References

Gaffen, D. J. 1993. Historical changes in radiosonde instruments and practices. WMO/TD-No. 541, Instruments and Observing Methods Report No. 50. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 123 pp.

Gaffen, D.J. 1994. Temporal inhomogenities in radiosonde temperature records. J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3667–3676.


Hurrell, J.W., and K.E. Trenberth. 1998. Difficulties in obtaining reliable temperature trends: Reconciling the surface and satellite MSU 2R trends. J. Climate 11, 945–967.


IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 1990. Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment. J.T. Houghton, G.J. Jenkins, and J.J. Ephraums (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 365 pp.

IPCC. 1996. Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change, Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change; J.T. Houghton, L.G. Meira Filho, B.A. Calander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, and K. Maskell (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 572 pp.


Karl, T.R., V.E. Derr, D.R. Easterling, C.K. Folland, D.J. Hoffman, S. Levitus, N. Nicholls, D.E. Parker, and G.W. Withee. 1995. Critical issues for long-term climate monitoring. Clim. Change 31, 185–221.

Karl, T.R., and R.W. Knight. 1997. The 1995 Chicago heat wave, how likely is a recurrence? Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 78 (6), 1107–1119.



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--> References Gaffen, D. J. 1993. Historical changes in radiosonde instruments and practices. WMO/TD-No. 541, Instruments and Observing Methods Report No. 50. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 123 pp. Gaffen, D.J. 1994. Temporal inhomogenities in radiosonde temperature records. J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3667–3676. Hurrell, J.W., and K.E. Trenberth. 1998. Difficulties in obtaining reliable temperature trends: Reconciling the surface and satellite MSU 2R trends. J. Climate 11, 945–967. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 1990. Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment. J.T. Houghton, G.J. Jenkins, and J.J. Ephraums (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 365 pp. IPCC. 1996. Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change, Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change; J.T. Houghton, L.G. Meira Filho, B.A. Calander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, and K. Maskell (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 572 pp. Karl, T.R., V.E. Derr, D.R. Easterling, C.K. Folland, D.J. Hoffman, S. Levitus, N. Nicholls, D.E. Parker, and G.W. Withee. 1995. Critical issues for long-term climate monitoring. Clim. Change 31, 185–221. Karl, T.R., and R.W. Knight. 1997. The 1995 Chicago heat wave, how likely is a recurrence? Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 78 (6), 1107–1119.

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--> Karl, T.R. and R.W. Knight. 1998. Secular trends of precipitation amount, frequency, and intensity in the U.S. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 79, 231–241. McKee, T.B., N.J. Doesken, J. Kleist, R. Butler, and N.L. Canfield. 1998. 14th International Conference on Interactive Information and Processing Systems (IIPS) for Meteorology, Oceanography, and Hydrology. American Meteorological Society, 78th Annual Meeting. Phoenix, Ariz. NRC (National Research Council). 1992. A Decade of International Climate Research: The First Ten Years of the World Climate Research Programme . National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 55 pp. NRC. 1994. Ocean-Atmosphere Observations Supporting Short-Term Climate Predictions. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 51 pp. NRC. 1995. Natural Climate Variability on Decade-to-Century Time Scales. D.G. Martinson, K. Bryan, M. Ghil, M.M. Hall, T.R. Karl, E.S. Sarachik, S. Sorooshian, and L.D. Talley (eds.), National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 630 pp. NRC. 1996. Learning to Predict El Niño: Accomplishments and Legacies of the TOGA Program. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 171 pp. NRC. 1997. Letter to OSTP and State Department on Global Observations of Climate. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 2 pp. and attachments. NRC. 1998a. Decade-to-Century-Scale Climate Variability and Change: A Science Strategy. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 142 pp. NRC. 1998b. Global Environmental Change: Research Pathways for the Next Decade—Overview. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 69 pp. NRC. 1998c. A Scientific Strategy for U.S. Participation in the GOALS (Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System) Component of the CLIVAR (Climate Variability and Predictability) Programme. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 69 pp. NRC. 1998d. Future of the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer Network. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 65 pp. NRC. 1998e. GCIP: A Review of Progress and Opportunities. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 93 pp. NRC. 1998f. The Atmospheric Sciences Entering the Twenty-First Century. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 364. Quayle, R.G., D.R. Easterling, T.R. Karl, and P.J. Hughes. 1991. Effects of Recent Thermometer Changes in the Cooperative Station Network. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 72, 1718–1723.

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--> Reed, R.J. 1977. The development and status of modern weather prediction. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 58, 390–400. Trenberth, K.E. 1995. Atmospheric circulation climate changes. Clim. Change 31, 427–453. WMO (World Meteorological Organization). 1998. International Seminar on the 1997–98 El Niño Event: Evaluations and Projections. Address by G.O.P Obasi, 9 November 1998, Guayaquil, Ecuador. Yang, D., et al. 1995. Accuracy of Tretyakov precipitation gauge: Results of WMO intercomparison. Hydrol. Proc. 9(8), 877–895.