies, 202-203 cancer wars, 60-62, 219, 270 Cannan, Keith, 12 Capron, Alexander, 204 Cardiovascular diseases and disorders heart transplant statement of Board on Medicine, 16-20 Carnegie Corporation, 10, 21, 66, 137, 181-182, 184, 193 Carnegie Foundation, 21, 41 Carter, Jimmy, 88, 95, 98, 113-114, 116, 123, 124, 128, 129, 146, 148, 150, 166, 169, 173, 194, 254, 270-271 Caulkins, David, 165-166 ''CBS Evening News," 157, 184 "CBS Morning News,";157 CDC. See Centers for Disease Control (CDC); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Center for the Study of Moral Order, 69 Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 202-203, 212-213, 215, 216, 220 , 231, 238, 241, 244, 272 See also Blood Safety Committee Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 259 Selected Cancers Study, 202 Challoner, David, 204 Charles H. Revson Foundation, 126 Chemical warfare herbicides in Vietnam War, health effects, Institute of Medicine studies, 202-203, 254-256 See also Agent Orange; Herbicides Cherkasky, Martin, 73 Child, Charles G., III, 13, 54 Chin, James, 223 Cigarettes. See Tobacco products and use Cleveland Foundation, 5 Clinton, Bill, 199, 249, 264, 265, 266 See also Health Security Plan Clinton, Hillary, 266 CLS. See Commission on Life Sciences (CLS) Cluff, Leighton, 228-229 Cohen, Barbara, 110 Cohen, Wilbur, 18, 80, 206

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To Improve Human Health: A History of the Institute of Medicine Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, 204 Commission on the Evaluation of Pain, 200-201 Commission on Health, Science, and Society, 22 Commission on Life Sciences (CLS), 147, 148, 185-186, 204 See also Assembly of Life Sciences (ALS) Commission on Medical Malpractice, 109 Committee of Ten Thousand, 239 Committee on a National Strategy for AIDS, 216 See also Confronting AIDS Committee on Clinical Evaluation, 189 Committee on Economic Development, 103 Committee on Energy and Commerce. See House Committee on Energy and Commerce; House Subcommittee on Health and Environment Committee on Epidemiology and Veterans Follow-Up Studies, 186, 262 Committee on Health Objectives for the Year 2000, 194-198 Committee on HIV and the Blood Supply, 241 See also Blood Safety Committee Committee on Substance Abuse and Mental Health Issues, 242-243, 244 Commonwealth Fund, 8, 10, 20, 21, 41, 42, 52, 55, 78, 79, 128, 156 , 161, 163, 164, 165, 181-182, 183 Comprehensive Health Manpower Training Act of 1971, 71 Computed tomography (CT) Institute of Medicine study, 95, 113, 114 Computer-Based Patient Record Institute, 199 Computer-Based Patient Record, 198 Comroe, Julius H., Jr., 5, 13, 14, 16, 22, 23, 24, 26, 28, 31, 33, 35, 36, 38, 52, 54, 84 Conference on Combining Psychosocial and Drug Therapy, 118 Conference on Infants at Risk for Developmental Dysfunction, 118 Conference on Promoting Drug Development Against AIDS and HIV Infection , 224-225 Confronting AIDS, 215, 220-224, 228, 229, 236, 243, 263 See also Committee on a National Strategy for AIDS Confronting AIDS: Update 1988, 227, 229, 230-231, 236, 243, 263 See also AIDS Oversight Committee Conn, Jerome W., 54 Constantine, Jay, 101-102 Contraception. See Family planning Cooper, John, 87, 166, 269 Cooper, Theodore, 106, 111, 114, 134, 151, 162, 227, 229 Council, Institute of Medicine, 58, 59, 67, 75, 77, 80, 83, 84, 87 , 96, 97, 98, 100, 101, 103, 104, 105, 107, 115, 116, 121, 124, 126 , 127, 128, 129, 134, 135, 136, 138, 145, 146, 147, 159, 150, 151, 155, 163, 167, 169, 170, 171, 172, 181, 183, 186, 191, 204, 205, 212, 213, 224, 228, 249, 263, 265, 267, 268, 270 Council, National Academy of Sciences, 171, 215, 268 Council on Health Care Technology, 189-190 See also Medical Technology Assessment Directory Council on Health Services Research, 150 Cranford, Louis, 192 Cronkhite, Leonard, 141 Cross, Harold, 113 CT. See Computed tomography (CT) Curran, James, 213, 216 D Dana Foundation, 182 Danforth, William, 80, 135, 136, 146, 234 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Stanford student kidnapping, David Hamburg negotiations, 96 Davis, Carolyne, 251, 252 Democratic Party, 24, 85, 101, 114, 123, 134, 150, 151, 155, 158, 159, 166, 238, 250

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To Improve Human Health: A History of the Institute of Medicine Dentistry Institute of Medicine study on dental care, 121-124 Department of Defense (DoD), 140, 141, 220, 255, 272 See also Military personnel Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), 150, 155, 160, 216, 233, 238, 241 Assistant Secretary for Health, 212, 227, 228, 241 Blood Safety Director, 241 Health Science Board proposal, 155 Secretary of Health and Human Services, 154, 155, 196, 206, 232, 238, 241, 249 Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW), 5, 18, 64, 80, 95, 101, 108, 111, 112, 114, 120, 122, 123, 125-126 Assistant Secretary of Health, 85, 115, 121, 123, 134, 135, 150, 155, 166 See also Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA); Commission on Medical Malpractice; National Center for Health Services Research and Development; National Institute of Mental Health; National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Department of State. See Office of International Scientific Affairs Department of Veterans Affairs, 232, 255 Derzon, Robert, 149, 160, 162, 167 Detmer, Don, 198 Diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) AIDS and, 219 Dialysis, kidney, 69 Diet health and, Institute of Medicine reports, 262-263 See also Nutrition Diet and Health, 186-187, 262 Dingell, John, 160, 193 Disabilities pain and, Institute of Medicine study, 200-201, 203 Discrimination HIV/AIDS and, 230 Division of Biobehavioral. Sciences and Mental Disorders, 252 See also Division of Neuroscience and Behavioral Health Division of Health Care Services, 105, 139-140, 159, 250, 251, 266 See also Board on Health Care Services Division of Health Manpower and Resources Development, 105 Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, 105, 157, 191 , 237, 239, 253-254, 256 See also Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Division of Health Sciences Policy, 138-139, 148, 258, 259, 260, 261 marijuana health effects study, 142-144 See also Board on Health Sciences Policy Division of Health Sciences Research, 105 Division of International Health, 105, 116, 216, 225, 237, 262 International Forum for AIDS Research proposal, 237 See also Board on International Health Division of Medical Sciences, 9, 12, 30, 63, 142, 146-147, 148 Division of Mental Health and Behavioral Medicine, 105, 106 Division of Neuroscience and Behavioral Health, 252 See also Division of Biobehavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders DoD. See Department of Defense (DoD) Dole, Vincent P., 128, 167 Douglass, Chester W., 121, 122 Dowdle, Walter, 217 DRGs. See Diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) Drug abuse and treatment AIDS and, 217, 229 AIDS research, substance abuse and mental health issues, Institute of Medicine report, 242-243 See also Alcohol abuse and treatment; Intravenous (IV) drug users; Marijuana

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To Improve Human Health: A History of the Institute of Medicine Drug reactions swine flue vaccine reactions, 111, 113 Drugs and drug industry AIDS drug development, conference, 224-225 AIDS drug development roundtable, 235-236 See also Analgesics; Drug abuse and treatment Dunlop, John T., 13, 152 DuVal, Merlin K., 71, 114 E Eat for Life, 262, 263 Ebert, James, 146, 154, 155, 163 Ebert Report organization of National Research Council, 145-148, 168, 185 Ebert, Robert, 162, 163, 164, 212 Education. See Graduate medical education (GME); Medical education Educational finance medical education costs, Institute of Medicine study, 71-75 Eisdorfer, Carl, 119 Eisenberg, Leon, 118, 256 Ellwood, Paul, 152 Emerging Infections, 258-259 Enders, John F., 136, 137-138 End-stage renal disease (ESRD), 69, 71 Entitlement programs entitlement and health contrasts, Institute of Medicine study, 63 67 See also Health insurance; Medicaid; Medicare; Social Security Epidemiology AIDS epidemiology in international context, workshop, 225-226 ESRD. See End-stage renal disease (ESRD) Estabrook, Ronald W., 170 Estes, Harvey, 107, 108 Ethics genetic testing and, Institute of Medicine study, 259-260 women and, health research issues, Institute of Medicine study, 260 An Evaluation of Poliomyelitis Vaccine Policy Options, 192 Evans, Eli, 126 Executive Committee, Institute of Medicine, 52, 53, 57, 58, 64, 65 , 83, 96, 135, 136, 137 F FAA. See Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Faden, Ruth, 260 Fair Labor Standards Act, 124 Fallon, Harold, 255 Family planning pregnancy (unintended) issues, Institute of Medicine study, 257-258 See also Maternity Farber, Saul, 139 Fauci, Anthony S., 213, 233-234, 235 FDA. See Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airline pilot age, Institute of Medicine study, 138 Federman, Daniel, 260 Fein, Rashi, 11, 13, 21, 54, 64, 65, 166, 265. Feldstein, Martin, 65, 66 Fellowships Board, Institute of Medicine, 82 Fenn, Wallace, 30 "Final Report of the Study Committee on the Institute of Medicine," 134, 162-168, 172, 173, 179, 180, 190, 216, 244, 272 See also Sproull committee; Sproull, Robert Finance. See Educational finance; Health care finance Finance Committee, Institute of Medicine, 58, 106 "Focusing on Quality in a Changing Health Care System," 267 Food additives and safety, 186-187 Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 76, 115, 120, 188, 194, 195, 214, 225, 235, 238, 239, 241, 249 See also Blood Safety Committee Food and food industry. See Food additives and safety Food and Nutrition Board, 185, 186, 191, 261-262, 263, 273, 274 See also Diet and Health

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To Improve Human Health: A History of the Institute of Medicine Food safety. See Food additives and safety Ford Foundation, 79-80, 156, 184 Ford, Gerald, 86, 111, 114, 134, 151, 227 Ford, Loretta, 166 Forum on Blood Safety and Availability, 258 Forum on Drug Development, 258, 27 Forum on Drug Development and Regulation, 188, 225 Foundations Institute of Medicine outreach to by Samuel Thier, 179-184 See also specific foundations Fox, Renee, 128 Fraser, David, 215 Fredrickson, Donald S., 6, 51, 55, 95, 96, 114, 115, 117, 126, 136 , 137, 138, 254, 270 Institute of Medicine presidency, 84-88 Freidson, Elliot, 80 Friedman, Milton, 12 Fuchs, Victor, 166 Fullerton, William, 122 Fund-raising and funding Institute of Medicine fund-raising, 76-80, 125-127, 160-162 See also Foundations The Future of Public Health, 198 G Gallo, Robert C., 213 Gebbie, Kristine, 227, 230 Genetic testing Institute of Medicine study, 259-260 Ginsberg, Harold, 235 Ginzberg, Eli, 72, 73, 74 Glaser, Robert J., 12, 13, 16, 17, 19, 20, 29, 38, 40, 41, 42, 52, 53, 54, 55, 58, 64, 78-79, 96, 145 GME. See Graduate medical education (GME) Good, Robert A., 54 Goodman, Clifford, 189 Gordon, Kermit, 12-13 Gorham, William, 166 Goss, Porter, 238, 239 Graduate medical education (GME) primary care physicians, educational finance, Institute of Medicine study, 201-202 See also Medical education Graham, Bob, 238, 239 Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act. See Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 Gray, Brad, 152, 153 Grayston, J. Thomas, 216 Great Society, 4, 20, 66, 114, 173 Greenberg, Bernard, 112 Groopman, Jerome, 217 Gross, Ruth, 169 Growing Up Tobacco Free, 252-254 Grumbach, Melvin, 197 Gustav O. Lienhard Award, 254 H Haggerty, Robert J., 108, 118, 197 Hamburg, David, 55, 67, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 141, 144, 146, 161 , 163, 187, 192, 254, 270, 271, 272 Institute of Medicine presidency, 95-129 Handler, Philip, 26, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 39, 40, 42, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 60, 62, 64, 76, 79, 81, 82, 83 , 84, 85, 86, 96, 109, 127, 129, 136, 137, 138, 162, 249, 268 Hanft, Ruth, 72-74, 87, 98-100, 139 Harris, Patricia Roberts, 124 Harrison, Ross, 8 Hartford Foundation. See John A. Hartford Foundation Hatch, Orrin, 193 Havighurst, Clark, 152-153 Hawaii, 124, 125 HCFA. See Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) "Health and Behavior: A Research Agenda," 116, 117-120 Health Care and Public Health Panel on AIDS, 215, 218, 219, 220 Health care finance AIDS and, 230 See also Health insurance; Health maintenance organizations (HMOs); Health Security Plan

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To Improve Human Health: A History of the Institute of Medicine Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), 148-149, 151, 159, 160 , 167, 199, 249, 251, 252 See also Medicaid; Medicare Health Data in the Information Age, 251 Health insurance, 64, 69 Clinton initiatives, 265 contraception and, Institute of Medicine study on unintended pregnancies , 257 for-profit investment in health care, Institute of Medicine, 151-154 national health insurance, Institute of Medicine focus on, 104, 121-122 See also Entitlement programs; Health care finance; Health Security Plan; Medicaid; Medicare Health Maintenance Organizations Act of 1973, 70 Health maintenance organizations (HMOs), 202 for-profit investment in health care, Institute of Medicine study, 152 Institute of Medicine policy statements, 70-71 See also Health care finance; Health insurance Health professions. See Graduate medical education (GME); Malpractice, medical; Medical education; Nurses and nursing; Physicians Health Professions Educational Assistance Act of 1974, 75 Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Amendments of 1984, 189 Health Research Act, 154 Health Resources and Services Administration, 251 Health Security Act, 266 Health Security Plan, 263-267 See also Health care finance; Health insurance Healthy People, 194 Healthy People: The Surgeon General's Report on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, 123 Healthy People 2000: Citizens Chart the Course, 196 Heckler, Margaret, 154, 155-156, 158 Heinz, John, 159 Hemophiliacs. See Blood diseases and disorders Henry J. Kaiser Foundation, 110 Herbicides Vietnam veterans health effects of herbicides, Institute of Medicine study, 254-256 See also Agent Orange; Chemical warfare Herdman, Roger, 264 Hess, Arthur, 139 Heyssel, Robert, 113 HEW. See Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) Hewlett Foundation. See William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Hewlett-Packard Medical Products Group, 189 HHS. See Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Higher education. See Educational finance; Graduate medical education (GME); Medical education Hill, Lister, 18 Hilleman, Maurice, 218 HIV/AIDS Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration research program, Institute of Medicine study, 237, 242-243 blood supply transmission, Institute of Medicine study, 237-241 discrimination and, 230 drug development conference/roundtable, 224-225, 235-236 epidemiology in international context, workshop, 221, 225-226 health care financing and, 230 homosexual males and, 217, 222 Institute of Medicine and AIDS, 211-244, 273 intravenous drug users and, 217, 221, 222, 229 mental health and drug abuse issues, Institute of Medicine report, 242-243 National Institutes of Health programs review, 233-235 patient treatment, 218-219, 223-224 sexual behavior and, 226 Soviet Union-U.S. AIDS working session, 236

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To Improve Human Health: A History of the Institute of Medicine substance abuse and mental health issues in AIDS research, Institute of Medicine report, 242-243 vaccine development, roundtable/workshop, 226-227, 235-236 workshops, 224-227 See also Confronting AIDS; Confronting AIDS: Update 1988; Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) HMO. See Health maintenance organizations (HMOs) Hoffman-La Roche, Inc., 213 Hogness, John, 51, 84, 85, 87, 88, 96, 109, 110, 115, 127, 137, 148 , 192, 194, 250, 269, 270 Institute of Medicine presidency, 55-83 Homelessness health care of the homeless, Institute of Medicine study, 199-200 See also Poverty Homosexuality AIDS and, 217, 222 Hopkins, Donald, 227, 229 House Committee on Energy and Commerce, 193 House Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committee, 73-74 House of Representatives. See U.S. Congress House Subcommittee on Health and Environment, 73-74, 157 House Subcommittee on Public Health and Welfare, 60 Howe, ''Doc," 79 Hubbard, William, 163, 189 Hudson, Rock, 211 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). See HIV/AIDS I Infants. See Birthweight; Breast feeding; Maternity Infectious diseases and disorders emerging infectious diseases, Institute of Medicine study, 258-259 See also HIV/AIDS; Polio; Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); Swine flu; Vaccines and vaccination In Her Lifetime African women's morbidity and mortality, Institute of Medicine study , 188 Initial Membership Committee, Institute of Medicine, 52, 53 Inouye, Daniel, 124-125 Institute of Medicine creation, 1-41 the Fredrickson presidency, 84-88 the Hamburg presidency, 95-129 the Hogness presidency, 55-83 the Institute and AIDS, 211-244 the Robbins presidency, 134-173 the Shine presidency, 249-274 the Thier presidency, 179-207 See also individual presidents International health AIDS epidemiology in international context, workshop, 225-226 infectious diseases (emerging), Institute of Medicine report, 258-259 Institute of Medicine study, 115-117 Soviet Union-U.S. AIDS working session, 236 International Health Committee, 116 Intravenous (IV) drug users AIDS and, 217, 221, 222, 229 See also Drug abuse and treatment J Jacobson, Leon O., 54 Javits, Jacob, 60, 111 John A. Hartford Foundation, 152 Johnson and Johnson toxic shock syndrome, Institute of Medicine study, 144, 145 Johnson, Lyndon B., 5, 7, 18, 29 Jones, Stan, 106, 121, 122 Josiah Macy, Jr., Foundation, 201 K Kaiser Family Foundation, 165, 182 Kaiser Foundation. See Henry J. Kaiser Foundation Katz, Sidney, 159, 160 Kaysen, Carl, 12 Keene, Clifford, 58

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To Improve Human Health: A History of the Institute of Medicine Kellogg Foundation. See W. K. Kellogg Foundation Kelly, James, 72-73 Kelly, William, 181 Kennedy, Donald, 115 Kennedy, Edward, 60, 75, 82, 106, 111, 115, 150, 238 Kennedy, John F., 2, 29, 52 Kerr, Clark, 163 Kessler, David, 249 Kessner, David, 66, 68, 71 King, Martin Luther, Jr., 21, 253 Kistiakowsky, George, 30, 34, 62, 127 Kleinman, Arthur, 201 Knowles, John, 59 Koop, C. Everett, 230, 231 Korean War veteran pilots age discrimination in commercial aviation, 138 Kuhn, Dana, 239 Kunkel, Henry G., 54 L Lactation. See Breast feeding Lashof, Joyce, 184 Lawton, Ben, 169 Leder, Philip, 169, 213 Lederberg, Joshua, 137, 258 Lee, Philip, 18 Legal, Ethical, and Educational Aspects of Health Division. See Division of Mental Health and Behavioral Medicine Leone, Lucile P., 13, 54 Leveton, Lauren, 239 Lewin, Larry, 86-87, 101, 102 Lewin, Marion Ein, 183 Lewis, Irving, 65 Lincoln, Abraham, 8 Linder, Clarence, 83 London, Irving M., 12, 13, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 32, 33, 36, 38, 40, 54, 58, 64, 75, 148 Long, Franklin, 36 Long Reorganization Committee, 36, 37, 38 M MacArthur Foundation, 161, 169, 182 Mac Lane, Saunders, 127 MacLeod, Colin M., 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 20, 22, 42, 54 "MacNeil-Lehrer NewsHour," 154, 157, 184 Macy Foundation. See Josiah Macy, Jr., Foundation Mahoney, Margaret, 21, 128 Maloney, Thomas, 165 Malpractice, medical Institute of Medicine study, 109-111 Manpower primary care manpower policy-making, 107-108 March of Dimes, 156, 184 Marijuana health effects, Institute of Medicine study, 141-144, 145 Marks, Paul, 172 Marston, Robert Q., 81 Mason, James, 212 Maternity genetic testing, Institute of Medicine study, 259-260 nutrition during pregnancy, Institute of Medicine report, 262-263 prenatal care, Institute of Medicine study, 184-185 unintended pregnancy issues, Institute of Medicine, 256-258 See also Birthweight; Breast feeding; Family planning McCarty, Maclyn, 54 McDermott, Walsh, 1, 8-16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 52, 54, 56 , 59, 66-67, 76, 77, 84, 95, 96, 128, 134, 135, 137, 145, 168, 252 , 268, 269, 270, 273, 274 McNerney, Walter, 121-122, 152, 153, 166, 266 Mechanic, David, 65, 67, 81, 201 Medicaid, 149, 157, 158, 159, 215, 257 Institute of Medicine studies, 98-100, 104, 108 See also Entitlement programs; Health and health care; Health insurance; Social Security Medicaid Infant Mortality Reduction Amendments of 1985, 158 Medical education, 104

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To Improve Human Health: A History of the Institute of Medicine costs, Institute of Medicine study, 71-75 military doctor supply, government role, Institute of Medicine study , 140-141 nursing education, Institute of Medicine study, 139-140 primary care manpower policy-making, Institute of Medicine study, 107-108 See also Graduate medical education (GME) Medical Follow-Up Agency, 185, 186, 191, 237, 262, 273 Medical records, 186 privacy rights of individuals and, Institute of Medicine study, 251 Medical research, 186 women and, ethical and legal issues, Institute of Medicine study, 260, 261 See also Epidemiology; Genetic testing Medical Sciences Division. See Division of Medical Sciences Medical Sciences Section, 30, 40, 53 Medical supplies needles and syringes for drug users, AIDS prevention, 217, 221, 229 See also Blood and blood products Medical Technology Assessment Directory, 189 See also Council on Health Care Technology Medical tests. See Genetic testing; Medical research Medicare, 2, 4, 5, 69, 81, 123, 139, 149, 202, 206, 252, 267 Institute of Medicine studies, 98-100, 104, 108 See also Entitlement programs; Health insurance; Social Security Mellon Foundation. See Andrew W. Mellon Foundation; Richard King Mellon Foundation Membership Committee, Institute of Medicine, 58, 80, 81, 87, 204, 205 Mental health and illness AIDS research, substance abuse and mental health issues, Institute of Medicine report, 242-243 Institute of Medicine work, 104, 115-116, 117-120 Milbank Memorial Fund, 21, 162, 212 Military personnel physician supply in military, government role, Institute of Medicine study, 140-141 See also Veterans Miller, Charles, 161-162, 167, 191, 192 Miller, Morton, 74 Mitzenheim, Robert L., 142 Modern Medicine, 4 Mondale, Walter, 22, 152 Mongan, Jim, 101-102 Montefiore Hospital, 59, 73, 119 Moore Carl V., 54 Moore, Francis D., 18-19, 268 Morrell, Juan, 253 Morris, Alvin, 73 Mortality African women's morbidity and mortality, Institute of Medicine study , 187-188 Moses, Lincoln, 162 Mosteller, Fred, 67 Motulsky, Arno, 259 Moynihan, Daniel, 118 Murray, Robert F., 138 Murtaugh, Joseph, 12, 13, 14, 17, 20, 24, 27, 31, 34, 37, 38 N Nabrit, Samuel, M., 13, 15, 22, 54, 59 NAM. See National Academy of Medicine (NAM) Narcotics. See Drug abuse and treatment; Drugs and drug industry; Marijuana NAS. See National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Nathans, Daniel, 163 National Academy of Engineering (NAE), 4, 9, 10, 62, 83, 171, 232 National Academy of Medicine (NAM), 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 14, 16, 22, 23-28, 28-33, 33-38, 134, 168, 170, 172, 267-268 National Academy of Sciences (NAS), 2-27 passim, 34, 35, 50-81 passim, 84, 87, 96, 109, 119, 126, 127, 128, 134, 135, 137, 146, 147, 148, 150, 155, 161-172 passim, 179, 181, 183, 185, 191, 194, 196, 199,

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To Improve Human Health: A History of the Institute of Medicine 200, 203, 206, 214-215, 216, 222, 223, 224, 228, 232, 233, 236, 239 , 244, 249, 254-255, 265, 267, 268, 269, 270, 272 Institute of Medicine proposal presented to, 38-41 Institute of Medicine relations with, 82-83, 95 National Academy of Medicine rejection by, 28-33 See also Board on Medicine; Council, National Academy of Sciences; Division of Medical Sciences; Medical Sciences Section; National Academy of Engineering (NAE); National Research Council (NRC); Report Review Committee, National Academy of Sciences National Cancer Institute (NCI), 60, 61, 125, 226 National Cancer Program Plan, 61, 62 National Center for Health Services Research and Development, 63, 66, 189 National Childhood Injury Act of 1986, 193 National Commission on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 220, 232, 236, 243 National Institute of Aging, 119, 138, 169 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 213, 226 National Institute of Mental Health, 97, 119, 242 National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 120, 242 National Institute on Drug Abuse, 242 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 1, 3, 5, 6, 14, 20, 21, 27, 33-34, 51, 81, 85, 86, 87, 137, 138, 141, 150, 161, 166, 173, 216, 220, 252, 242, 259, 261, 266, 268, 269 AIDS programs of National Institutes of Health, review by Institute of Medicine, 233-235, 237 organizational structure of National Institutes of Health, Institute of Medicine study, 154-156 See also Blood Safety Committee; Individual institutes and offices National Institute of Nursing Research, 251 National Naval Medical Center, 157 National Research Council (NRC), 8, 9, 10, 23, 26, 28, 34, 62, 83, 109, 119, 150, 151, 154, 168, 170, 171, 181, 190, 196, 199, 204, 213, 215, 216, 228, 272 Ebert report on organization, 145-148 See also Assembly of Life Sciences (ALS); Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education; Commission on Life Sciences (CLS); Division of Medical Sciences; Food and Nutrition Board; Medical Follow-Up Agency National Roundtable on Health Care Quality, 267 National Science Foundation, 66, 119, 120, 150 National Vaccine Program, 193 Native Americans Navajos in Arizona and New Mexico, tuberculosis treatment program, 11 Nature, 30 NCHSR. See National Center for Health Services Research (NCHSR) NCI. See National Cancer Institute (NCI) Nelson, Alan, 169 New England Journal of Medicine, 108, 113, 142, 153-154, 181 Newman, Howard, 151 Newsweek, 125 Newton, Quigg, 78-79 New Vaccine Development: Establishing Priorities, 192 New York Times, 14, 18, 56, 135, 154, 157, 184, 200, 222 New York Times-CBS poll on AIDS, 211 Nichols, Eve, 213 Nightingale, Elena, 105, 112, 113, 142 NIH. See National Institutes of Health (NIH) Nixon, Richard M., 24, 32, 51, 70, 72, 78, 85, 114, 173, 269 cancer wars, 60-62, 270 Nobel Prize, 136, 154, 163, 215, 244, 258 NRC. See National Research Council (NRC)

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To Improve Human Health: A History of the Institute of Medicine Nurses and nursing education of nurses, Institute of Medicine study, 139-140 supply of, Institute of Medicine study, 251-252 Nurse Training Amendments of 1979, 139 Nursing homes regulation of, Institute of Medicine study, 158-160 Nutrition Institute of Medicine report, 262 pregnancy and nutrition, Institute of Medicine report, 262-263 See also Diet Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation: An Implementation Guide, 262-263 O O'Brien, Lawrence, 85 Office of AIDS Research, 243-244 Office of International Scientific Affairs, 18 Office of Science and Technology, 7, 8, 61, 119 Office of Technology Assessment, 102, 264 Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health, 234 Omenn, Gilbert, 169, 214 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981, 150 Organ transplants heart transplant statement, 16-20 organ transplantation and Board on Medicine, 16 Osborn, June E., 211, 215 Otten, Alan, 179 P Page Discussion Group, 2-8, 10 Page, Irvine H., 1-8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 31, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 40, 41, 52, 54, 56, 59, 78 , 80, 104, 269, 270, 274 Pain disability and, Institute of Medicine study, 200-201, 203 Pain and Disability, 201 Payne, Rose, 16 Petersdorf, Robert, 103-104 Pew Memorial Trust, 161 Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association, 188, 226 PHS. See Public Health Service (PHS) Physicians military doctor supply, government role, Institute of Medicine study , 140-141 primary care physicians graduate medical education, Institute of Medicine study, 201-202 Pilots airline pilot age, Institute of Medicine study, 138-139 Platt, Kenneth, 152 Pokrovsky, Vadim, 236 Polio Sabin oral vaccine, 111, 112 Salk vaccine, 111 vaccines, Institute of Medicine study, 109, 111-113 vaccine reports of Institute of Medicine, 192 See also Infectious diseases and disorders Political parties. See Democratic Party; Republican Party Politics Institute of Medicine and, 124-126 science and, Institute of Medicine, 258-260 See also Democratic Party; Republican Party Pollard, Michael, 110 Poverty health status and care and, 66-67 See also Homelessness Pregnancy. See Maternity Presidential Commission on Mental Health, 115 Presidential Commission on Mental Illness, 117 Presidential Commission on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Epidemic , 224, 228, 229, 231, 273 Press, Frank, 146, 147, 162, 163, 164, 165, 168, 169, 171-172, 181 , 183,

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To Improve Human Health: A History of the Institute of Medicine 185-186, 199, 214, 215, 223, 224, 232, 233, 244, 268, 272 Preventive medicine low birthweight, Institute of Medicine study, 156-157 Surgeon General's report on health promotion/disease prevention, Institute of Medicine study, 121-124 See also Vaccines and vaccination Prewitt, Kenneth, 227 Price, Don, 163 Privacy rights. See Right to privacy Proctor and Gamble Rely tampons and toxic shock syndrome, 144 Program Committee, Institute of Medicine, 58, 63, 65, 66, 67, 75, 78, 97, 104, 105, 106, 107, 125, 134, 151, 190 Public health future of, Institute of Medicine study, 197-199, 203, 263 Institute of Medicine as crusader, 252-258 See also Preventive medicine Public Health Service (PHS), 148-149, 155, 187, 192, 194-195, 196, 198, 212, 217, 235, 236, 241 Public Health Services Act, amendments to, 231 Pusey, Nathan, 79 R Rather, Dan, 223 Reagan, Ronald, 81, 148-151, 152, 165, 166, 173, 183, 187, 193, 196 , 202, 211, 212, 224, 229, 231, 272-273 Institute of Medicine and Reagan administration, 148-160 Religious Coalition for Abortion Rights, 69 Relman, Arnold, 142, 143, 153-154 Rely tampons toxic shock syndrome and, 144 Remington, Richard, 186, 197 Renal disease. See End-stage renal disease (ESRD) Report Review Committee, National Academy of Sciences, 127, 128 Reproductive diseases and disorders. See Toxic shock syndrome; Women Republican Party, 24, 101, 114, 134, 150, 151, 155, 166, 238 Research Panel. See Health Care and Public Health Panel on AIDS Revson Foundation. See Charles H. Revson Foundation Reye's syndrome analgesics, relationship to, Institute of Medicine reports, 194 Ribicoff, Abraham, 163 Rice, Dorothy, 80, 103, 121, 220 Richard King Mellon Foundation, 78, 126, 161 Richardson, Elliott, 72, 114, 163 Richmond, Julius, 65, 72, 73, 86, 96, 104, 115, 117, 118, 121, 122 , 123, 135, 194, 254 Riecken, Henry W., 13, 54 Right to privacy medical records and, Institute of Medicine study, 251 Robbins, Frederick, 5, 112, 128, 183-184, 188, 189, 192, 212, 213, 214, 272 Institute of Medicine presidency, 134-173 Robert Wood Johnson (RWJ) Foundation, 73, 77-78, 82, 86, 107, 126, 127, 137, 139, 161, 164, 181, 182, 183, 228, 229, 253, 254 Fellows in Health Care Policy, 81-82, 266 Rockefeller Foundation, 21, 184, 187 Roe v. Wade, 67, 270 See also Abortion Rogers, David E., 73, 74, 77, 137, 164-165, 254 Rogers, Paul, 60, 61, 82, 225 Rosenblith, Walter A., 13, 54, 61-62, 64, 185-186 Rother, John, 159 Roundtable for the Development of Drugs and Vaccines Against AIDS, 235-236, 237, 254 Roundtable on the Role of Academic Health Centers in Clinical Research and Education, 258 Rubin, Robert, 166 Russell, Christine, 222-223 RWJ. See Robert Wood Johnson (RWJ) Foundation Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency Act, 243

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To Improve Human Health: A History of the Institute of Medicine S Sanazaro, Paul, 63, 64 Sanford, Jay, 193 Sapolski, Harvey, 163, 165, 166, 167 Saturday Review, 18 Saward, Ernest W., 54, 103 Sawhill, Isabel, 139 Sawyer, John, 79, 165, 172 Schaeffer, Leonard, 149 Schorr, Lisbeth Bamberger, 126 Schwartz, William, 65 Schweicker, Richard, 150 Science, 5, 59, 231, 249 Science and Technology Office. See Office of Science and Technology Scientific American, 113 Scott, Richard, 110 Seggel, Richard, 106 Seitz, Frederick, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 20, 24, 25, 26, 33 , 37 Senate. See U.S. Congress Senate Commerce Committee. See Senate Subcommittee on Tourism Senate Committee on Human Resources, 116 Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources, 193 Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, 189-190 Senate Finance Committee, 101, 185 Senate Subcommittee on Tourism, 124, 125 Sexual behavior AIDS and, workshop on international epidemiology, 226 Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) Institute of Medicine report, 260-261 See also HIV/AIDS; Infectious diseases and disorders Shalala, Donna, 238, 241, 249, 266 Shannon, James A., 1, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 20, 21, 22, 23, 27, 29, 30, 31, 37, 40, 54, 75-76, 84, 166, 269, 271, 274 Sheps, Cecil, 106 Shine, Kenneth, 58, 211, 273 Institute of Medicine presidency, 249-274 Shope, Robert, 258 Sidel, Victor, 59 Singer, Burton, 226 Sloan Foundation, 9 Sloan, Frank, 251 Smoking. See Tobacco products and use Social Security, 2, 69, 81, 122, 206 disability determinations and pain, Institute of Medicine study, 200-201, 203 Institute of Medicine studies, 98-100 See also Entitlement programs; Medicaid; Medicare Social Security Administration, 99, 139, 200, 201, 254 Social Security Amendments of 1972, 69 Somers, Herbert, 70 Soviet Union Academy of Medical Sciences, 236 AIDS working session with U.S., 236 Ministry of Health, 236 Sox, Harold C., Jr., 238 Spivak, Jonathan, 110 Sproull Committee, 163, 164, 165, 167, 169, 171, 212 See also ''Final Report of the Study Committee on the Institute of Medicine" Sproull report. See "Final Report of the Study Committee on the Institute of Medicine" Sproull, Robert, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 169 Staats, Elmer, 163 Starfield, Barbara, 151 State Department. See Office of International Scientific Affairs STDs. See Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) Stead, Eugene A., 12, 13, 16, 38, 52, 59 Stever, Guy, 114 Stone, Martha, 142 Stoto, Michael, 255 Strategic planning Health Security Plan and, 263-267 Strickland, Stephen, 5 Substance abuse. See Alcohol abuse and treatment; Drug abuse and treatment; Tobacco products and use Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 242 See also Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA)

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To Improve Human Health: A History of the Institute of Medicine Sullivan, Louis W., 196, 206 Surdi, Jana, 192 Surgeon General, 118, 194, 230, 231, 254 health promotion/disease prevention report, Institute of Medicine study, 121-124 See also Healthy People; Healthy People: The Surgeon General's Report on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Swine flu vaccine reactions, 111, 113 See also Infectious diseases and disorders T Taber, George, 78 Tampons toxic shock and, Institute of Medicine study, 144, 145 Tanzania. See Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Tarlov, Alvin, 165 Task Force on Mission, Structure, and Finances, 146-147, 169 Technology Assessment Office. See Office of Technology Assessment Temin, Howard, 215, 218, 227 Tenney, Marsh, 167 THC. See Marijuana Thier, Samuel, 172, 173, 211, 214, 215, 223, 224, 225, 227, 228, 229, 232, 233, 236, 243, 244, 249, 250, 264, 272, 273 Institute of Medicine presidency, 179-207 outreach to foundations under, 179-184 Thomas, Lewis, 61, 62 Thompson, John, 139 Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident, 120 Tilson, David, 159 Tobacco products and use antismoking campaign, Institute of Medicine report, 252-253 Tobin, James, 12 Tollerud, David, 255 Torrens, Paul, 253 Tosteson, Daniel, 73 Toxic shock syndrome Institute of Medicine study, 144-145 Transplants. See Organ transplants Trout, Monroe, 233 U Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 141 United Way, 196 Upjohn Company, 163, 189, 227 Urban Institute, 103 U.S. Agency for International Development. See Agency for International Development (AID) U.S. Congress, 122, 138, 150, 154, 155, 159, 185, 223, 224, 229, 232, 242, 243 AIDS blood supply transmission, 237, 238, 239 homeless people's health care, Institute of Medicine study, 199-200 pain and disability, Institute of Medicine study, 200-201 physicians (primary care), graduate medical education, Institute of Medicine study, 201-202 See also House Committee on Energy and Commerce; House Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committee; House Subcommittee on Health and Environment; House Subcommittee on Public Health and Welfare; Office of Technology Assessment; Senate Committee on Human Resources; Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources; Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare; Senate Finance Committee; Senate Subcommittee on Tourism U.S. Information Agency, 18 U.S.S.R. See Soviet Union V VA. See Veterans Administration (NA) Vaccines and vaccination, 271

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To Improve Human Health: A History of the Institute of Medicine AIDS vaccine development, 226-227, 231, 235-236 oral vaccine, 111, 112 polio vaccine, Institute of Medicine study, 109, 111-113 Sabin oral polio vaccine, 111, 112 Salk polio vaccine, 111 supply of vaccines, Institute of Medicine report, 192-194 swine flu vaccine reactions, 111, 113 See also Infectious diseases and disorders; Preventive medicine Vaccine Supply and Innovation, 192-194 Valdez, Richard, 239 Vance, Cyrus, 163 Veterans Vietnam veterans Agent Orange health effects, Institute of Medicine study, 254-256 Vietnam veterans health studies, 202-203 Veterans Administration (VA), 99, 186 Vietnam War, 16, 37, 56, 140 veterans Agent Orange health effects, Institute of Medicine study, 254-256 veterans health studies, 202-203 Vladeck, Bruce, 199-200, 249 Volberding, Paul, 217-218, 227, 229 W Wadleigh, Jonathan, 240 Wagner, Judith, 113 Waksman, Byron, 112 Wallace, George, 24 Wallace, Mike, 56 Wall Street Journal, 110, 154, 184, 207 Ward, Paul, 70 Washington Post, 95, 114, 123, 154, 157, 179, 222 Washington State House of Representatives, 195 Waterfall, Wallace, 184, 192 Watergate investigations, 101 Watkins, James D., 231 Waxman, Henry, 157, 158, 159, 193 Weinberg, Alvin, 30 Weinberger, Caspar, 86 Weisbrod, Burton, 110, 214 Weiss, Robin, 232, 235, 237 Weiss, Ted, 202 Weissman, Irving, 218 Weller, Thomas H., 54, 136 White House, 158, 223 See also Individual presidents; Office of Science and Technology; Presidential Commission on Mental Health; Presidential Commission on Mental Illness; Presidential Commission on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Epidemic White House Task Force on Health Care Reform, 266 White, Leon, 64 WHO. See World Health Organization (WHO) Widdus, Roy, 216, 225 Wilbur, Dwight L., 12, 13, 15, 23, 26, 27, 54, 64 Wilbur, Ray L., 13 Wilensky, Gail, 265 William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, 110 Williams, Bryan, 13, 33, 54, 64, 65 Windom, Robert, 222, 228 W. K. Kellogg Foundation, 78, 79, 86, 107, 121, 125, 126, 182, 183 Wolff, Sheldon, 144, 215, 219, 222, 223, 225, 235 Women African women's morbidity and mortality, Institute of Medicine study , 187-188 Board on Medicine membership, 13 health research, ethical and legal issues, Institute of Medicine reports, 260, 261 toxic shock syndrome, Institute of Medicine study, 144-145 See also Breast feeding; Maternity Women and Health Research, 260 Wood, W. Barry, Jr., 54 Workshops AIDS drug development, 224-225, 235 AIDS epidemiology and disease burden projections, 216 AIDS epidemiology in international context, 225-226 AIDS vaccine development, 226-227 World Health Organization (WHO), 113, 221, 231 World War I, 8, 9

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To Improve Human Health: A History of the Institute of Medicine World War II, 3, 9, 186 veteran pilots age discrimination in commercial aviation, 138 Wunderlich, Gooloo, 251 Wyngaarden, James B., 233-234 Y Yarmolinsky, Adam, 13, 15, 24, 29, 32, 39, 40, 54, 79-80, 86, 98, 99, 100, 205 Year 2000 Health Objectives Consortium, 196 Yerby, Alonzo S., 13, 54 Yordy, Karl, 58, 70, 75, 87, 106, 124, 125-126, 161, 166, 167, 168 , 169, 191-192, 250 Young, Frank, 225, 235 Z Zaire Stanford student kidnapping, David Hamburg negotiations, 96