Appendix A
Recommended Dietary Intakes for Individuals



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--> Appendix A Recommended Dietary Intakes for Individuals

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--> TABLE A. Recommended Intakes For Individuals Life Stage Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Vitamin D Fluoride Thiamin Group (mg/d) (mg/d) (mg/d) (μ)g/d)a,b (mg/d) (mg/d) Infants 0–6 mo 210* 100* 30* 5* 0.01* 0.2* 7–12 mo 270* 275* 75* 5* 0.5* 0.3* Children 1–3 y 500* 460 80 5* 0.7* 0.5 4–8 y 800* 500 130 5* 1* 0.6 Males 9–13 y 1,300* 1,250 240 5* 2* 0.9 14–18 y 1,300* 1,250 410 5* 3* 1.2 19–30 y 1,000* 700 400 5* 4* 1.2 31–50 y 1,000* 700 420 5* 4* 1.2 51–70 y 1,200* 700 420 10* 4* 1.2 > 70 y 1,200* 700 420 15* 4* 1.2 Females 9–13 y 1,300* 1,250 240 5* 2* 0.9 14–18 y 1,300* 1,250 360 5* 3* 1.0 19–30 y 1,000* 700 310 5* 3* 1.1 31–50 y 1,000* 700 320 5* 3* 1.1 51–70 y 1,200* 700 320 10* 3* 1.1 > 70 y 1,200* 700 320 15* 3* 1.1 Pregnancy ≤ 18 y 1,300* 1,250 400 5* 3* 1.4 19–30 y 1,000* 700 350 5* 3* 1.4 31–50 y 1,000* 700 360 5* 3* 1.4 Lactation ≤ 18 y 1,300* 1,250 360 5* 3* 1.5 19–30 y 1,000* 700 310 5* 3* 1.5 31–50 y 1000 700 320 5* 3* 1.5 NOTE: This table presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all (97 to 98 percent) individuals in a group. For healthy breastfed infants, the Al is the mean intake. The Al for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake. a As cholecalciferol. 1 (μ)g cholecalciferol = 40 IU vitamin D. b In the absence of adequate exposure to sunlight. c As niacin equivalents (NE). I mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan; 0–6 months = preformed niacin (not NE). d As dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE = I (μ)g food folate = 0.6 (μ)g of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.5 (μ)g of a supplement taken on an empty stomach. e Although AIs have been set for choline, there are too few data to assess whether a dietary supply of choline is needed at all stages of the life cycle, and it may be that the choline requirement can be met by endogenous synthesis at some of these stages.

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--> Life Stage Riboflavin Niacin Vitamin B6 Folate Vitamin Pantothenic Biotin Choline Group (mg/d) (mg/d)c (mg/d) (μ)g/d)d B12(μ)g/d) Acid (mg/d) (μ)g/d) (mg/d)e Infants 0–6 mo 0.3* 2* 0.1* 65* 0.4* 1.7* 5* 125* 7–12 mo 0.4* 4* 0.3* 80* 0.5* 1.8* 6* 150* Children 1–3 y 0.5 6 0.5 150 0.9 2* 8* 200* 4–8 y 0.6 8 0.6 200 1.2 3* 12* 250* Males 9–13 y 0.9 12 1.0 300 1.8 4* 20* 375* 14–18 y 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 5* 25* 550* 19–30 y 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 5* 30* 550* 31–50 y 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 5* 30* 550* 51–70 y 1.3 16 1.7 400 2.4f 5* 30* 550* > 70 y 1.3 16 1.7 400 2.4f 5* 30* 550* Females 9–13 y 0.9 12 1.0 300 1.8 4* 20* 375* 14–18 y 1.0 14 1.2 400g 2.4 5* 25* 400* 19–30 y 1.1 14 1.3 400g 2.4 5* 30* 425* 31–50 y 1.1 14 1.3 400g 2.4 5* 30* 425* 51–70 y 1.1 14 1.5 400 2.4f 5* 30* 425* > 70 y 1.1 14 1.5 400 2.4f 5* 30* 425* Pregnancy ≤ 18 y 1.4 18 1.9 600h 2.6 6* 30* 450* 19–30 y 1.4 18 1.9 600h 2.6 6* 30* 450* 31–50 y 1.4 18 1.9 600h 2.6 6* 30* 450* Lactation ≤ 18 y 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 7* 35* 550* 19–30 y 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 7* 35* 550* 31–50 y 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 7* 35* 550* f Because 10 to 30 percent of older people may malabsorb food-bound B12, it is advisable for those older than 50 years to meet their RDA mainly by consuming foods fortified with B12 or a supplement containing B12. g In view of evidence linking folate intake with neural tube defects in the fetus, it is recommended that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 μg from supplements or fortified foods in addition to intake of food folate from a varied diet. h It is assumed that women will continue consuming 400 μg from supplements or fortified foods until their pregnancy is confirmed and they enter prenatal care, which ordinarily occurs after the end of the periconceptional period—the critical time for formation of the neural tube.

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