In conclusion, the committee identifies a few major outstanding scientific and technological questions and research and development priorities.
• What technology will replace normal metals and dielectrics for interconnect as speed continues to increase?
• What is beyond today's FET-based silicon technology?
• Can we create an all-optical communications/computing network?
• Can we understand magnetism on the meso/nano scales needed to continue to advance technology?
• Can we fabricate devices with 100 percent spin-polarized current injection?
• Develop advanced synthesis and processing techniques, including those for nanostructures and self-assembled one-, two-, and three-dimensional structures.
• Pursue quantum state logic.
• Exploit physics and materials science for low-cost manufacturing.
• Pursue the physics and chemistry of organic and other complex materials for optical, electrical, and magnetic applications.
• Develop techniques to magnetically detect individual electron and nuclear spins with atomic-scale resolution.
• Increase partnerships and cross-education/communications between industry, university, and government laboratories.