TABLE 2. UL Critical Adverse Effects

Nutrient

Adverse Effect

Calcium

Milk-alkali syndrome

Phosphorus

Elevated serum Pi

Magnesium

Osmotic diarrhea

Vitamin D

Serum calcium > 11 mg/dl

Fluoride

Children: moderate dental fluorosis

Adults: moderate skeletal fluorosis

Niacin

Flushing

Vitamin B6

Sensory neuropathy

Folate

Neuropathy in B12-deficient individuals

Choline

Hypotension, fishy body odor

scientific judgment to select the appropriate NOAEL (or LOAEL) and UF. The risk assessment requires explicit consideration and discussion of all choices made, both regarding the data used and the uncertainties accounted for.

For infants, ULs were not determined for any of the B vitamins, choline, magnesium, phosphorus, or calcium because of the lack of data on adverse effects in this age group and concern regarding infants' possible lack of ability to handle excess amounts. Thus, caution is warranted; food should be the source of intake of these nutrients by infants. For vitamin D and fluoride, due to the significant information on effects from various levels of intake by infants for these nutrients, ULs were developed.

When data were not available on children or adolescents, ULs were determined by extrapolating from the UL for adults based on body weight differences using the formula:4

ULchild = (ULadult)(Weightchild/Weightadult).

The reference weight for males aged 19 through 30 years (see Appendix C) was used for adults and the reference weights for female children and adolescents were used in the formula above to obtain the UL for each age group. The use of these reference weights yields a conservative UL to protect the sensitive individuals in each age group.

4  

In the case of niacin, vitamin B6, folate, and choline, the formula was based on metabolic size: ULchild = (ULadult)(Weightchild/Weight adult)0.75



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