Harnessing Light

Optical Science and Engineering for the 21stCentury

Committee on Optical Science and Engineering

Board on Physics and Astronomy

National Materials Advisory Board

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

National Academy Press
Washington, D.C.
1998



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century Harnessing Light Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century Committee on Optical Science and Engineering Board on Physics and Astronomy National Materials Advisory Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1998

OCR for page R1
Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This project was supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency under Contract No. MDA972-94-1-0015, the National Science Foundation under Contract No. ECS-9414956, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology under Contract No. 50-SBNB-4-C-8197. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily express the views of the sponsors. Cover: For photo credit and description, see p. 12. Copyright 1998 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America International Standard Book Number 0-309-05991-7 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 98-86525 The complete volume of Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century is available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20055 (1-800-624-6242 or http://www.nap.edu).

OCR for page R1
Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century COMMITTEE ON OPTICAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING CHARLES V. SHANK, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Chair ARAM MOORADIAN, Winchester, Massachusetts, Vice Chair DAVID ATTWOOD, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory GARY BJORKLUND, Optical Networks, Inc. ROBERT BYER, Stanford University MICHAEL CAMPBELL, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory STEVEN CHU, Stanford University THOMAS DEUTSCH, Massachusetts General Hospital ELSA GARMIRE, Dartmouth College ALASTAIR GLASS, Lucent Technologies JOHN GREIVENKAMP, University of Arizona ARTHUR GUENTHER, Sandia National Laboratories THOMAS S. HARTWICK, TRW (retired) ROBIN HOCHSTRASSER, University of Pennsylvania ERICH IPPEN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology KRISTINA JOHNSON, University of Colorado at Boulder DENNIS KILLINGER, University of South Florida HERWIG KOGELNIK, Lucent Technologies ROBERT SHANNON, University of Arizona GLENN T. SINCERBOX, University of Arizona BRIAN THOMPSON, University of Rochester ELI YABLONOVITCH, University of California, Los Angeles THOMAS BAER, Biometric Imaging Systems, Special Consultant DONALD SHAPERO, Director, Board on Physics and Astronomy ROBERT SCHAFRIK, Director, National Materials Advisory Board SANDRA HYLAND, Senior Program Officer, National Materials Advisory Board DANIEL MORGAN, Program Officer, Board on Physics and Astronomy

OCR for page R1
Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY ROBERT C. DYNES, University of California, San Diego, Chair ROBERT C. RICHARDSON, Cornell University, Vice Chair IRA BERNSTEIN, Yale University STEVEN CHU, Stanford University VAL FITCH, Princeton University IVAR GIAEVER, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute JOHN HUCHRA, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics ANTHONY C.S. READHEAD, California Institute of Technology R.G. HAMISH ROBERTSON, University of Washington KATHLEEN C. TAYLOR, General Motors Corporation J. ANTHONY TYSON, Lucent Technologies GEORGE WHITESIDES, Harvard University DAVID WILKINSON, Princeton University DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director ROBERT L. RIEMER, Associate Director DANIEL F. MORGAN, Program Officer NATASHA CASEY, Program Associate GRACE WANG, Project Assistant

OCR for page R1
Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD ROBERT A. LAUDISE, Lucent Technologies, Chair JAMES C. WILLIAMS, GE Aircraft Engines, Past Chair REZA ABBASCHIAN, University of Florida MICHAEL I. BASKES, Sandia National Laboratories JESSE (JACK) BEAUCHAMP, California Institute of Technology FRANCIS DISALVO, Cornell University EARL DOWELL, Duke University EDWARD C. DOWLING, Cleveland Cliffs, Inc. THOMAS EAGAR, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ANTHONY G. EVANS, Harvard University JOHN A.S. GREEN, The Aluminum Association, Inc. SIEGFRIED S. HECKER, Los Alamos National Laboratory JOHN H. HOPPS, JR., Morehouse College MICHAEL JAFFE, Hoechst Celanese Corporation (retired) SYLVIA M. JOHNSON, SRI International LISA KLEIN, Rutgers University HARRY LIPSITT, Wright State University ALAN G. MILLER, Boeing Commercial Airplane Group RICHARD S. MULLER, University of California, Berkeley ROBERT C. PFAHL, JR., Motorola ELSA REICHMANIS, Lucent Technologies KENNETH L. REIFSNIDER, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University JAMES WAGNER, Case Western Reserve University BILL G.W. YEE, Pratt & Whitney RICHARD CHAIT, Director ROBERT SCHAFRIK, Past Director ROBERT M. EHRENREICH, Senior Program Officer SANDRA HYLAND, Senior Program Officer THOMAS E. MUNNS, Senior Program Officer CHARLES HACH, Program Officer BONNIE SCARBOROUGH, Program Officer LOIS LOBO, Research Associate MARLENE CROWELL, Financial Analyst AIDA NEEL, Senior Project Assistant JANICE PRISCO, Senior Project Assistant PAT WILLIAMS, Senior Project Assistant

OCR for page R1
Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS ROBERT J. HERMANN, United Technologies Corporation, Co-chair W. CARL LINEBERGER, University of Colorado, Co-chair PETER M. BANKS, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan WILLIAM BROWDER, Princeton University LAWRENCE D. BROWN, University of Pennsylvania RONALD G. DOUGLAS, Texas A&M University JOHN E. ESTES, University of California, Santa Barbara MARTHA P. HAYNES, Cornell University L. LOUIS HEGEDUS, Elf Atochem North America, Inc. JOHN E. HOPCROFT, Cornell University CAROL M. JANTZEN, Westinghouse Savannah River Company PAUL G. KAMINSKI, Technovation, Inc. KENNETH H. KELLER, University of Minnesota KENNETH I. KELLERMANN, National Radio Astronomy Observatory MARGARET G. KIVELSON, University of California, Los Angeles DANIEL KLEPPNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN KREICK, Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company MARSHA I. LESTER, University of Pennsylvania NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS, Brookhaven National Laboratory CHANG-LIN TIEN, University of California, Berkeley NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director

OCR for page R1
Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century COMMISSION ON ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL SYSTEMS W. DALE COMPTON, Purdue University, Chair ELEANOR BAUM, The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art RUTH M. DAVIS, Pymatuning Group, Inc. HENRY J. HATCH, Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. STUART L. KNOOP, Oudens and Knoop, Architects, PC NANCY G. LEVESON, University of Washington ROBERT M. NEREM, Georgia Institute of Technology LAWRENCE T. PAPAY, Bechtel Technology and Consulting BRADFORD W. PARKINSON, Stanford University JERRY SCHUBEL, New England Aquarium BARRY M. TROST, Stanford University JAMES C. WILLIAMS, GE Aircraft Engines RONALD W. YATES, U.S. Air Force (retired), Consultant DOUGLAS C. BAUER, Executive Director

OCR for page R1
Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century Preface In July 1994, the National Research Council (NRC) issued a report titled Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Science: An Investment in the Future (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.). The report found that optical science had become an integral part of a wide range of scientific disciplines and was a key contributor to economically important applications in many areas. Some aspects of optical science, however, and all of optical engineering, were beyond the scope of the 1994 report, which therefore recommended undertaking a more comprehensive assessment of the broad field of optical science and engineering. A program initiation and planning meeting was organized by the Board on Physics and Astronomy in cooperation with the National Materials Advisory Board. This effort resulted in the formation of the Committee on Optical Science and Engineering in early 1995, under the auspices of the two boards and with funding from three federal agencies: the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the National Science Foundation, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The charge to the committee was as follows: Survey the field of optical science and engineering (OS&E). Define the technical scope and institutional structure of the OS&E community. Examine progress over the last decade and project the future impact of OS&E on societal needs in the short (3-5 years) and long terms (5-20 years). Focus on leading-edge developments. Develop a vision for the future and identify some ''grand challenges" that could give the field direction and could focus efforts in areas that have potential for benefit to society. Identify technical opportunities and prioritize them in the context of national needs. Identify institutional and educational innovations that are needed to develop and organize the field in a more coherent fashion and to optimize the contributions of OS&E to addressing critical national needs.

OCR for page R1
Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century Determine how public policy influences the ability of OS&E to address national needs. Examine trends in private and public research activities and compare them with those in other countries. The committee met for the first time in March 1995. It held six workshops over the course of the following year to gather technical input from the optical science and engineering community. There were also presentations and public forums at several professional society meetings, to inform the community about the study, to solicit further input, and to begin building a foundation of community support for the study process. Based on these inputs, additional inquiries by members of the committee, and extensive discussion and debate within the committee, this report was prepared to present the study's findings, conclusions, and recommendations. The committee thanks the many members of the OS&E community who provided their assistance to the study by participating in the workshops and through other means (see Appendix B). Without such a broad range of input, no single group could have hoped to examine a field as broad and diverse as this one. Thanks are also due to Doug Vaughan of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for his assistance in writing the Overview. A final note on terminology: Many terms are used to describe this field and its various overlapping subfields. This report often simply uses the word optics, in its broadest sense, to include the whole spectrum of activity in the field, across all subfields, and from basic research to engineering.

OCR for page R1
Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making their published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The contents of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Arthur Ashkin, AT&T Bell Laboratories (retired) David H. Auston, Rice University Arthur N. Chester, Hughes Research Laboratories Anthony J. DeMaria, DeMaria ElectroOptics Systems Paul A. Fleury, University of New Mexico John L. Hall, JILA/University of Colorado Wendell T. Hill, University of Maryland, College Park William Howard, Scottsdale, Arizona Daniel Kleppner, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Paul W. Kruse, Infrared Solutions Robert Laudise, Lucent Technologies Jacques I. Pankove, University of Colorado at Boulder Don W. Shaw, Texas Instruments (retired) Watt W. Webb, Cornell University and one anonymous reviewer While the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the NRC.

OCR for page R1
Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century Contents     Executive Summary: Introduction to the Field and the Issues   1     Overview   5     The contents of the full report, from which this Overview is extracted, are listed below.     1   Optics in Information Technology and Telecommunications   29     Information Transport,   32     Long-Distance Transmission,   34     Fiber to the Home,   39     Analog Lightwave Transmission,   42     Optical Space Communications,   44     Information Processing,   46     Optical Data Links,   47     Optical Networking and Switching,   49     Optical Image Processing and Computing,   56     Overall Issues,   58     Optical Storage,   58     Market Size and Current Trends,   58     Education Issues,   63     International Competitiveness,   63     Key Unresolved Issues,   63     Opportunities, Challenges, Obstacles,   64     Displays,   67     Medium-Sized Displays,   69     Small Displays,   71     Projection Displays,   72     Very Large Displays,   72     Military and Avionics Displays,   73     Educational and R&D Issues,   73     Summary and Recommendations,   74     Information Transport,   74     Processing,   76     Storage,   78     Dispalys,   80

OCR for page R1
Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century 2   Optics in Health Care and the Life Sciences   83     Surgery and Medicine,   84     Introduction of Lasers,   85     Understanding the Interaction of Light with Tissue,   87     Minimally Invasive Therapy,   89     Advanced Therapeutic Applications of Lasers,   92     Optical Diagnostic Techniques,   97     Nontechnical Considerations,   105     Tools for Biology,   106     Visualization Techniques,   106     Measurement and Analysis Techniques,   112     Micromanipulation Techniques,   116     Biotechnology,   117     DNA Analysis,   117     Pharmaceutical Screening,   119     Summary and Recommendations,   120     Surgery and Medicine,   120     Tools for Biology,   122     Biotechnology,   123     References,   123 3   Optical Sensing, Lighting, and Energy   125     Optical Sensors and Imaging Systems,   127     Environmental and Atmospheric Monitoring,   128     Earth and Global Surface Monitoring,   133     Astronomy and Planetary Probes,   136     Industrial Chemical Sensors,   140     Digital, Video, and Thermal Imaging Cameras,   141     Law Enforcement and Security,   143     Common Everyday Optical Sensors,   147     Lighting,   148     Lighting History, Future Directions, and Standards,   149     New Lighting Sources and Distribution Systems,   150     Optical Sensors and Lighting in Transportation,   155     Aircraft Applications,   155     Automobile Applications,   156     Energy,   158     Inertial Confinement Fusion Using Lasers,   158     Laser Isotope Separation of Uranium for Nuclear Energy,   160     Space Solar Cells,   160     Terrestrial Solar Cells,   161     Solar Thermal Energy,   163     Summary and Recommendations,   164     Optical Sensors and Imaging Systems,   164     Lighting,   165     Optical Sensors and Lighting in Transportation,   166     Energy,   166     References,   167

OCR for page R1
Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century 4   Optics in National Defense   169     Surveillance,   173     Night Vision,   176     Laser Systems Operating in the Atmosphere and in Space,   179     Laser Range Finders, Designators, Jammers, and Communicators,   180     Laser Weapons,   182     Fiber-Optic Systems,   184     Displays,   186     Special Techniques,   188     Chemical and Biological Species Detection,   188     Laser Gyros for Navigation,   189     Optical Signal Processing,   190     Summary and Recommendations,   190     References,   194 5   Opticsin Industrial Manufacturing   195     Use of Light to Perform Manufacturing,   197     Photolithography,   197     Laser Materials Processing,   201     Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing Using Optics,   208     Use of Optics to Control Manufacturing,   210     Metrology,   211     Machine Vision,   213     Sensors,   215     Specific Industrial Applications,   215     Automobile Manufacturing,   215     The Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Industry,   218     Display Manufacturing,   221     The Chemical Industry,   221     Aircraft Manufacturing,   223     The Construction Industry,   225     The Printing Industry,   227     Increasing Use of Optics in Industrial Manufacturing,   229     Summary and Recommendations,   230     References,   233 6   Manufacturing Optical Components and Systems   235     Introduction,   235     A Brief History,   237     An Overview of the Industry Today,   237     Low-Volume Manufacturing of Specialty Optics,   239     Spherical Lenses,   240     Aspheres,   242     Computer-Controlled Deterministic Grinding and Polishing,   244     Diffractive Elements,   245     Optical Coatings,   246     Optical Glasses, Polymers, and Specialty Materials,   248     Case Study: Photolithography Equipment,   249     Case Study: Optics for the National Ignition Facility,   251     Key Technical Challenges,   253

OCR for page R1
Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century     High-Volume Manufacturing of Optics,   253     Optical Fiber, Fiber Devices, and Waveguides,   255     Semiconductor-Based Optoelectronic Components,   257     Laser and Waveguide Packaging,   260     Key Technical Challenges,   262     Crosscutting Issues,   262     Optical Design and the Impact of Increased Computer Power,   262     Role of Metrology,   265     Standards,   267     Size and Composition of the Optics Industry,   268     Summary and Recommendations,   272     References,   274 7   Optics Research and Education   275     Introduction,   275     Research Opportunities,   279     Quantum, Atomic, and Biological Optics,   280     Femtosecond Optics,   286     Semiconductor and Advanced Solid-State Lasers,   291     Advanced Materials for the Generation and Control of Light,   298     Extreme Ultraviolet and X-Ray Optics,   304     Education in Optics,   308     U.S. Optics Education Programs,   309     Approaches to Academic Programs in Optics,   310     Continuing Education,   312     Summary and Recommendations,   312     Broad Issues,   312     Research Opportunities,   313     Education in Optics,   317     References,   318     Appendixes         Appendix A: Collected Recommendations   321     Appendix B: Workshop Participants   331