difficulties of the 1970s, meant shrinkage rather than growth for federal agencies concerned with domestic policy.

As a result, the MFUA's application for renewal of the core funding grant from NIH was initially denied after a site visit in October 1967. Following protests, including those of CEVFUS Chairman MacMahon that withdrawal of support would have "tragic" consequences for "the most important single epidemiologic research program in the United States at the present time," NIH agreed to re-fund the agency's programs (including the Twin Registry), but at a lower level than requested. Furthermore, NIH guaranteed funds for only one year. Therefore, although the NIH decision solved the immediate problem, it placed MFUA on shaky financial ground. In the future, NIH would consider requests from the agency only on a year-by-year basis and only on the basis of grants, not core support. Without the assurance of core support for its program, the MFUA faced periodic difficulties throughout the 1970s and especially the 1980s.121

In the context of lost core support, individual projects took on a greater importance for the survival of the MFUA. In fiscal year 1968, several projects reached maturity. One was a study of survival rates following "curative" surgery for carcinoma of the colon, as part of the ongoing adjuvant cancer trials. Although none of the drugs tested in these trials was proven to increase survival rates, the trials gave the MFUA significant data for specific studies, one of which found that almost half of the patients studied were still living five years after their colon surgery. Another study considered the possibility of a link between smoking and lower risk of Parkinson's disease, the results of which clearly required further study. Hearing of these results, Dr. Chester S. Keefer of the American College of Physicians called the MFUA's projects "among the most valuable and the most exciting in medicine, [and] among the most important studies that have been made by any group in the NRC ... very important to the doctor and very important to the family."122

In this period the MFUA engaged in an almost bewildering array of studies. Ongoing projects as of late fall 1969 included the study of air pollution and smoking in relation to cardiovascular and respiratory symptoms, as well as a study of schizophrenia that contained a substudy investigating drug-induced parkinsonism in twins with schizophrenia. Other ongoing projects featured an investigation of changes in ocular pressure following application of steroids and a region-based study involving cardiovascular examinations of twins in New England.

In 1969, the Subcommittee on Twin Studies was formally created as an official subunit of the larger committee, with subcommittee membership drawn from CEVFUS as well as external investigators in genetics. In its first meeting, the subcommittee discussed a small number of new proposals and referred the most promising ones to the parent committee, a method of operation that continues to the present day. Beebe privately commended the Twin Registry for offer-



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