sequence for MFUA use, if the agency wished to organize and preserve all of the Navy cards. With support from the National Cancer Institute, 6 million Navy hospital admissions from 1944 to 1945 had been preserved on magnetic tape by the early 1980s.152

Although Dr. Zdenek Hrubec's absence during 1974, on a year's detachment at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, meant that no new twin studies were launched, the committee approved a new statement of ''Principles Which Govern Use of the NAS-NRC Twin Registry." Among the innovative studies in the area was one by Dr. Paul Taubman. Taubman, an economist rather than an epidemiologist, used the roster of twins to generate data on genetics and earnings. Of 6,000 twin pairs, 2,500 pairs responded to a questionnaire. Taubman ultimately reported his results in a monograph as well as several journal articles.153

At Mid-Decade

In 1975, CEVFUS discussed the future of the MFUA program. Dr. Robert W. Miller of the National Cancer Institute noted a retreat from the emphasis on studies of trauma. In fact, no studies of trauma were being undertaken, in part because methods of treating trauma in the 1970s were so different from those used in World War II.

As chairman of the MFUA's advisory committee, Richard Remington urged the agency to approach the Department of Defense for possible consultation efforts, to tailor its program to better fit the needs of the VA, and to try to publish an account of its program in a journal such as the New England Journal of Medicine. Few of these proposals were carried out, however.154

As a result, in the bicentennial year 1976, the MFUA faced a number of internal and external challenges. As Gilbert Beebe prepared to turn over the reins of the agency upon reaching the age of 65 in 1977, he surveyed the changes in the kind of epidemiologic studies that the MFUA undertook in the 1970s as opposed to the 1940s. He noted a number of complicating factors, including the 1973 fire, the difficulty in contacting the veterans due to the passage of time, the national concern with privacy and confidentiality, the fragmentation of VA files in numerous locations, the destruction of the previous automatic link between VA hospitalization and the claims folder, the growing resistance of veterans to questionnaires or other studies, and the numerous non-VA alternatives open to veterans seeking hospitalization. On the positive side, such developments as the creation of magnetic tape files, the development of epidemiologic knowledge, the creation of BIRLS, the adoption of the Social Security number as the military service serial number, the growing number of veterans, and increasing concern with the effects of environmental factors on human health aided the MFUA program.

One matter that occupied Beebe's attention was the passage of the 1974 Privacy Act by Congress.155 Beebe prevailed on National Academy of Sciences (NAS) President Philip Handler to bring the committee's concerns to the atten-



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