in white males showed that in addition to northern latitude, higher levels of education, an urban versus rural address, poor uncorrected visual acuity at entry into service, and a high proportion of persons with Swedish ancestry in the state from which a subject entered the military all increased the risk of MS. As the MFUA begins its second half-century, research on the topic of multiple sclerosis continues. Mortality follow-up studies of the two case series described above are under way, as is the assembly of a post-Korean War series of matched MS cases and controls.

Selected References

Beebe, G.W., Kurtzke, J.F., Nagler, B., Nefzger, M.D., Auth, T.L., Kurland, L.T. Studies on the natural history of multiple sclerosis. V. Long-term survival in young men. Archives of Neurology 22:215–225, 1970.

Kurtzke, J.F., Beebe, G.W., Nagler, B., Auth, T.L., Kurland, L.T., Nefzger, M.D. Studies on the natural history of multiple sclerosis. III. Epidemiologic analysis of the Army experience of World War II. Neurology 17:1–17, 1967.

Kurtzke, J.F., Beebe, G.W., Norman, J.E., Jr. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in U.S. veterans. I: Race, sex, and geographic distribution. Neurology 29(Sept.): 1228–1235, 1979.

Kurtzke, J.F., Beebe, G.W., Norman, J.E., Jr. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in U.S. veterans. III: Migration and the risk of MS. Neurology 35(5):672–678, 1985.

Kurtzke, J.F., Page, W.F. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in US veterans. VII. Risk factors for MS. Neurology 48(1):204–213, 1997.

Norman, J.E., Jr., Kurtzke, J.F., Beebe, G.W. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in U.S. veterans. II. Latitude, climate, and the risk of multiple sclerosis. Journal of Chronic Disease 36:551–559, 565–567, 1983.

Page, W.F., Mack, T.M., Kurtzke, J.F., Murphy, F.M., Norman, J.E., Jr. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in U.S. veterans. VI. Population ancestry and surname ethnicity as risk factors for multiple sclerosis. Neuroepidemiology 14:286–296, 1995.

ing this committee, Beebe thought it important to find people who had a demonstrated interest in the natural history of disease; a knowledge of the medical bureaucracies of the armed forces or the VA; broad medical interests; and specific competence in internal medicine, general surgery, epidemiology, psychiatry, pathology, medical statistics, or medical genetics. He also wanted to appoint people who had at least some knowledge of the follow-up program. He divided his list of possible nominees among epidemiologists, public health statisticians, and other medical specialists. He favored an epidemiologist, such as Thomas Francis or Abraham Lilienfeld, as chair. Francis had the added benefit of already serving on the Advisory Committee for the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. Beebe also hoped that the NRC would appoint a small subcommittee to supervise the twin study, perhaps chaired by James Neel.99 On December 16, 1964, Cannan wrote Thomas Francis at the University of Michigan and asked him to accept the



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