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References and Bibliography NOTE: Many of the cited reports and papers by Census Bureau staff are avail- able on the Census Bureau's web site: http://www.census.gov. Other reports related to small-area income and poverty estimates may be obtained by contact- ing: David Waddington, Division of Housing and Household Economic Statis- tics, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Papers that were prepared for the panel marked by an asterisk (*) are available from the Committee on National Statistics, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Abelson, R.P., and J.W. Tukey 1963 Efficient utilization of nonnumerical information in quantitative analysis: General theory and the case of simple order. Annals of Mathematical Statistics 34:1347-1369. Alexander, C.H. 1998 Recent Developments in the American Community Survey. Paper prepared for presenta- tion at the Joint Statistical Meetings, Dallas. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (August). Alexander, C.H., S. Dahl, and L. Weidman 1997 Making Estimates from the American Community Survey. Paper prepared for presenta- tion at the Joint Statistical Meetings, Anaheim, Calif. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Depart Bell, W.R. 1997a ment of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (August). A County CPS Model with "Census Residuals." Statistical Research Division, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (July). 1997b Regression Diagnostics for Models for County Poverty Estimates-Complete. Statistical Research Division, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (September). 115

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6 SMALL-AREA ESTIMATES OF SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN IN POVERTY Belsley, D.A., E. Kuh, and R.E. Welsch 1980 Regression Diagnostics: Identifying Influential Data and Sources of Collinearity. New York: Wiley. Bureau of the Census 1987 State Population and Household Estimates, with Age, Sex, and Components of Change: 1981-86. Current Population Reports, Series P-25, No. 1010. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1993 Poverty in The United States: 1992. Current Population Report, Series P60-185. Wash ington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1995 Subnational Estimates of Total Population by the Tax Return Method. Population Esti mates Branch, Population Division. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1998 1995 SAIPE State and County Models. Draft documentation. By P. Cardiff, R. Fisher, P. Siegel, A. Strand, D. Waddington, W.R. Bell, and M. Kramer, with assistance from R.E. Fay and G. Train. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (October). 1999 Estimates of Poor and Population for School Districts: School Year 1995-1996. Draft documentation. By E. Miller, M. Kramer, A. Strand, R. Fisher, W.R. Bell, and P. Siegel. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (January). Coder, J.F., R.C. Fisher, and P.M. Siegel 1996 Making Model-Based Estimates of the Number of Related Persons Age 5-17 in Poverty for all U.S. Counties, 1994. Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division, Bu reau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (November). Davis, S. 1994 Evaluation of Post Censal County Estimates for the 1980's. Population Division Work ing Paper Series, Number 5. Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Fay, R.E. 1996 Methodology for Poverty Estimation for 1993. Section 2. Demographic Statistical Meth ods Division, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (November). 1997a Comparisons of CPS and Census Poverty Levels. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (October). 1997b Notes on Direct Variance Estimates for Counties. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Depart- ment of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (September). Fay, R.E., and R.A. Herriot 1979 Estimates of income for small places: An empirical Bayes application of James-Stein procedures to census data. Journal of the American Statistical Association 78:269-277. Fay, R.E., C.T. Nelson, and L. Litow 1993 Estimation of median income for 4-person families by state. Pp. 9-1 to 9-17 in Indirect Estimators in Federal Programs. Statistical Policy Working Paper 21, Statistical Policy Office, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Fay, R.E., and G.F. Train 1995 Aspects of survey and model-based postcensal estimation of income and poverty charac- teristics for states and counties. American Statistical Association Proceedings of the Section on Government Statistics. Alexandria, Va: American Statistical Association. 1997 Small domain methodology for estimating income and poverty characteristics for states in 1993. American Statistical Association Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. Alexandria, Va: American Statistical Association.

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REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 117 Fisher, R., and P. Siegel 1997 Methods used for small area poverty and income estimation. American Statistical Association Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. Alexandria, Va: American Statistical Association. Fuller, W.A., and J.J. Goyeneche 1998 *Estimation of the State Variance Component. Working Paper. Statistical Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames. (June). Ghosh, M. and J.N.K. Rao 1994 Small-area estimation: An appraisal. Statistical Science 8 (1):55-93. Long, J. 1993 Post Censal Population Estimates: States, Counties, and Places. Population Division Working Paper Series, Number 3. Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Moskowitz, J., S. Stullich, and B. Deng 1993 Targeting, Formula, and Resource Allocation Issues: Focusing Federal Funds Where the Needs are Greatest. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. National Research Council 1995 Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Constance F. Citro and Robert T. Michael, eds. Panel on Poverty and Family Assistance: Concepts, Information Needs, and Measure ment Methods, Committee on National Statistics. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 1997 Small-Area Estimates of Children in Poverty, Interim Report l, Evaluation of 1993 County Estimates for Title I Allocations. Constance F. Citro, Michael L. Cohen, Graham Kalton, and Kirsten K. West, eds. Panel on Estimates of Poverty for Small Geographic Areas, Committee on National Statistics. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Press. 1998 Small-Area Estimates of Children in Poverty, Interim Report 2, Evaluation of Revised 1993 County Estimates for Title I Allocations. Constance F. Citro, Michael L. Cohen, and Graham Kalton, eds. Panel on Estimates of Poverty for Small Geographic Areas, Committee on National Statistics. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Press. Otto, M.C., and W.R. Bell 1995 Sampling error modeling of poverty and income statistics for states. American Statistical Association Proceedings of the Section on Government Statistics. Alexandria, Va.: American Statistical Association. 1997 Bayesian Inference About Poverty and Income for States. Paper prepared for presenta- tion at the Joint Statistical Meetings, Anaheim, Calif. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Depart- ment of Commerce, Washington, D.C. Platek, R., J.N.K. Rao, C.E. Sarndal, and M.P. Singh, eds. 1987 Small Area Statistics. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Prasad, N.G.N., and J.N.K. Rao 1990 The estimation of mean squared errors of small area estimators. Journal of the American Statistical Association 78:47-59. Reed, J.M. 1996 Puerto Rico Estimates and Projections Based on Demographic Component Method: 1990- 1995. International Programs Center, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Com- merce, Washington, D.C. (November). Robinson, J.G., B. Ahmed, P. Das Gupta, and K. Woodrow 1993 Estimation of population coverage in the 1990 U.S. census based on demographic analy- sis. Journal of the American Statistical Association 88(423):1061-1079. Santos, R., and D. Waddington 1999 *Obtaining Estimates of Child Poverty in Puerto Rico: An Overview of Current Practices and Recommendations for Improvement. Report prepared for the Panel on Estimates of

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118 SMALL-AREA ESTIMATES OF SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN IN POVERTY Poverty for Small Geographic Areas, Committee on National Statistics, National Re search Council. National Opinion Research Center, Chicago, Ill., and Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. Siegel, P. 1997 Background on Poverty Estimates for School Districts [Tables]. Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (May). Sink, L. 1996 Estimates of the Population of Counties by Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1990 1994. Release PE-48(Methodology).Bureauof the Census. Washington,D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Spencer, B.D., and Che-Fu Lee 1980 Postcensal population estimation methods of the Census Bureau. Pp. 131-187 in Estimat ing Population and Income of Small Areas. Panel on Small-Area Estimates of Population and Income, Committee on National Statistics, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Thiel, H. 1971 Principles of Econometrics. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Voss, P.R., R. Gibson, and K. Morgen 1997 *Assessment of the Initial 1993 Estimates of School Age Children in Poverty. Report prepared for the Panel on Estimates of Poverty for Small Geographic Areas, Committee on National Statistics, National Research Council. Department of Rural Sociology, Uni- versity of Wisconsin-Madison. Zaslavsky, A., and A. Schirm 1998 *Interactions between the American Community Survey and Federal Funding Formulae: A Look Ahead. Paper prepared for the American Community Survey Workshop. Com- mittee on National Statistics, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. (September).