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--> References Akimoto, H., H. Nakane, and Y. Matsumoto. 1994. The chemistry of oxidant generation: Tropospheric ozone increase in Japan. In The Chemistry of the Atmosphere: Its Impact on Global Change. J.G. Calvert, ed. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, U.K, pp. 261–273. Andreae, M.O., and P.J. Crutzen. 1997. Atmospheric aerosols: Biogeochemical sources and role in atmospheric chemistry. Science 276, 1052. Andronache, C., and W.L. Chameides. 1997. Interactions between sulfur and soot emissions from aircraft and their role in contrail formation. J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21443–21451. Angell, J.K. 1990. Variation in United States cloudiness and sunshine duration between 1950 and the drought year of 1988. J. Climate 3, 296–308. Appleman, H. 1953. The formation of exhaust condensation trails by jet aircraft. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 34, 14–20. Atkinson, R., D.L. Bausch, R.A. Cox, R.F. Hampson, Jr., J.A. Kerr, M. J. Rossi, and J. Troe. 1997. Evaluated kinetic, photochemical and heterogeneous data for atmospheric chemistry. Supplement V. IUPAC subcommittee on gas kinetic data evaluation for atmospheric chemistry. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 26, 521–1011. Bakan, S., M. Betancor, V. Gayler, and H. Grassl. 1994. Contrail frequency over Europe from NOAA satellite images. Ann. Geophys. 12, 962–968. Baker, M.B. 1997, Cloud microphysics and climate. Science 276, 1072–1078. Blake, D.F., and K. Kato. 1995. Latitudinal distribution of black carbon soot in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 100, 7195–7202. Borrmann S., S. Solomon, and D. Baumgardner. 1997. On the occurrence of ClO in cirrus clouds and volcanic aerosol in the tropopause region. Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2011–2014. Brasseur, G.P., J.-F. Müller, and C. Granier. 1996. Atmospheric impact of NOx emissions by subsonic aircraft: A three dimensional study. J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1423–1428. Brasseur, G.P., R.A. Cox, D. Hauglustaine, I. Isaksen, J. Lelieveld, D.H. Lister, R. Sausen, U. Schumann, A. Wahner, and P. Wiesen. 1997. European Scientific Assessment of the Atmospheric Effect of Aircraft Emissions . Report to the European Commission (DGXII/D1), Brussels.

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