References

Anderson, P.G. Lim and M. Merzer. 1992. Chiles seeks $9 billion in aid, Bush will urge $7.2 billion package. The Miami Herald. Sept. 9.

Applied Technology Council (ATC). 1985. Earthquake Damage Evaluation Data for California. ATC-13. Redwood City, Calif.: ATC.


Boisevert, R. 1992. Indirect losses from a catastrophic earthquake and the local, regional, and national interest. In Indirect Economic Consequences of a Catastrophic Earthquake. Washington, D.C.: FEMA, National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program.

Boisevert, R. 1995. Computable General Equilibrium Modeling for Earthquake Impact Analysis. Report to the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University.

Bolton, N., and L. Kimbell. 1995. The Economic and Demographic Impact of the Northridge Earthquake. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Population Association of America.

Brookshire, D.S. and M. McKee. 1992. Other indirect costs and losses from earthquakes: issues and estimation. In Indirect Economic Consequences of a Catastrophic Earthquake. Washington, D.C.: FEMA, National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program.

Brookshire, D.S., S.E. Chang, H. Cochrane, R.A. Oslon, A. Rose, and J. Steenson. 1997. Direct and indirect economic losses from earthquake damage. Earthquake Spectra. 13(4).


Chang, S., H. Seligson, and R. Eguchi. 1996. Estimation of Economic Impact of Multiple Lifeline Disruption: Memphis Light, Gas, and Case Study. Technical Report No. NCEER96-0011. Buffalo, N.Y.: National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research.

Changnon, S.A. 1996a. Impacts on transportation systems: stalled busses, blocked railroads, and closed highways. In The Great Flood of 1993, S. Changnon, ed. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.

Changnon, S.A. 1996b. Losers and winners: a summary of the flood's impacts. In The Great Flood of 1993, S. Changnon, ed. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.



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--> References Anderson, P.G. Lim and M. Merzer. 1992. Chiles seeks $9 billion in aid, Bush will urge $7.2 billion package. The Miami Herald. Sept. 9. Applied Technology Council (ATC). 1985. Earthquake Damage Evaluation Data for California. ATC-13. Redwood City, Calif.: ATC. Boisevert, R. 1992. Indirect losses from a catastrophic earthquake and the local, regional, and national interest. In Indirect Economic Consequences of a Catastrophic Earthquake. Washington, D.C.: FEMA, National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program. Boisevert, R. 1995. Computable General Equilibrium Modeling for Earthquake Impact Analysis. Report to the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University. Bolton, N., and L. Kimbell. 1995. The Economic and Demographic Impact of the Northridge Earthquake. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Population Association of America. Brookshire, D.S. and M. McKee. 1992. Other indirect costs and losses from earthquakes: issues and estimation. In Indirect Economic Consequences of a Catastrophic Earthquake. Washington, D.C.: FEMA, National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program. Brookshire, D.S., S.E. Chang, H. Cochrane, R.A. Oslon, A. Rose, and J. Steenson. 1997. Direct and indirect economic losses from earthquake damage. Earthquake Spectra. 13(4). Chang, S., H. Seligson, and R. Eguchi. 1996. Estimation of Economic Impact of Multiple Lifeline Disruption: Memphis Light, Gas, and Case Study. Technical Report No. NCEER96-0011. Buffalo, N.Y.: National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research. Changnon, S.A. 1996a. Impacts on transportation systems: stalled busses, blocked railroads, and closed highways. In The Great Flood of 1993, S. Changnon, ed. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press. Changnon, S.A. 1996b. Losers and winners: a summary of the flood's impacts. In The Great Flood of 1993, S. Changnon, ed. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.

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--> Changnon, S., D. Changnon, E.R. Fosse, T. Hoganson, R.J. Roth, Sr., and J. Totsch,. 1997. Effects of recent weather extremes on the insurance industry: major implications for the atmospheric sciences . Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 78:425–435. Cochrane, H., B. Kling, D. Black, J. Schmehl, J. Curtsinger, J. Steenson. 1996. Indirect losses-real shocks and real dislocations. In The Economics of Natural Hazards. Partial draft, University of Colorado, Boulder. Cochrane, H. 1997. Indirect economic losses. In Development of Standardized Earthquake Loss Estimation Methodology. Vol. II. Washington, D.C.: National Institute for Building Sciences. Costanza, R., et al. 1997. The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital. Science 387: 253–259. Eguchi, R.T., et al. 1998. Direct economic losses in the Northridge earthquake: a three-year perspective. Earthquake Spectra 14(2): 248. Ellison, R., J.W. Milliman, and R.B. Roberts. 1984. Measuring the regional economic effects of earthquakes and earthquake predictions. Journal of Regional Science 24: 559–579. Fatsis, S. 1992. Andrew reshapes S. Florida economy. The Miami Herald. September 8. Special section. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). 1995 (December 6). National Mitigation Strategy: Partnerships for Building Safer Communities. Washington, D.C.: FEMA. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). 1997 (March). Report on Costs and Benefits of Natural Hazard Mitigation. Washington, D.C.: FEMA. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). 1998. Top Ten Major Disasters Ranked by FEMA Relief Costs. Fact Sheet. Office of Emergency Information and Public Affairs. Washington, D.C.: FEMA. Filkins, D. 1994. Plan would raise most Dade tax bills, budget also proposes increased water fees. The Miami Herald. July 16. Gordon, P. and H.W. Richardson. 1995. The Business Interruption Effects of the Northridge Earthquake, Research. Report No. LCRI–95–01R. Lusk Center Research Institute, School of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Southern California. April. Guimares, P., F.L. Hefner, and D.P. Woodward. 1993. Wealth and income effects of natural disasters: an econometric analysis of Hurricane Hugo. Review of Regional Studies 23:97–114. Howe, C.W., and H.C. Cochrane. 1993. Guidelines for the Uniform Definition, Identification, and Measurement of Economic Damages from Natural Hazard Events. Program on Environment and Behavior Special Publication No. 28. Boulder, Colo.: University of Colorado, Institute for Behavioral Science.

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--> Insurance Information Institute (III). 1998. The Fact Book 1999: Property/Casualty Facts. New York: III. Kimbell, L., and N. Bolton. 1994. The impact of the Northridge Earthquake on the economies of California and Los Angeles. Paper presented to the Seismic Safety Commission of the State of California, Burbank. Kiremidjian, A., S. King, N. Basoz, K. Law, M. Vucetic, M. Doroudian, V. Iskandar, R. Olson, J. Eidinger, K. Goettel, and G. Horner. 1997. Methodologies for Evaluating the Socio-Economic Consequences of Large Earthquakes. The John B. Blume Earthquake Engineering Center, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Stanford University. Technical Report No. 126. Kunreuther, H. and R.J. Roth, Sr., eds. 1998. Paying the Price: The Status and Role of Insurance Against Natural Disasters in the United States. Washington, D.C.: Joseph Henry Press. Lopez, M., R. Tognazzini, and L. Minor. 1994. Impact of the 1994 Northridge Earthquake on the Los Angeles Electric System. Proceedings of the Joint New Zealand/U.S. Lifeline Workshop. Los Angeles, Calif. August 15–16. Larson, Erik. 1998. Waiting for Hurricane X. Time 152(10):63–66. McNair, J. 1992a. Andrew's awesome impact. The Miami Herald. September 10. McNair, J. 1992b. Study details hurricane's toll on local business. The Miami Herald. September 18. National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS). 1997. Development of A Standardized Earthquake Loss Estimation Methodology. HAZUS TM Technical Manual Vol. 1. Prepared for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Washington, D.C.: NIBS. Pasterick, E.R. 1998. The national flood insurance program. In Paying the Price: The Status and Role of Insurance Against Natural Disasters in the United States. H. Kunreuther and R. J. Roth, Sr., eds. Washington, D.C.: Joseph Henry Press. Pielke, R.A., Jr. 1995. Hurricane Andrew in South Florida: Mesoscale Weather and Societal Responses. Boulder, Colo.: National Center for Atmospheric Research. Pielke, R.A., Jr. 1997. Trends in Extreme Weather Impacts in the United States. Stanford, Calif.: Electric Power Research Institute. Rappaport, E. 1993. Preliminary Report Hurricane Andrew 16–28, 1992 (updated March 2, 1993). Miami, Fla.: National Hurricane Center. Rhinesmith, Alan. 1997. The federal budget and federal disaster assistance. Presentation before the Committee on Assessing the Costs of Natural Disasters of the National Research Council, December 15, 1997. Washington, D.C.

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--> Riebsame, W.E., S.A. Changnon, and T. Karl. 1991. Drought and Natural Resources Management in the United States: Impacts and Implications of the 1987–89 Drought. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press. Rojahn, C., S. King, R. Scholl, A. Kiremidjian, L. Reaveley, and R. Wilson. 1997. Earthquake Damage and Loss Estimation Methodology and Data for Salt Lake County, Utah (ATC-36). Earthquake Spectra 13:(4)623–642. Rose, A. and J. Benavides. 1997. Inter-industry models for analyzing the economic impact of earthquakes and recovery policies: Illustrative examples [7/93; revised 11/93]. In Advances in Social Science Analysis of Earthquakes, B. Jones, ed. Buffalo, N.Y.: National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research. Sheets, R. 1994. Statement before Hearing of the House Committee on Public Works and Transportation. H.R. 2873, The Natural Disaster Prevention Act of 1993. Subcommittee on Water Resources and Environment. February 2. Shinozuka, M., A. Rose, and R. Eguchi. 1997. Engineering and Socioeconomic Analysis of Utility Lifelines. Buffalo, N.Y.: National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research. Shinozuka, M., A. Rose, and R.T. Eguchi. 1998. Engineering and Socioeconomic Impacts of Earthquakes—An Analysis of Electricity Lifeline Disruptions in the New Madrid Area. Monograph Series; No. 2. Buffalo, N.Y.: Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research. Swenson, E.L. 1993. Testimony before the U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Veterans Affairs. 103–4. Washington, D.C.: GPO. Takada, S. and J. Ueno. 1995. Performance of Lifeline Systems during the 1995 Great Hanshin Earthquake. Proceedings of the 6th U.S.-Japan Workshop on Earthquake Disaster Prevention for Lifeline Systems. Osaka, Japan. July 18–19. Tanfani, J. 1992. Miami tallies storm cost, may end up with net gain. The Miami Herald. September 11. Toyoda, T. 1997. Economic Impacts and Recovery Process in the Case of the Great Hanshin Earthquake. Presentation to the Fifth U.S.-Japan Workshop on Urban Earthquake Hazard Reduction. Pasadena, Calif. January 15–17. U.S. General Accounting Office. 1993. Disaster Management: Recent Disasters Demonstrate the Need to Improve the Nation's Response Strategy. Statement of J. Dexter Peach. Washington, D.C.: U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO/RCED-93–4. January 27. West, C.T., and D.C. Lenze. 1994. Modeling the regional impact of natural disaster and recovery: a general framework and an application to Hurricane Andrew. International Regional Science Review 17:121–150.

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--> West, C.T. 1996. Indirect economic impacts of natural disasters: policy implications of recent research and experience. Proceedings of Analyzing Economic Impacts and Recovery from Urban Earthquakes: Issues for Policy Makers. Conference presented by Earthquake Engineering Research Institute and Federal Emergency Management Agency, Pasadena, Calif. Wright, J. 1996. Effects of the flood on national policy: some achievements, major challenges remain. In the Great Flood of 1993, S. Changnon, ed. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.

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